Common Names in English:
Checker Bloom, Checker Mallow, Dwarf Checkerbloom, Wild Hollyhock
, or less often trees
; indumentum usually with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate, stipulate
; leaf blade
usually palmately veined, entire or various lobed
. Flowers solitary, less often in small cymes or clusters
, often aggregated into terminal
or panicles, usually conspicuous
, usually bisexual
in Kydia) . Epicalyx
often present, forming an involucre around calyx, 3- to many lobed. Sepals 5, valvate
. Petals 5, free, contorted, or imbricate, basally adnate
. Stamens usually very many, filaments connate into tube; anthers
1-celled. Pollen spiny
. Ovary superior, with 2-25 carpels, often separating from one another and from axis; ovules 1 to many per locule; style as many or 2 Ã— as many as pistils, apex branched or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp, separating into individual mericarps, rarely berrylike when mature
(Malvaviscus) ; carpels sometimes with an endoglossum (a crosswise projection from back wall of carpel to make it almost completely septate
. Seeds often reniform
, sometimes conspicuously so.
About 100 genera and ca. 1000 species: tropical and temperate regions of N and S Hemisphere; 19 genera (four introduced ) and 81 species (24 endemic, 16 introduced) in China.
Molecular studies have shown that the members of the Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae form a very well-defined monophyletic group that is divided into ten also rather well-defined clades, only two of which correspond to the traditional families Bombacaceae and Malvaceae. Some of the remaining groups are included entirely within either of the remaining families but others cut across the traditional divide between the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. A majority of authors , most notably Bayer and Kubitzki (Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 225-311. 2003), has favored including everything within a greatly enlarged Malvaceae, and treating the individual clades as subfamilies. The alternative view is that the individual clades should be treated as a series of ten families: Bombacaceae (Bombacoideae), Brownlowiaceae (Brownlowioideae), Byttneriaceae (Byttnerioideae), Durionaceae (Durionoideae), Helicteraceae (Helicteroideae), Malvaceae (Malvoideae), Pentapetaceae (Dombeyoideae), Sparrmanniaceae (Grewioideae), Sterculiaceae (Sterculioideae), and Tiliaceae (Tilioideae) (Cheek in Heywood et al. , Fl. Pl. Fam. World. 201-202. 2007) . For the present treatment, we prefer to retain the familiar, traditional four families, so as to maintain continuity with the treatments in FRPS, and to await a consensus on the two alternative strategies for dealing with the very widely accepted clades.
The traditional Malvaceae coincides exactly with one of the major clades. The only possible problem is the relationship with the Bombacaceae, which also has primarily 1-loculed anthers, and some authorities have suggested that the Bombacaceae should be included within the Malvaceae.
Members of the Malvaceae are important as fiber crops (particularly cotton, Gossypium) . Young leaves of many species can be used as vegetables, and species of Abelmoschus and Hibiscus are grown as minor food crops. Many species have attractive flowers and an ever-increasing selection is grown as ornamentals . Several have been cultivated for a very long time, particularly species of Hibiscus, and some of these are not known in the wild.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,890 meters (0 to 6,201 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Malvales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Malvanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Sidalcea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 83 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. calycosa (Annual Checkerbloom) · S. calycosa rhizomata (Pt. Reyes Checkerbloom) · S. campestris (Meadow Checkerbloom) · S. candida (Checker Mallow) · S. candida var. candida (White Checkerbloom) · S. candida var. glabrata (White Checkermallow) · S. candida 'Bianca' (Checker Mallow) · S. candida 'Oberon' (Checkerbloom) · S. covillei (Owens Valley Sidalcea) · S. cusickii (Cusick's Checkerbloom) · S. diploscypha (Fringed Checkerbloom) · S. glaucescens (Waxy Checkerbloom) · S. hartwegii (Valley Checkerbloom) · S. hendersonii (Henderson's Checkerbloom) · S. hickmanii (Chaparral Checkerbloom) · S. hickmanii parishii (Parish's Checker) · S. hickmanii subsp. anomala (Cuesta Pass Checker) · S. hickmanii subsp. parishii (Parish's Checker) · S. hickmanii subsp. viridis (Marin Checkerbloom) · S. hirsuta (Hairy Checkerbloom) · S. hirtipes (Bristlystem Checkerbloom) · S. hybrida'Stark's Variety' (Miniature Hollyhock) · S. keckii (Keck's Checkerbloom) · S. malvaeflora (Checker Bloom) · S. malviflora (Checker Mallow) · S. malviflora asprella (Mapleleaf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora californica (California Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora celata (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora elegans (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora nana (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora patula (Siskiyou Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora purpurea (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora rostrata (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora var. hirsuta (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora var. laciniata (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora var. sancta (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora var. sparsifolia (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora var. stellata (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora var. uliginosa (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora subsp. asprella (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora subsp. californica (California Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora subsp. celata (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora 'Crimson Beauty' (Checker Mallow) · S. malviflora subsp. dolosa (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora subsp. elegans (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora 'Elsie Heugh' (Checker Mallow) · S. malviflora subsp. laciniata (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora 'Little Princess' (Checker Mallow) · S. malviflora subsp. nana (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora'Party Girl' (Party Girl Miniature Hollyhock) · S. malviflora subsp. patula (Siskiyou Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora subsp. purpurea (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora 'Rosaly' (Checker Mallow) · S. malviflora 'Rosanna' (Checker Mallow) · S. malviflora subsp. rostrata (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora subsp. sparsifolia (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. malviflora subsp. virgata (Dwarf Checkerbloom) · S. multifida (Cutleaf Checkerbloom) · S. nelsoniana (Nelson's Checker-Mallow) · S. neomexicana (New Mexico Checkermallow) · S. neomexicana subsp. crenulata (Salt Spring Checkerbloom) · S. neomexicana subsp. thurberi (Rocky Mountain Checker-Mallow) · S. oregana (Edgewood Checkermallow) · S. oregana hydrophila (Oregon Checkerbloom) · S. oregana oregana (Kenwood Marsh Checker-Mallow) · S. oregana spicata (Oregon Checkerbloom) · S. oregana var. maxima (Kenwood Marsh Checker-Mallow) · S. oregana var. nevadensis (Kenwood Marsh Checker-Mallow) · S. oregana var. procera (Kenwood Marsh Checker-Mallow) · S. oregana 'Brilliant' (Oregon Checkerbloom) · S. oregana subsp. eximia (Coast Checkerbloom) · S. oregana subsp. hydrophila (Oregon Checkerbloom) · S. oregana subsp. spicata (Oregon Checkermallow) · S. oregana subsp. valida (Kenwood Marsh Checker-Mallow) · S. parishii (Parish's Checker) · S. pedata (Birdfoot Checkerbloom) · S. ranunculacea (Marsh Checkerbloom) · S. reptans (Sierra Checkerbloom) · S. robusta (Butte County Checkerbloom) · S. stipularis (Scadden Flat Checkerbloom) · S. x 'Little Princess' (Little Princess Miniature Hollyhock) · S. 'Candy Girl' (Checker Mallow) · S. 'Party Girl' (Checker Mallow)
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- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 14, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 6 providers.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 14, 2008:
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University: Vascular Plant Collection
- Utah State University: USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3465809
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15606198
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:564418-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 605714
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- Mean = 483.110 meters (1,585.007 feet), Standard Deviation = 528.760 based on 18 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]