Common Names in English:
Cat Greenbrier, Catbrier, Sawbrier, Wild Sarsaparilla, Wild Sarsaparilla Vine
, herbs, or vines
. Stems erect
, usually prickly, sometimes unarmed
. Leaves opposite or alternate, prominently 3-veined, reticulate
between veins, usually bearing tendrils
, usually leathery. Inflorescences umbellate
[or racemose or spicate
]. Flowers unisexual
on different plants
; tepals 6, distinct
, rarely united
into perianth tube
; stamens 2-3-whorled, anthers
1-locular; pistillate flowers bearing staminodes, pistil 3-carpellate; ovary 2-locular, 1-2 ovules per locule. Fruits baccate
. Seeds 1-3.
Genera 4(-12), species ca. 375 (1 genus, 20 species in the flora ) : worldwide, mainly tropical to subtropical , a few temperate .
The leaves of Smilacaceae are atypical of monocotyledons in being reticulate between major veins. The family is closely related to and sometimes included in Liliaceae. It differs mainly in leaf characteristics and in being dioecious.
, or herbs; rhizomes tuberous
, woody; roots
. Stems erect
or, more often, climbing
or branching, unarmed
with prickles; woody or herbaceous. Leaves deciduous or evergreen
, alternate; stipules present; tendrils
often present (few or rudimentary
in S. hugeri and S. ecirrhata, absent in S. biltmoreana), paired
, originating from petioles
, or, sometimes, reduced to scales
in herbaceous species, base
. Inflorescences umbellate
to leaves or bracts, loose
to dense, pedunculate
. Flowers unisexual
; tepals 6, greenish, yellow, or bronze, ovate to elliptic
; staminate flowers
sometimes with pistillode
, stamens 6, anthers
, dehiscence introrse
flowers with 6 staminodes, style short or absent, stigmas 3, recurved, ligulate
black, blue, purple, red, or orange. x
Species ca. 350: worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, with extensions into temperate areas.
The North American herbaceous species of Smilax (numbers 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 15 in this treatment) traditionally have been placed in sect. Nemexia (Rafinesque) A. de Candolle. J. K . Mangaly (1968) concluded that the correct name for this group at that rank is sect. Coprosmanthus (Torrey) Bentham. The remaining North American species, all more or less woody, belong to sect. Smilax. The relatively small number of species (20) present in the flora does not warrant the elaboration of an updated subgeneric classification, which should take into account all species of the genus on a worldwide basis.
The leaves of Smilax are very unusual. A. Arber (1918, 1920) believed that the blade of Smilax is not equivalent to the lamina of a dicotyledon but is merely a pseudolamina representing an expansion of the upper region of the petiole. In this view , tendrils are also proliferations of the petiole and are not homologous to tendrils of dicotyledons. However, D. R. Kaplan (1973) remarked that unifacial monocotyledonous leaves never exhibit a lamina rudiment at the apex, and therefore there is no convincing argument that their apices are simply petiolar . He suggested that the terete leaf axis of monocotyledons is not merely an expanded petiole but is positionally equivalent to the lamina region of a dicotyledonous leaf. Smilax leaves lack an abscission layer, but the distal portion of the petiole undergoes a soft disintegration and the blade falls, leaving a rough end on the stub (W. C. Coker 1944).
Smilax has numerous uses. Sarsaparilla, a beverage and medicinal used against rheumatism, is obtained from the rhizomes of various species, mainly from Mexico and Central America. A jelly can be made from the rhizomes. The fleshy rhizomes of several vining species, most notably S. smallii, which have a texture of firm, crisp apples, were used by Native Americans and early settlers in the same manner as were potatoes, or else in making bread or mush. The young, succulent stems of several species are cooked and used as asparagus or the tender stems may be used in salads . Seeds were sometimes used as beads (Indian coral ) and a brown dye can be made from the roots of various species. Woody rhizomes were reportedly used by Native Americans and settlers in making pipes. Some species have been used in Native American (D. E. Moerman 1986) and folk medicine. All species of Smilax are excellent wildlife food and are also browsed, or the rhizomes dug and eaten, by domestic stock.
Species Smilax glauca
; rhizomes tuberous
, or spinose
. Stems perennial
branching, green, often mottled
, to 5+ m
, woody, glaucous,
; prickles, when present, thin, 1-5 mm.
to semi evergreen
, ± evenly disposed; petiole
green to glaucous-green, often mottled adaxially, silvery grayish
abaxially, drying to brownish tan adaxially, broadly ovate
, with 3 (or 5) conspicuous
veins, 4.5-11 × 2.5-6.6
cm, glabrous and glaucous abaxially, base
entire, apex rounded
, tapering, or short-acuminate.
Umbels few to many, axillary
to leaves, 5-12+-flowered, open, umbellate
to hemispherical; peduncle 2-5 cm. Flowers: perianth yellow to bronze;
tepals 3-7 mm; anthers
; ovule 1 per locule;
pedicel 0.5-1 cm. Berries
blue to black, subglobose, 8-10 mm, shiny
black at maturity, glaucous. 2n = 28, 32. [source]
Smilax glauca is easily recognized by its glaucous to whitened abaxial leaf surfaces, which, however, may be altered by heat in drying. It is reportedly the most weedy species of the genus. The plants tend to be evergreen in the more southern part of the distribution. [source]
Habit: Shrub , Subshrub , Vine
Flowers: Bloom Period: May, June, July.
Dry to wet woods , thickets, hedge- rows , roadsides; 0--800 m (Ref. 103908).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,973 meters (0 to 6,473 feet).
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Dioscoreanae () - (J.d. Hooker, in Le Maout & Decaisne, 1873) Takhtajan, 1997 Ex Reveal & Doweld, 1999
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
S. spinulosa Smith • Smilax glauca var. genuina Blake • Smilax glauca var. leurophylla Blake • Smilax glauca var. leurophylla S. F. Blake
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 09-Jul-2004
Members of the genus Smilax
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 31 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. aristolochiifolia (Sarsaparilla) · S. aspera (Rough Bindweed) · S. auriculata (Catbrier) · S. australis (Barbwire Vine) · S. biltmoreana (Biltmore's Carrionflower) · S. bona-nox (Cowvine Smilax Bona-Nox) · S. californica (California Greenbrier) · S. china (China Root) · S. coriacea (Everglades Greenbrier) · S. ecirrata (Carrionflower) · S. ecirrhata (Carrion Flower) · S. glauca (Cat Greenbrier) · S. glauca var. glauca (Sawbrier) · S. herbacea (Carrion Flower Vine) · S. herbacea lasioneuron (Blue Ridge Carrion-Flower) · S. hugeri (Huger's Carrionflower) · S. illinoensis (Illinois Greenbrier) · S. jamesii (English Peak Greenbrier) · S. lasioneura (Blue Ridge Carrion-Flower) · S. lasioneuron (Blue Ridge Carrion-Flower) · S. laurifolia (Bamboo Vine) · S. melastomifolia (Aka'awa) · S. pseudochina (Bamboo Vine) · S. pulverulenta (Downy Carrionflower) · S. pumila (Dwarf Smilax) · S. regelii (Jamaican Sarsaparilla) · S. renifolia (Kidneyleaf Greenbrier) · S. rotundifolia (Bull Briar) · S. smallii (Jackson Vine) · S. tamnoides (Bristly Greenbriar) · S. walteri (Coral Greenbrier)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- ... A preliminary catalogue of the flora of New Jersey. Comp. by N. L. Britton. .. with the assistance of eminent botanists. New Brunswick, Office of the survey, 1881. url p. 105.
- A botanical survey of the Sugar Grove region / by Robert F. Griggs. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 293, p. 294, p. 313.
- A catalogue of plants growing without cultivation in the County of Nantucket, Mass. Northampton, Mass., Gazette Printing Co., 1888. url p. 60.
- A dictionary of American plant names / compiled by Willard N. Clute. Joliet, Ill.: W.N. Clute, 1923. url p. 15.
- A history of the game birds, wild fowl and shore birds of Massachusetts and adjacent states, including those used for food which have disappeared since the settlement of the country, and those which are now hunted for food or sport, with observations on their former abundance and recent decre By Edward Howe Forbush. Boston, Wright & Potter Printing Company, State Printers, 1916 url p. 587.
- A history of the game birds, wild-fowl and shore birds of Massachusetts and adjacent states: including those used for food which have disappeared since the settlement of the country, and those which are now hunted for food or sport, with observations on their former abundance and recent decre Boston: Wright & Potter printing company, state printers, 1912. url p. 587, p. 587.
- A manual of weeds, with descriptions of all the most pernicious and troublesome plants in the United States and Canada, their habits of growth and distribution, with methods of control, by Ada E. Georgia. .. with 385 illustrations by F. Schuyler Mathews. .. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916, c1914. url p. 588.
- A manual of weeds: with descriptions of all the most pernicious and troublesome plants in the United States and Canada, their habits of growth and distribution, with methods of control / New York: Macmillan, 1919, c1914. url .
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , p. 809.
- A preliminary list of the vascular flora of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania / by John A. Shaffer. Pittsburgh?: Carnegie Institute Museum?, 1901? url p. 106.
- A provisional host-index of the fungi of the United States, by W.G. Farlow and A.B. Seymour. Cambridge, 1888-91. url p. 138.
- A survey of natural areas in Brunswick County, North Carolina: for The North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url , , , , .
- American medicinal plants; an illustrated and descriptive guide to the American plants used as homopathic remedies: their history, preparation, chemistry and physiological effects. By Charles F. Millspaugh. 1887 New York, Boericke & Tafel, c1887. url page 175- 4.
- American medicinal plants;: an illustrated and descriptive guide to the American plants used as homopathic remedies: their history, preparation, chemistry, and physiological effects. / By Charles F. Millspaugh, . ..; Illustrated by the author. New York; Boericke & Tafel., c1887. url .
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 527, p. 528.
- An illustrated guide to the flowering plants of the middle Atlantic and New England states (excepting the grasses and sedges) the descriptive text written in familiar language, by George T. Stevens. .. with more than 1800 illustrations from drawings by the author. New York, Dodd, Mead and company, 1910. url , p. 139, p. 140.
- Annals of the Carnegie Museum. [Pittsburgh]: Published by authority of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institute, 1901- url p. 106.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 229.
- Annual report / Florida State Geological Survey. Tallahassee, Fla.: Capital Pub. Co., state printer, url p. 273.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 5 1894 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 131.
- Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, -1965. url p. 71, p. 71.
- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 353, p. 47, p. 55.
- Annual report of the Ohio State Academy of Science. Columbus: The Academy, 1893-1930. url p. 256, p. 256, p. 30.
- Annual report of the Regents / Albany: J.B. Lyon, State Printer, 1890-1903. url p. 277.
- Annual report of the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture of the State of Michigan. .. Lansing: The Board, 1862- url p. 62.
- Annual report of the State Horticultural Society of Missouri. Jefferson City, Mo.: The Society, 1894- url p. 357.
- Annual report of the regents of the university of the state of New York on the condition of the State Cabinet of Natural History and the historical and antiquarian collection annexed thereto. Albany, Regents of the University of the State of New York. url p. 202, p. 34, p. 42.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 62 2004 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 114, p. 12, p. 17, p. 25, p. 26, p. 32, p. 32, p. 34, p. 49, p. 5, p. 5, p. 5, p. 64, p. 7, p. 74, p. 74, p. 9.
- Biltmore Nursery, Biltmorse, N.C. [North Carolina?: The Nursery?], c1912 url p. 100.
- Biologia centrali-americana; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. London, Pub. for the editors by R. H. Porter and Dulau & co., 1879-88. url .
- Birds; a miscellaneous collection of 37 pamphlets about birds. Collected and privately bound by Alvin Seale, 1914. v.p., 1910-1913 url p. 35, p. 52, p. 58.
- Botany for young people and common schools: how plants grow: a simple introduction to structural botany: with a popular flora, or, an arrangement and description of common plants, both wild and cultivated / New York: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 1881. url .
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 7 1920 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 353, p. 377, p. 840, p. 951.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 121, p. 187.
- Bulletin / Ohio Biological Survey. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, 1913- url p. 158, p. 280, p. 294, p. 313.
- Bulletin / Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1971. url p. 126, p. 196, p. 207.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1913. url p. 19.
- Bulletin Harrisburg, Pa.: The Department, - url .
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 47 1920 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 109, p. 11, p. 119, p. 134, p. 179, p. 237, p. 301, p. 327, p. 34, p. 424, p. 438, p. 480, p. 596, p. 609, p. iv.
- Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. [Washington, D.C.?]: Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1913-1923. url , p. 13.
- Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories / Department of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874- url p. 123, p. 906.
- Bulletin of the scientific laboratories of Denison University. Granville, Ohio: [The University], 1885- url p. 84.
- Bulletin. Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1901-13. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off. url p. 19, p. 29.
- Bulletin: report of Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Auburn, Ala. Auburn, Ala.: The Station, [1888-1903] url p. 65.
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants, arranged according to the phyletic classification; with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Univ Columbus, The Ohio State University, 1914. url .
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants: arranged according to the phyletic classification: with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Uni by John H. Schaffner. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 158.
- Catalogue of plants found in New Jersey by N. L. Britton. Trenton: John L. Murphy Pub. Co., 1889 url p. 239.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 501, p. 87.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 501, p. 87.
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Connecticut growing without cultivation / by Charles Burr Graves. .. [et al.]; Committee of the Connecticut Botanical Society. Hartford: Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1910. url p. 125.
- Catalogue of the phanerogams and ferns of Licking County, Ohio. Granville, Ohio, Press of Granville Times, 1892. url .
- Circular / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 1908-1913. url p. 8.
- College botany: including organography, vegetable histology, vegetable physiology and vegetable taxonomy: with a brief account of the succession of plants in geologic time, and a glossary of botanical terms / by Edson S. Bastin. Chicago: G.P. Engelhard, 1890, c1889. url p. 186, p. 187.
- Compendium floræ philadelphicæ: containing a description of the indigenous and naturalized plants found within a circuit of ten miles around Philadelphia / by William P.C. Barton. Philadelphia: published by M. Carey, 1818. url p. 195.
- Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1892- url , , .
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 23 1920-1926 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 102, p. 103, p. 124, p. 125, p. 379, p. 389, p. 401, p. 432, p. 444, p. 521.
- Curtis's botanical magazine. 1-42 1817 London; New York [etc.]: Academic Press [etc.] url p. 115, p. 133, p. 213, p. 45.
- Days afield on Staten Island / by William T. Davis. [New Brighton, N.Y.: L. H. Biglow], c1892. url p. 108.
- Economic botany of Alabama. University, Ala., 1913-1928. url p. 84.
- Elementary plant physiology, London [etc.]Longmans, Green, and Co., 1902. url .
- Elementary plant physiology. New York, Longmans, 1906. url p. 24.
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 13, p. 38, p. 40.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 1000.
- FWS/0BS. [Washington]Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. url p. 96.
- Field, forest, and garden botany, a simple introduction to the common plants of the United States, east of the Mississippi, both wild and cultivated. New York, Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman, 1868. url .
- Fieldbook of native Illinois shrubs, by Leo R. Tehon. .. Urbana, Natural History Survey Division, 1942. url p. 29, p. 31, p. 31.
- Flood tolerance of plant species in bottomland forests of the southeastern United States / 1992. url p. 119, p. 122, p. 123, p. 133, p. 136, p. 138, p. 139, p. 150, p. 162, p. 165, p. 167, p. 172, p. 178, p. 179, p. 181, p. 183, p. 185, p. 193, p. 198.
- Flora medica; a botanical account of all the more important plants used in medicine in different parts of the world. London, Longman, 1838. url p. 599.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 86.
- Flora of Illinois, containing keys for identification of flowering plants and ferns. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame Press, 1963. url p. 285.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 325, p. 327.
- Flora of Lancaster County: being descriptions of the seed-plants growing naturally in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania / by John Kunkel Small and Joel Jackson Carter. New York: The authors, 1913. url p. 79.
- Flora of Lancaster County; being descriptions of the seed- plants growing naturally in Lancaster County, Pennsylvanial. By John Kunkel Small and Joel Jackson Carter. New York, 1913. url p. 79.
- Flora of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Malden, Middlesex Institute, 1888. url , .
- Flora of Nebraska; a list of the conifers and flowering plants of the state with keys for their determination. Plainview, Neb.[c1912] url , .
- Flora of Nebraska; a list of the ferns, conifers and flowering plants of the state with keys for their determination. Plainview, Neb., 1923 url p. 22.
- Flora of New Bedford and the shores of Buzzards Bay, with a procession of the flowers. New Bedford [Mass.]E. Anthony, 1911. url p. 47.
- Flora of Pennsylvania, Boston, Ginn & Company, 1903. url .
- Flora of Pennsylvania. Edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small. Boston, Ginn & Co., 1903. url p. 88.
- Flora of West Virginia, by Charles Frederick Millspaugh and Lawrence William Nuttall. 1 1896 Chicago, 1896. url p. 129, p. 199, p. 256, p. 95.
- Flora of West Virginia. Charleston, W. Va., M.W. Donnally, 1892. url p. 448.
- Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. By A.S. Hitchcock and Paul C. Standley, with the assistance of the botanists of Washington. WashingtonGovt. print. off.1919 url p. 124, p. 125.
- Flora of the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland / Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Biological Survey,  url p. 9.
- Flora of the Southern United States: containing an abridged description of the flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida: arranged according to the natural system. New York, Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., [c1883] url .
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 281, p. 281, p. 282, p. 282.
- Flora of the southern United States, containing an abridged description of the flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida; arranged according to the natural system by A.W. Chapman. New York, American Book Company url p. 476.
- Florida wild flowers; an introduction to the flora of the Florida peninsula, by Mary Francis Baker, photographs by the author. New York, The Macmillan company, 1926. url p. 45.
- Food of the woodpeckers of the United States / Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey, 1911. url , .
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url , , , , p. 421, p. 424, p. 425, p. 465, p. 492, p. 581, p. 81.
- Gray's school and field book of botany, consisting of "Lessons in botany, " and "Field, forest, and garden botany, " bound in one volume / by Asa Gray... New York: American Book co.,  url p. 336.
- Hand-list of Coniferae: grown in the Royal botanic gardens. London: Printed for H. M. Stationery off. by Darling & son, Ltd., 1903. url p. 771.
- Hand-list of trees and shrubs, excluding Coniferae, grown in Arboretum. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off., by Darling1902 url p. 771.
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- How plants grow a simple introduction to structural botany: with a popular flora, or an arrangement and description of common plants, both wild and cultivated: illustrated by 500 wood engravings / by Asa Gray. Toronto: A. Miller, [1858?] url .
- How plants grow... / by Asa Gray Toronto: A. Miller, 1858 url p. 208.
- How to know wild fruits; a guide to plants when not in flower by means of fruit and leaf; by Mary Elisabeth Herbert. New York, Macmillan, 1914. url , p. 167, p. 339.
- Illinois biological monographs. Urbana, Univ. of Illinois Press. url p. 70.
- Indian Museum notes. Calcutta: [Indian Museum]: 1889-1903. url , p. 160, p. 174.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. 29 1891 London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 189.
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url , p. 110, p. 110, p. 130, p. 130, p. 203, p. 42, p. 66, p. 71, p. 79.
- Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science. Lexington, KY: The Academy, 1998- url p. 130, p. 48, p. 53, p. 63, p. 90.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 38 1937 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url , p. 132, p. 142, p. 286, p. 305.
- Leaf-mining insects / by James G. Needham, Stuart W. Frost, Beatrice H. Tothill. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins company, [c1928] url p. 103, p. 319.
- Lessons in botany and vegetable physiology, illus. by. .. Isaac Sprague. To which is added a copious glossary, or dictionary of botanical terms. New York, Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman, 1872 [c1868] url p. 336.
- Life-histories of the frogs of Okefinokee swamp, Georgia; North American Salientia (Anura) no.2; by Albert Hazen Wright. New York, The Macmillan company, 1931. url p. 231, p. 494.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 116.
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url .
- Manual of the botany of the northern United States: including the district east of the Mississippi and north of North Carolina and Tennessee, arranged according to the natural system / by Asa Gray. New York: Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman, 1868, c1867. url p. 519, p. 519.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 276.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 311.
- Meehan's monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany, and kindred subjects. Phila., PA: T. Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url .
- Meehans' monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany and kindred subjects / conducted by Thomas Meehan. Philadelphia: Thomas Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url p. 165.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 2 1890 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 106, p. 116, p. 156, p. 33.
- Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a report of the secretary of agriculture in relation to the forests, rivers and mountains of the southern Appalachian region. Washington, Gov't print. off., 1902. url p. 107.
- Morphological studies of the genus Cercospora, Urbana, Ill., 1930 url p. 55, p. 70.
- National Arboretum contribution. Washington, D.C.: The Arboretum: 1953- url p. 13.
- Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, U. S. Govt. print. off., 1938. url , , , p. 261.
- Natural area inventory of Pender County, North Carolina / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url p. 129, p. 156, p. 42, p. 59, p. 88.
- Natural areas inventory of Carteret County, North Carolina: for the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / [Raleigh]: N.C. Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, N.C. Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, . url p. 163.
- Natural areas inventory, Gates County, North Carolina / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development,  url p. 226, p. 26.
- Nature's healing arts: from folk medicine to modern drugs / by Lonnelle Aikman; photos. by Nathan Benn and Ira Block; paintings by Tony Chen; prepared by the Special Publications Division. Washington: National Geographic Society, c1977. url p. 196.
- New York State Museum bulletin. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1916-1944. url p. 48.
- Novon a journal of botanical nomenclature from the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2 1992 St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden, url p. 308.
- Observations on the colors of flowers / by E. Williams Hervey. New Bedford [Mass.]: E. Anthony & Sons, 1899. url p. 28, p. 39.
- Part I. The living flora of West Virginia, by C. F. Millspaugh. Part II. The fossil flora of West Virginia, by David White. Wheeling, Wheeling news litho. co., 1913 url p. 40, p. 82.
- Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of America, during the years 1799-1804 / by Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland; translated from the French of Alexander von Humboldt and edited by Thomasina Ross. London: G. Bell, 1907. url p. 395.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 127, p. 19, p. 367, p. 434.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 444.
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 444.
- Practical guide to the wild flowers and fruits by George Lincoln Walton. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1909. url p. 186, p. 222.
- Proceedings - Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. Staten Island, N.Y., Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. url p. 50.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url p. 546, p. 548, p. 548, p. 559, p. 660, p. 711, p. 711, p. 842, p. 842.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 201, p. 223, p. 59, p. 59.
- Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. Indianapolis, Ind.[s.n.] url p. 127, p. 355, p. 384, p. 460.
- Publication. Field Columbian Museum. Chicago.: Field Columbian Museum, 1895-1909. url p. 129, p. 199, p. 256.
- Pursh, F. T. Flora Americae Septentrionalis: or, A systematic arrangement and description of the plants of North america. Containing, besides what have been described by preceding authors, many new and rare species, collected during twelve years travels and residence in that country /by Frederick Pursh. .. 1 1814 London: Printed for White, Cochrance, and co., 1814. url p. 249.
- Report of the Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, Office of the Regents, 1871-1888 url p. 29, p. 34.
- Report of the Missouri State Horticultural Society for the year. .. Jefferson City: The Society, url p. 86.
- Report on the birds of Pennsylvania: with special reference to the food habits, based on over four thousand stomach examinations / by B.H. Warren. Harrisburg: E.K. Meyers, State Printer, 1890. url .
- Report on the botany of Barren and Edmonson counties. Frankfort, 1876 url .
- Report upon forestry. From the committee appointed to memorialize Congress and the state legislatures, regarding the cultivation of timber and the preservation of forests, prepared under the direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture in pursuance of an Act of Congress approved August l5, 1876, by Franklin B. Hough. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1878. url p. 581.
- Resources of the southern fields and forests, medical, economical, and agricultural; Charleston, Walker, Evans & Cogswell, printers, 1869. url p. 617.
- Root-knot and its control. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1911. url p. 19.
- Science. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]1880- url p. 340, p. 342.
- Select extra-tropical plants readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation with indications of their native countries and some of their uses / by Baron Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: R. S. Brain, govt. printer, 1895. url p. 506, p. 626.
- South Carolina. Resources and population. Institutions and industries. Pub. by the State Board of Agriculture of South Carolina. Charleston, S.C.Walker, Evans & Cogswell, printers, 1883. url p. 345.
- Studies of the vegetation of Missouri. .. / By Julian A. Steyermark. 9 1940 [Chicago, 1940- url p. 465, p. 473, p. 475.
- The American botanist: a monthly journal for the plant lover. Binghamton, N.Y.: Willard N. Clute & Co., 1901-1948. url p. 56, p. 70, p. 8.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 885.
- The American midland naturalist. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame. url p. 114.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 213, p. 338, p. 760, p. 85.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 94.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement shown by existing examples of gardens in Great Britain and Ireland, followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson; illustrated with many engravings on wood. London: J. Murray, 1906. url p. 864.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , p. 431, p. 563.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , p. 11, p. 470.
- The Monthly bulletin of the State Commission of Horticulture. Sacramento, Calif.: The Commission, 1911-1919. url p. 755.
- The Ohio journal of science. Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Academy of Science url , p. 123, p. 135, p. 139, p. 165, p. 24, p. 26, p. 27, p. 46, p. 472, p. 66.
- The Plant world. Baltimore [etc.]Plant World Association [etc.] url , p. 105, p. 106.
- The Tennessee flora; with special reference to the flora of Nashville. Phaenogams and vascular cryptogams, by August Gattinger. Nashville, Tenn.The author, 1887. url p. 85.
- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 60.
- The flora of the town of Southold, Long Island, and Gardiner's Island / New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1914? url p. 116, p. 236.
- The foot-path way / by Bradford Torrey. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1892. url p. 80, p. 80.
- The illustrated dictionary of gardening, a practical and scientific encyclopedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists. Ed. by George Nicholson. Assisted by Professor J. W. H. Trail and J. Garrett. London: L. U. Gill, -89. url p. 444.
- The journal of the Horticultural Society of London. London, [England]: Published for the Society, by Longman and Co., 1846-1855. url p. 313.
- The native flora of the vicinity of Cold Spring Harbor, L.I., New York. n.p., 1925 url p. 140, p. 98.
- The ornithology of Chester County, Pennsylvania, Boston, R. G. Badger, [c1919] url .
- The plant life of Maryland, by Forrest Shreve [et al.] Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1910. url p. 418, p. 529.
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url , , , , .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 351.
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 351.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 2692, p. 3174, p. 3175.
- The trees, shrubs and vines of Missouri. url .
- The vegetation of Shackleford Bank / by I.F. Lewis. Raleigh: Edwards & Broughton, 1917. url p. 28.
- The vegetation of the New Jersey Pine-Barrens: an ecologic investigation / by John W. Harshberger. Philadelphia: Christopher Sower Company, 1916. url , p. 101, p. 104, p. 106, p. 108, p. 110, p. 111, p. 135, p. 155, p. 177, p. 178, p. 179, p. 180, p. 187, p. 219, p. 226, p. 246, p. 255, p. 260, p. 261, p. 262, p. 263, p. 266, p. 70, p. 76, p. 82, p. 83, p. 88, p. 89.
- The vines of northeastern America / by Charles S. Newhall. New York: Putnam, 1897. url .
- The vines of northeastern America; New York [etc.]G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1897. url .
- Timber and botany. comprising seven reports on the forests and botany of different parts of the state / Geological Survey of Kentucky. [S.l.]: The Survey, 1884. url p. 57.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 116, p. 128, p. 140, p. 154, p. 234, p. 236, p. 251, p. 299, p. 313, p. 33, p. 59.
- Transactions and proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. [Edinburgh]: The Society, 1891-1970. url p. 378.
- Transactions of the Illinois natural history society. Ed. by C.D. Wilber. Springfield, 1861. url p. 142.
- Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: W.Y. Morgan, 1903- url p. 120, p. 205.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 103, p. 149, p. 157, p. 176, p. 179, p. 202, p. 26, p. 49, p. 90, p. 90.
- Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 21.
- Transactions of the. .. annual meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: Kansas Pub. House, 1883-1901. url p. 63, p. 79.
- Travels in Brazil, in the years 1817-1820, : undertaken by command of His majesty the King of Bavaria by Dr. Joh.Babt. von Spix and Dr. C. F. Phil. von Martius / London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green;1824. url p. 96.
- Tree, Shrub & fruit seeds... S.l.:s.n., 1910? url .
- Trees and shrubs of Mexico / By Paul C. Standley. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1920-1926. url p. 103.
- Trees, shrubs and vines of the northeastern United States. .. together with an account of the principal foreign hardy trees, shrubs and vines cultivated in our country, and found in Central Park, New York City by H.E. Parkhurst. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1903. url p. 340.
- Trends and silvicultural significance of upland forest successions in southern New England, New Haven, Yale University, 1928 url p. 67.
- Winter botany, a companion volume to the author's Plant materials of decorative gardening, by William Trelease. .. Urbana, The author, 1918. url p. 8.
- Winter botany, by William Trelease. .. Urbana, The author, 1918. url p. 8.
- Woody plants in winter; a manual of common trees and shrubs in winter in the Northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, by Earl L. Core and Nelle P. Ammons. Pittsburgh, Boxwood Press url p. 45.
- Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture. Washington: G.P.O., 1895-1923. url p. 596.
- [Collected papers on Tineina] Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1877-78. url p. 123, p. 123.
- [Collected reprints, 1895-1916. s.l., s.n., 19--] url .
- [Forestry reports] Washington, 1893-1910 url .
- Arber, A. 1920. Tendrils of Smilax. Bot. Gaz. 69: 438-442.
- Coker, W. C. 1944. The woody smilaxes of the United States. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 60: 27-69, plates 9-39.
- Duncan, W. H. 1975. Woody Vines of the Southeastern United States. Athens, Ga.
- Fernald, M. L. 1944. Overlooked species, transfers, and novelties in the flora of eastern North America. Rhodora 46: 1-28, 32-60.
- Judd, W. S. 1998. The Smilacaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Pap. Bot. 3: 147-169.
- Mangaly, J. K. 1968. A cytotaxonomic study of the herbaceous species of Smilax: Section Coprosmanthus. Rhodora 70: 55-82, 247-273.
- Morong, T. 1894. The Smilaceae [sic] of North and Central America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 21: 419-448.
- Pennell, F. W. 1916b. Notes on plants of the southern United States -- II. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 43: 409-421.
- Wang Fa-tsuan & Tang Tsin, eds. 1978; 1980. Liliaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 15: 1--280; 14: 1--308.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 13, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662884
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-289270
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:541464-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 34521
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 43342
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 541464-1
- MoBot NameID: 18404198
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SMGLL
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 63459
- Walter C. Holmes "Smilacaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 12, 13, 14, 17, 20, 468. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Smilax". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 14, 468, 469, 474, 477. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 199.300 meters (653.871 feet), Standard Deviation = 218.530 based on 869 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]