, rarely subshrubs
. Stems and branches usually swollen at nodes. Leaves opposite, decussate, rarely alternate or verticillate
, entire, usually connate
; stipules scarious
, or often absent. Inflorescence of cymes or cymose
panicles, rarely flowers solitary or few in racemes
, capitula, pseudoverticillasters, or umbels. Flowers actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
, occasionally cleistogamous
. Sepals (4 or) 5, free
, imbricate, or connate into a tube
, leaflike or scarious, persistent
, sometimes bracteate
below calyx. Petals (4 or) 5, rarely absent, free, often comprising claw
and limb; limb entire or split, usually with coronal scales
at juncture of claw and limb. Stamens (2--) 5--10, in 1 or 2 series. Pistil 1; carpels 2--5, united
into a compound
ovary. Ovary superior, 1-loculed or basally imperfectly 2--5-loculed. Gynophore
present or absent. Placentation free, central, rarely basal; ovules (1 or) few or numerous
, campylotropous. Styles (1 or) 2--5, sometimes united at base. Fruit usually a capsule, with pericarp crustaceous
, scarious, or papery
, dehiscing by teeth or valves
1 or 2 Ã— as many as styles, rarely berrylike with irregular dehiscence or an achene. Seeds 1 to numerous, reniform
, or rarely dorsiventrally compressed
, abaxially grooved
, or sharply pointed
, rarely fimbriate-pectinate; testa granular
, rarely smooth
; embryo strongly curved
and surrounding perisperm
or straight but eccentric
; perisperm mealy.
Between 75 and 80 genera and ca. 2000 species: widespread but mainly of temperate or warm-temperate occurrence in the N hemisphere, with principal centers of distribution in the Mediterranean region and W Asia to W China and the Himalayas, fewer species in Africa S of the Sahara, America, and Oceania; 30 genera (two endemic) and 390 species (193 endemic) in China.
Arenaria, Silene, and Stellaria contain over half the species in the family in China. They are mostly concentrated in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau , and are especially rich from the Hengduan Mountains to the Himalayas. The main uses of this family are medicinal and ornamental . Dianthus superbus, Pseudostellaria heterophylla, Stellaria dichotoma var. lanceolata, and Vaccaria hispanica are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine . Some species of Arenaria, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Psammosilene, and Silene are used as medicinal herbs among the people or are habitually used in local Chinese medicine. Many species of Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Saponaria, and Silene are grown as ornamentals. Atocion armeria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque ( Silene armeria Linnaeus), native to Russia and Europe, is also cultivated in China. It differs from Silene in having a corymbose inflorescence and obscure calyx veins. Wu Cheng-yih, Ke Ping, Zhou Li-hua, Tang Chang-lin & Lu De-quan. 1996. Caryophyllaceae. In: Tang Chang-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 26: 47â€“449.
, biennial, or perennial
, often decumbent
or sometimes cespitose. Taproots slender or often stout, deep, branched caudex
often present, some species stoloniferous
. Stems simple
or branched, terete
or sometimes angular. Leaves opposite or occasionally whorled
) or sessile (most cauline leaves) ; blade
, herbaceous, apex acute to obtuse
. Inflorescences terminal
or sometimes axillary
, simple or branched, sometimes condensed cymes, frequently flowers few or solitary, frequently glandular-pubescent
; bracts paired
, herbaceous or scarious
, or absent; involucel
bracteoles absent. Pedicels erect
, rarely flowers sessile or subsessile
. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
(rarely so on separate plants
) ; sepals connate proximally into tube
, (4-) 10-28(-40) mm; tube green, whitish, and/or purplish, 10-30-veined, cylindric
, or clavate
, terete, frequently inflated
, membranous or more rarely herbaceous, commissures
between sepals 1-veined, herbaceous; lobes
green or purplish, 1-5-veined, broadly triangular to lance-oblong or linear, usually shorter than tube, margins
whitish, scarious, apex acute to obtuse; petals 5, white, pink, scarlet, dusky
purple, or off-white tinged with purple, clawed, claw
, sometimes small, rarely absent, auricles
2, coronal appendages
2, variously shaped or dissected
; limb usually exserted and conspicuous, oblanceolate
to obovate, apex 2-lobed, sometimes dissected into 1-4 linear lobes or irregular teeth, or fimbriate, rarely entire; nectaries at filament
bases; stamens 10, rarely fewer or absent, frequently dimorphic
opposite petals, arising with petals from carpophore; filaments distinct
nearly to base; staminodes absent (rarely to 10 in pistillate
flowers, arising with petals from carpophore, filiform
) ; ovary 1- or 3-5-locular; styles 3 or 5, occasionally 4 (absent in staminate flowers
), filiform, 1.5-20 mm, glabrous
proximally; stigmas 3 or 5, occasionally 4, linear along adaxial
surface of styles, papillate
(30×) . Capsules ovoid
, opening along sutures into 3-5 valves
, frequently splitting
into 6-10 equal teeth; carpophore usually present. Seeds ca.
(5-) 15-100(-500+), reddish to gray or black, reniform
to globose, usually tuberculate
or papillate, papillae around margins sometimes larger and inflated, marginal
sometimes present, appendage absent; embryo peripheral, curved
. x = (10) 12.
Species ca. 700: mainly Northern Hemisphere.
Silene includes several important weeds and some very beautiful horticultural plants. In addition to the species described in this account, several others have occurred in the flora area as chance introductions or garden escapes , but they have not become established and most have not been seen recently. They include S. coeli-rosa (Linnaeus) Godron, S. cretica Linnaeus, S. (Lychnis) fulgens (Fischer) E. H. L. Krause, S. italica Persoon, and S. nutans Linnaeus.
In this account, Lychnis, Melandrium, and Viscaria have been included in Silene, their previous recognition as distinct genera having resulted in a great deal of confusion in both nomenclature and taxonomy. I have not presented an infrageneric classification of Silene because existing systems either do not include those other genera (e.g. , P. K . Chowdhuri 1957) or do not deal with most of our native North American taxa [e.g., W. Greuter (1995) and the molecular studies by Oxelman and coworkers (e.g., B . Oxelman et al. 1997, 2000]. The recent molecular study by J. G. Burleigh and T. P. Holtsford (2003) provides little support for existing morphologically based sectional classifications within Silene insofar as they relate to endemic North American taxa. However, it does indicate the distinctness of our arctic alpine species (S. involucrata€”as S. furcata, and S. acaulis) that are circumpolar in their distribution.
Habit: Clumping perennial . Evergreen .
Flowers: Single pink or pale pink flowers in April, May, June, July. Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Petals 5, clawed. Limb crimson, 2cm long, 6mm broad, notched at apex, glabrous . Claw -2cm long, mostly scarious but reddish near apex, glabrous. Fornices 2, 3-4mm long, erect , red. Stamens 10, half adnate at base of petals, half not adnate to petals, exserted. Filaments 2.4cm long, glabrous, greenish-white below, reddish near apex. Anthers 3mm long, 2-lobed, greyish-green. Ovary on small gynophore(to 1.5mm long), cylindric , yellow-green, 6mm long, -2mm in diameter. Placentation free-central . Ovules many. Styles 3, white below, red above, -2cm long. Calyx tube to 1.7cm long, 5-lobed, densely glandular pubescent , often with a reddish tinge, 10-nerved, glabrous internally. Lobes acute, triangular, 4mm long.
Foliage: Narrow, strap-like lanceolate leaves. Stems and the bases of flowers are covered with sticky hairs . Leaves of basal rosette spatulate , petiolate , to +/-15cm long (with petiole ), 2cm broad, acute, entire. Blades mostly glabrous . Margins ciliate , especially on petiole. Cauline leaves opposite, becoming sessile, lanceolate to lance-linear , entire, viscid glandular pubescent , acute, reduced upward, typically less than 8 pairs on a stem.
Size: 12-18" tall.
Landscape Uses: Rock gardens. Wildflower gardens. Shade gardens. • Care: Tolerates coastal conditions.
Biome: Terrestrial .
herb which grows on the rocky slopes
of small volcanic
Silene hicesiae belongs to the "Silene mollissima group", which comprises seven species endemic to the coastal cliffs of the western Mediterranean basin . These different species may have evolved when the Mediterranean became drier during the late Miocene period, about 5 million years ago, and the ancestral species became isolated into several different populations. This is one of numerous examples demonstrating how geographic separation of populations belonging to the same species, for example on islands, can contribute to the formation of new species.
It grows in the Habitats Directive listed habitat 1240 "Vegetated sea cliffs of the Mediterranean coasts with endemic Limonium spp. " (Commission of the European Communities 2009). (Ref. 306819).
List of Habitats:
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.8 Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
- 6 Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) [more info]
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Soil: Moderately fertile , well-drained soil.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to partial shade. Likes sun.
Moisture: Water Requirements: Drought tolerant .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Durande, 1782 ex A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- cariophyllacées, pinks
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Campion, catchfly [Greek seilenos, probably derived from Silenus, the intoxicated foster father of the Greek god Bacchus, who was described as covered with foam; perhaps allud-ing to the viscid secretion covering many species]
- Specific epithet:
- Brullo & Signor.
- Botanical name: - Silene hicesiae Brullo & Signor.
- Specific epithet: hicesiae - Brullo & Signor.
- Genus: Silene () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Campion, catchfly [Greek seilenos, probably derived from Silenus, the intoxicated foster father of the Greek god Bacchus, who was described as covered with foam; perhaps allud-ing to the viscid secretion covering many species]
- Tribe: Sileneae ()
- Subfamily: Caryophylloideae ()
- Family: Caryophyllaceae () - Durande, 1782 ex A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - cariophyllacées, pinks
- Suborder: Caryophyllineae () -
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
A tentatively accepted name in the RHS Horticultural Database.
Members of the genus Silene
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 192 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
S. acaulis (Cushion-Pink) · S. acaulis var. acaulis (Moss Campion) · S. acaulis var. exscapa (Moss Campion) · S. acaulis var. subacaulescens (Moss Catchfly) · S. acaulis 'Select' (Moss Campion 'select') · S. alexandri (Kamalo Gulch Catchfly) · S. alpestris (Silene) · S. antirrhina (Catchfly) · S. aperta (Naked Catchfly) · S. argaea (Turkish Catchfly) · S. armeria (None-So-Pretty) · S. bernardina (Palmer's Campion) · S. bernardina var. rigidula (Palmer's Catchfly) · S. bernardina var. sierrae (Palmer's Catchfly) · S. bernardina subsp. maguirei (Palmer's Catchfly) · S. bridgesii (Bridges' Catchfly) · S. californica (Indian Pink) · S. campanulata greenei (Red Mountain Catchfly) · S. campanulata subsp. glandulosa (Red Mountain Catchfly) · S. campanulata subsp. greenei (Greene's Catchfly) · S. caroliniana pensylvanica (Carolina Campion) · S. caroliniana wherryi (Wherry's Catchfly) · S. caroliniana subsp. pensylvanica (Pennsylvania Catchfly) · S. caroliniana subsp. wherryi (Wherry's Catchfly) · S. chalcedonica (Jerusalem Campion) · S. chlorantha (Yellowgreen Catchfly) · S. clokeyi (Clokey's Campion) · S. coeli-rosa (Rose Silene) · S. coeli-rosa 'Blue Pearl' (Rose of Heaven) · S. coeli-rosa 'Cherry Blossom' (Cherry Blossom Rose of Heaven) · S. compacta (Oriental Silene) · S. conica (Sand Catchfly) · S. conoidea (Cone Catchfly) · S. cryptopetala (Haleakala Catchfly) · S. csereii (Balkan Catchfly) · S. degeneri (Koolau Gap Catchfly) · S. dichotoma (Dichotoma Silene) · S. dioica (Catchfly) · S. dioica 'Clifford Moor' (Catchfly) · S. dioica 'Valley High' (Catchfly) · S. douglasii (Douglas' Campion) · S. douglasii var. douglasii (Douglas' Campion) · S. douglasii var. oraria (Seabluff Catchfly) · S. douglasii var. rupinae (Seabluff Catchfly) · S. drummondii (Drummond Cockle) · S. drummondii var. drummondii (Drummond's Catchfly) · S. drummondii var. kruckebergii (Kruckeberg's Campion) · S. drummondii var. striata (Drummond's Campion) · S. fuscata (Dark Catchfly) · S. gallica (Common Catchfly) · S. gallica var. anglica (English Catchfly) · S. glandulosa (Red Mountain Catchfly) · S. grayi (Maui Catchfly) · S. hawaiiensis (Hawai'i Catchfly) · S. hookeri (Hooker's Silene) · S. hookeri bolanderi (Bolander's Silene) · S. hookeri subsp. bolanderi (Bolander's Silene) · S. hookeri subsp. pulverulenta (Hooker's Silene) · S. invisa (Red Fir Catchfly) · S. involucrata (Arctic Catchfly) · S. involucrata subsp. elatior (Arctic Catchfly) · S. italica (Italian Catchfly) · S. kingii (King's Campion) · S. laciniata (Cardinal Catchfly) · S. laciniata greggii (Cardinal Catchfly) · S. laciniata laciniata (Cardinal Catchfly) · S. laciniata major (Cardinal Catchfly) · S. laciniata subsp. greggii (Cardinal Catchfly) · S. laciniata 'Jack Flash' (Mexican Catchfly) · S. laciniata subsp. major (Cardinal Catchfly) · S. lanceolata (Kauai Catchfly) · S. latifolia (Bladder Campion) · S. latifolia alba (Bladder Campion) · S. latifolia latifolia (Bladder Campion) · S. latifolia subsp. alba (Evening Lychnis) · S. lemmonii (Lemmon's Catchfly) · S. linicola (Flax Fields Catchfly) · S. macrosperma (Largefruit Catchfly) · S. maritima (Sea Campion) · S. marmorensis (Marble Mountain Catchfly) · S. menziesii menziesii (Menzies' Campion) · S. menziesii var. menziesii (Menzies' Campion) · S. menziesii williamsii (Menzies' Campion) · S. menziesii subsp. dorrii (Menzies' Campion) · S. menziesii subsp. williamsii (Menzies' Campion) · S. mexicana 'Hot Stuff' (Catchfly) · S. multinervia (Manynerve Catchfly) · S. nachlingerae (Nachlinger's Campion) · S. nemoralis (Italian Catchfly) · S. nivea (Evening Campion) · S. noctiflora (Night-Flowering Catchfly) · S. nocturna (Mediterranean Catchfly) · S. nuda insectivora (Barestem Campion) · S. nuda subsp. insectivora (Insecteating Campion) · S. nutans (Eurasian Catchfly) · S. nutans nutans (Eurasian Catchfly) · S. occidentalis (Western Catchfly) · S. occidentalis longistipitata (Western Catchfly) · S. occidentalis subsp. longistipitata (Western Catchfly) · S. oregana (Oregon Campion)
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- Brullo, S. and Signorello, P. 1984. Silene hicesiae, a new species from Aeolian islands. Willdenowia 14: 141-144.
- Chater, A.O., Walters, S.M. and Akeroyd, J.R. 1993. Silene L. In: T.G. Tutin, V.H. Heywood, N.A.Burges, A.O. Chater, J.R. Edmonson, D.M. Moore, D.H. Valentine, S.M. Walters and D.A.Webb, D.A. (Eds), Flora Europaea, Volume 1: Psilotaceae to Platanaceae. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, U.K. Pp. 191218.
- Commission of the European Communities. 2009. Composite Report on the Conservation Status of Habitat Types and Species as required under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Brussels.
- IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).
- Jeanmonod, D. 1984. Rvision de la section Siphonomorphae Otth. Du genre Silene L. (Caryophyllaceae) en Mditerrane occidentale. 2. Le groupe de Silene mollissima. Candollea 39(1): 195-259.
- La Manna, M., Lo Cascio, P., Pasta, S. and Troia, A. 2001. A multidisciplinary project for the endangered species Silene hicesiae Brullo & Signorello (Caryophyllaceae): preliminary results. In: Proceedings of "Planta Europa - Third European Conference on the Conservation of wild plants, pp. 23-28. Pruhonice (Prague), Czech Republic, 23-28 June 2001.
- Montmollin, B. de and Strahm, W. (eds). 2005. The Top 50 Mediterranean Island Plants: Wild plants at the brink of extinction, and what is needed to save them. IUCN SSC Mediterranean Islands Plant Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
- Pasta, S. 1997. Analisi fitogeografica della flora delle isole minori circumsiciliane. Tesi di Dottorato. Univ. Firenze, 2 voll.
- Troìa, A. and Burgarella, C. 2004. Genetic variability of the endangered island endemic Silene hicesiae Brullo & Signorello (Caryophyllaceae): Preliminary results. IX IOPB Meeting "Plant Evolution in Mediterranean Climate Zones", Valencia, Spain, 16-19 May 2004, pp. 133.
- Troa, A. and Burgarella, C. 2004. Genetic variability of the endangered island endemic Silene hicesiae Brullo & Signorello (Caryophyllaceae): Preliminary results. IX IOPB Meeting "Plant Evolution in Mediterranean Climate Zones", Valencia, Spain, 16-19 May 2004, pp. 133.
- UNEP-WCMC. 2003. Protected Areas and World Heritage Programme, .
- Walter, K.S. and Gillett, H.J. (eds). 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
- Bocquet, G. 1969. Revisio Physolychnidum (Silene Sect. Physolychnis)....
- Hitchcock, C. L. and B. Maguire. 1947. A Revision of the North American Species of Silene. Seattle. [Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol. 13.]
- Kruckeberg, A. R. 1962. Intergeneric hybrids in the Lychnideae (Caryophyllaceae). Brittonia 14: 311-321.
- Lehre. Burleigh, J. G. and T. P. Holtsford. 2003. Molecular systematics of the eastern North American Silene (Caryophyllaceae): Evidence from nuclear ITS and chloroplast trnL intron sequences. Rhodora 105: 76-90.
- McNeill, J. 1978. Silene alba and S. dioica in North America and the generic delimitation of Lychnis, Melandrium and Silene (Caryophyllaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 56: 297-308.
- Oxelman, B. and M. Lidén. 1995. Generic boundaries in the tribe Sileneae (Caryophyllaceae) as inferred from nuclear rDNA sequences. Taxon 44: 525-542.
- Oxelman, B., M. Lidén, R. K. Rabeler, and M. Popp. 2000. A revised generic classification of the tribe Sileneae (Caryophyllaceae). Nordic J. Bot. 20: 743-748.
- Oxelman, B., M. Lidén, and D. Berglund. 1997. Chloroplast rps16 intron phylogeny of the tribe Sileneae (Caryophyllaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 206: 411-420.
- Williams, F. N. 1896b. A revision of the genus Silene Linn. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32: 1-196.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- Domina, G. & Troia, A. 2011. Silene hicesiae. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 04February2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8586122
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:905274-1
- IUCN ID: 242327
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2339302
- Dequan Lu, Zhengyi Wu, Lihua Zhou, Shilong Chen, Michael G. Gilbert, Magnus Lidén, John McNeill, John K. Morton, Bengt Oxelman, Richard K. Rabeler, Mats Thulin, Nicholas J. Turland & Warren L. Wagner "Caryophyllaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- John K. Morton "Silene". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Domina, G. & Troia, A. 2011. Silene hicesiae. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]