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Sinapis arvensis

(Canola)

Overview

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in English:

Canola, Charlock, Charlock Mustard, Charlock Mustard Sinapis Arvensis, Corn Mustard, Corn-Mustard, Field Mustard, Kaber Mustard, Rapeseed, Wild Mustard

Common Names in Finnish:

Rikkasinappi

Common Names in Portuguese:

Mostarda-Dos-Campos, Mostarda-Silvestre

Common Names in Romanian:

Muştar De Câmp, Muştar De Cîmp, Rapiţă

Common Names in Russian:

Polevaja Gorčica, полевая горчица

Common Names in Swedish:

åkersenap

Common Names in Welsh:

Cadafarth

Description

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Genus Sinapis

Herbs annual or rarely perennial . Trichomes absent or simple . Stems erect or ascending , often branched apically, leafy. Basal leaves petiolate , not rosulate, simple, lyrate, pinnatifid , pinnatisect , bipinnatisect or/and dentate . Cauline leaves petiolate or sessile, not auriculate , entire, dentate, or shallowly lobed . Racemes ebracteate , elongated considerably in fruit. Fruiting pedicels slender or thickened, erect, ascending, divaricate , or reflexed . Sepals oblong or linear , spreading or reflexed, not saccate . Petals yellow, spreading; blade obovate , apex obtuse or emarginate ; claw subequaling sepals. Stamens 6, tetradynamous ; anthers oblong, obtuse at apex. Nectar glands 4, distinct ; median pair ovoid ; lateral pair prismatic , flat, or rarely lobed. Ovules 4-20 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent siliques, linear, lanceolate, or oblong, terete , somewhat 4-angled, or latiseptate , sessile, segmented ; valvular segment dehiscent , few to many seeded, longer or shorter than terminal segment, torulose ; valves with 3-7, prominent , longitudinal veins, thin or thick and obscurely veined; terminal segment indehiscent, seedless or 1- or 2-seeded, flattened and ensiform , or terete and conical or subulate , sometimes corky; replum rounded ; septum complete , membranous; style distinct; stigma capitate, 2-lobed. Seeds uniseriate , wingless, globose , plump or rarely slightly flattened; seed coat reticulate , mucilaginous or not when wetted; cotyledons conduplicate .

Seven species: Mediterranean region, especially N Africa; two species in China.[1]

Physical Description

Species Sinapis arvensis

Herbs (5-) 20-100(-210) cm, retrorsely or spreading hirsute or hispid , rarely glabrous . Stems erect , often branched above. Petiole of basal and lower cauline leaves 1-4(-7) cm; leaf blade oblong , ovate , or lanceolate in outline, lyrate, pinnatifid , or undivided and dentate , (3-) 4-18(-25) × 1.5-5(-7) cm; terminal lobe broadly ovate, obovate , to elliptic , margin dentate; lateral lobes 1-4 on each side of midvein , oblong, ovate, or lanceolate, smaller than terminal one, margin dentate. Upper cauline leaves shortly petiolate ; leaf blade ovate or lanceolate, often undivided, margin dentate or subentire , apex acute. Fruiting pedicels ascending or suberect, stout, (2-) 3-7(-15) mm. Sepals yellow or green, narrowly oblong, (4.5-) 5-6(-7) × 1-1.8 mm, spreading or reflexed . Petals bright or pale yellow, obovate, (0.8-) 0.9-1.2(-1.7) cm × (3-) 4-6(-7.5) mm. Filaments (3-) 4-6 mm; anthers oblong, 1.2-1.5 mm. Fruit linear , (1.5-) 2-4.5(-5.7) cm × (1.5-) 2.5-3.5(-4) mm; valvular segment (0.6-) 1.2-3.5(-4.3) cm, (2-) 4-8(-12) -seeded in each locule, 3-5(-7) -veined, torulose , terete , glabrous or pubescent with 1 kind of trichome; terminal segment conical or subulate , terete, (0.7-) 1-1.6 cm, straight or curved upward, seedless or 1- or 2-seeded. Seeds blackish to dark brown, globose , (1-) 1.5-2 mm in diam., finely reticulate . Fl. and fr. May-Sep. 2n = 18*. [source]

Habit: Forb/herb

Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April, May. • Flower Color: yellow

Size/Age/Growth

Size: 12-18" tall.

Habitat

Roadsides, waste places, fields , pastures; 400-1800 m [2].

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,632 meters (0 to 8,635 feet).[3]

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: Annual

Growth

Culture: Space 6-9" apart.

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

B. kaber (De Candolle) L. C. Wheeler • B. sinapistrum Boissier • B. xinjiangensis Y. C. Lan & T. Y. Cheo • Brassica arvensis (L.) Rabenh. • Brassica arvensis (Linnaeus) Rabenhorst • Brassica arvensis Rabenh. • Brassica kaber var. pinnatifida (Stokes) L. C. Wheeler • Brassica kaber var. schkuhriana (Reichenb.) L. C. wheelerBrassica kaber< /i> (Dc.) L. C. Wheeler • Eruca Arvensis • Eruca arvensis (L.) Noulet • Raphanus Arvensis • Raphanus arvensis (L.) Crantz • Rhamphospermum arvense (L.) Andrz. Ex Besser • Sinapis kaber de Candolle.

Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 2009

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Sinapis

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

S. alba (White Mustard) · S. alba alba (White Mustard Seed) · S. alba subsp. alba (White Mustard) · S. arvensis (Canola) · S. elongata (Elongated Mustard) · S. kaber (Charlock Mustard) · S. muralis (Annual Wallrocket) · S. orientalis (Hare's Ear Mustard) · S. pekinensis (Headed Chinese Cabbage) · S. rapa (Field Mustard)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Tai-yien Cheo, Lianli Lu, Guang Yang, Ihsan Al-Shehbaz & Vladimir Dorofeev "Sinapis". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 22. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. "Sinapis arvensis". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 23. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. Mean = 146.560 meters (480.840 feet), Standard Deviation = 199.170 based on 18,897 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-14