Common Names in English:
Cowvine Smilax Bona-Nox, Bullbrier, Catbrier, Greenbrier, Saw Greenbrier, Zarzaparrilla
, herbs, or vines
. Stems erect
, usually prickly, sometimes unarmed
. Leaves opposite or alternate, prominently 3-veined, reticulate
between veins, usually bearing tendrils
, usually leathery. Inflorescences umbellate
[or racemose or spicate
]. Flowers unisexual
on different plants
; tepals 6, distinct
, rarely united
into perianth tube
; stamens 2-3-whorled, anthers
1-locular; pistillate flowers bearing staminodes, pistil 3-carpellate; ovary 2-locular, 1-2 ovules per locule. Fruits baccate
. Seeds 1-3.
Genera 4(-12), species ca. 375 (1 genus, 20 species in the flora ) : worldwide, mainly tropical to subtropical , a few temperate .
The leaves of Smilacaceae are atypical of monocotyledons in being reticulate between major veins. The family is closely related to and sometimes included in Liliaceae. It differs mainly in leaf characteristics and in being dioecious.
, or herbs; rhizomes tuberous
, woody; roots
. Stems erect
or, more often, climbing
or branching, unarmed
with prickles; woody or herbaceous. Leaves deciduous or evergreen
, alternate; stipules present; tendrils
often present (few or rudimentary
in S. hugeri and S. ecirrhata, absent in S. biltmoreana), paired
, originating from petioles
, or, sometimes, reduced to scales
in herbaceous species, base
. Inflorescences umbellate
to leaves or bracts, loose
to dense, pedunculate
. Flowers unisexual
; tepals 6, greenish, yellow, or bronze, ovate to elliptic
; staminate flowers
sometimes with pistillode
, stamens 6, anthers
, dehiscence introrse
flowers with 6 staminodes, style short or absent, stigmas 3, recurved, ligulate
black, blue, purple, red, or orange. x
Species ca. 350: worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, with extensions into temperate areas.
The North American herbaceous species of Smilax (numbers 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 15 in this treatment) traditionally have been placed in sect. Nemexia (Rafinesque) A. de Candolle. J. K . Mangaly (1968) concluded that the correct name for this group at that rank is sect. Coprosmanthus (Torrey) Bentham. The remaining North American species, all more or less woody, belong to sect. Smilax. The relatively small number of species (20) present in the flora does not warrant the elaboration of an updated subgeneric classification, which should take into account all species of the genus on a worldwide basis.
The leaves of Smilax are very unusual. A. Arber (1918, 1920) believed that the blade of Smilax is not equivalent to the lamina of a dicotyledon but is merely a pseudolamina representing an expansion of the upper region of the petiole. In this view , tendrils are also proliferations of the petiole and are not homologous to tendrils of dicotyledons. However, D. R. Kaplan (1973) remarked that unifacial monocotyledonous leaves never exhibit a lamina rudiment at the apex, and therefore there is no convincing argument that their apices are simply petiolar . He suggested that the terete leaf axis of monocotyledons is not merely an expanded petiole but is positionally equivalent to the lamina region of a dicotyledonous leaf. Smilax leaves lack an abscission layer, but the distal portion of the petiole undergoes a soft disintegration and the blade falls, leaving a rough end on the stub (W. C. Coker 1944).
Smilax has numerous uses. Sarsaparilla, a beverage and medicinal used against rheumatism, is obtained from the rhizomes of various species, mainly from Mexico and Central America. A jelly can be made from the rhizomes. The fleshy rhizomes of several vining species, most notably S. smallii, which have a texture of firm, crisp apples, were used by Native Americans and early settlers in the same manner as were potatoes, or else in making bread or mush. The young, succulent stems of several species are cooked and used as asparagus or the tender stems may be used in salads . Seeds were sometimes used as beads (Indian coral ) and a brown dye can be made from the roots of various species. Woody rhizomes were reportedly used by Native Americans and settlers in making pipes. Some species have been used in Native American (D. E. Moerman 1986) and folk medicine. All species of Smilax are excellent wildlife food and are also browsed, or the rhizomes dug and eaten, by domestic stock.
Species Smilax bona-nox
; rhizomes tuberous
, woody, or stoloniferous
. Stems perennial
, often zigzag distally, branched, terete
to 4-angled, stout,
to 5+ m
× 5 mm, woody, glabrous
or infrequently with stellate
; prickles often absent distally, tips
broad- based, stout, 4-9 mm, rigid
. Leaves evergreen
, ± evenly
0.7-1.5 cm; blade
green, often with white
blotches, drying to uniform
tan, thickish, broadly ovate
or hastate to pandurate
, with 3(-5) ± prominent
× 2.5-9 cm, not glaucous, glabrous or minutely pubescent
cordate to truncate
, frequently lobed
entire to remotely
spinose-ciliate, thickened by ribbed
, often revolute
and appearing as prominent vein parallel to margins, apex rounded
to short-apiculate. Umbels few to numerous
to leaves, 10-15+-flowered,
moderately dense; peduncle 1.5-6+ cm. Flowers: perianth pale green;
tepals 3-4.5 mm; anthers
shorter than to ± equaling filaments
ovule 1 per locule; pedicel 0.8-1.2 cm. Berries
6-8 mm, shiny to dull
, sometimes glaucous. 2n = 32. [source]
Numerous varieties, based mainly on differences in leaf shape , have been proposed for Smilax bona-nox. Variation is so great even in individual plants that recognition of these varieties is untenable. J. A. Steyermark (1963) suggested that leaf variation may be correlated with stages of plant maturity. The species often may be considered weedy, occurring in very dense, tangled masses. [source]
Habit: Shrub , Subshrub , Vine
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Size: 20-30' tall.
Well-drained to wet areas in woods , fields , thickets, hedgerows, floodplain forests , etc. , full to partial sun; 0--1000 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,978 meters (0 to 6,490 feet).
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 4.5 • Maximum pH: 5.0
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Dioscoreanae () - (J.d. Hooker, in Le Maout & Decaisne, 1873) Takhtajan, 1997 Ex Reveal & Doweld, 1999
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
S. bona-nox var. hastata (Willdenow) A. De Candolle • S. bona-nox var. hederifolia (Beyrich Ex Kunth) Fernald • S. bona-nox var. littoralis Coker • S. hastata Willdenow • S. hederifolia Beyrich Ex Kunth • S. renifolia Small • S. variegata Walter • Smilax bona-nox var. exauriculata Fernald • Smilax bona-nox var. hastata (Willd.) A. Dc. • Smilax bona-nox var. hederifolia (Bey.) Fern.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 09-Jul-2004
Members of the genus Smilax
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 31 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. aristolochiifolia (Sarsaparilla) · S. aspera (Rough Bindweed) · S. auriculata (Catbrier) · S. australis (Barbwire Vine) · S. biltmoreana (Biltmore's Carrionflower) · S. bona-nox (Cowvine Smilax Bona-Nox) · S. californica (California Greenbrier) · S. china (China Root) · S. coriacea (Everglades Greenbrier) · S. ecirrata (Carrionflower) · S. ecirrhata (Carrion Flower) · S. glauca (Cat Greenbrier) · S. glauca var. glauca (Sawbrier) · S. herbacea (Carrion Flower Vine) · S. herbacea lasioneuron (Blue Ridge Carrion-Flower) · S. hugeri (Huger's Carrionflower) · S. illinoensis (Illinois Greenbrier) · S. jamesii (English Peak Greenbrier) · S. lasioneura (Blue Ridge Carrion-Flower) · S. lasioneuron (Blue Ridge Carrion-Flower) · S. laurifolia (Bamboo Vine) · S. melastomifolia (Aka'awa) · S. pseudochina (Bamboo Vine) · S. pulverulenta (Downy Carrionflower) · S. pumila (Dwarf Smilax) · S. regelii (Jamaican Sarsaparilla) · S. renifolia (Kidneyleaf Greenbrier) · S. rotundifolia (Bull Briar) · S. smallii (Jackson Vine) · S. tamnoides (Bristly Greenbriar) · S. walteri (Coral Greenbrier)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662883
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-288543
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13755020
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:541314-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 34516
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 43341
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 541314-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SMBOH2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 63453
- Walter C. Holmes "Smilacaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 12, 13, 14, 17, 20, 468. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Smilax". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 14, 468, 469, 474, 477. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Smilax bona-nox". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 470, 471, 472, 477. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 154.880 meters (508.136 feet), Standard Deviation = 162.520 based on 719 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]