Common Names in English:
Virginia Fanpetals, Virginia-Mallow
, or less often trees
; indumentum usually with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate, stipulate
; leaf blade
usually palmately veined, entire or various lobed
. Flowers solitary, less often in small cymes or clusters
, often aggregated into terminal
or panicles, usually conspicuous
, usually bisexual
in Kydia) . Epicalyx
often present, forming an involucre around calyx, 3- to many lobed. Sepals 5, valvate
. Petals 5, free, contorted, or imbricate, basally adnate
. Stamens usually very many, filaments connate into tube; anthers
1-celled. Pollen spiny
. Ovary superior, with 2-25 carpels, often separating from one another and from axis; ovules 1 to many per locule; style as many or 2 Ã— as many as pistils, apex branched or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp, separating into individual mericarps, rarely berrylike when mature
(Malvaviscus) ; carpels sometimes with an endoglossum (a crosswise projection from back wall of carpel to make it almost completely septate
. Seeds often reniform
, sometimes conspicuously so.
About 100 genera and ca. 1000 species: tropical and temperate regions of N and S Hemisphere; 19 genera (four introduced ) and 81 species (24 endemic, 16 introduced) in China.
Molecular studies have shown that the members of the Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae form a very well-defined monophyletic group that is divided into ten also rather well-defined clades, only two of which correspond to the traditional families Bombacaceae and Malvaceae. Some of the remaining groups are included entirely within either of the remaining families but others cut across the traditional divide between the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. A majority of authors , most notably Bayer and Kubitzki (Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 225-311. 2003), has favored including everything within a greatly enlarged Malvaceae, and treating the individual clades as subfamilies. The alternative view is that the individual clades should be treated as a series of ten families: Bombacaceae (Bombacoideae), Brownlowiaceae (Brownlowioideae), Byttneriaceae (Byttnerioideae), Durionaceae (Durionoideae), Helicteraceae (Helicteroideae), Malvaceae (Malvoideae), Pentapetaceae (Dombeyoideae), Sparrmanniaceae (Grewioideae), Sterculiaceae (Sterculioideae), and Tiliaceae (Tilioideae) (Cheek in Heywood et al. , Fl. Pl. Fam. World. 201-202. 2007) . For the present treatment, we prefer to retain the familiar, traditional four families, so as to maintain continuity with the treatments in FRPS, and to await a consensus on the two alternative strategies for dealing with the very widely accepted clades.
The traditional Malvaceae coincides exactly with one of the major clades. The only possible problem is the relationship with the Bombacaceae, which also has primarily 1-loculed anthers, and some authorities have suggested that the Bombacaceae should be included within the Malvaceae.
Members of the Malvaceae are important as fiber crops (particularly cotton, Gossypium) . Young leaves of many species can be used as vegetables, and species of Abelmoschus and Hibiscus are grown as minor food crops. Many species have attractive flowers and an ever-increasing selection is grown as ornamentals . Several have been cultivated for a very long time, particularly species of Hibiscus, and some of these are not known in the wild.
, to 2 m
, most parts with stellate
. Leaves simple; stipules threadlike to narrowly lanceolate; leaf blade
entire (sometimes lobed
, without foliar
nectaries. Flowers solitary or paired
, often in axillary or terminal
or panicles, rarely in umbels or glomerules
absent. Calyx campanulate
or cup-shaped, 5-lobed, often 10-ribbed basally and plicate
in bud. Corolla mostly yellow, rarely white or ± orange [or rose or purplish], sometimes with a dark center. Petals 5, free
, basally connate
, with many anthers
at apex. Ovary 5-10-loculed; ovules 1 per locule, pendulous; style branches as many as carpels; stigma capitate. Schizocarp ± disk-shaped or globose
; mericarps (4-) 5-10(-14), sculptured
, sometimes partly membranous, mostly beaked
, often with 1 or 2 apical awns
, often minutely stellate puberulent, dehiscent
or indehiscent. Seeds 1 per mericarp, smooth, glabrous except sometimes for minute hairs around hilum
Between 100 to 150 species: Africa, Asia, Australia, North and South America, Pacific islands; ca. 2/3 of the species American; 14 species (six endemic) in China.
Many species of this genus are used as fiber sources. Some species are widespread ruderals with sporadic distributions. Material with fully mature fruits is needed for reliable determinations. Studies of African material have demonstrated that there are superficially similar species that differ most obviously in details of mericarp morphology, and detailed studies have led to the recognition of more, rather than fewer, taxa. More information is needed on variation within populations, particularly in mericarp morphology, to assess the status of the awnless species of Sida, as there are indications that awned and awnless mericarps can occur on the same plant, thereby suggesting a possible reduction in species numbers.
Flowers: Bloom Period: July, August. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 36-48" tall.
Culture: Space 4-6' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 6.0
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Malvanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Napaea hermaphrodita L.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Sida
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 38 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. abutifolia (Procumbent Sida) · S. acuta (Common Fanpetals) · S. aggregata (Savannah Fanpetals) · S. antillensis (Antilles Fanpetals) · S. capitata (Malva De Caballo) · S. ciliaris (Bracted Fanpetals) · S. cordata (Heartleaf Fanpetals) · S. cordifolia (Bala) · S. elliottii (Elliott's Fanpetals) · S. fallax ('ilima) · S. glabra (Smooth Fanpetals) · S. glabra var. setifera (Smooth Fanpetals) · S. glomerata (Clustered Fanpetals) · S. glutinosa (Sticky Fanpetals) · S. grossulariifolia (Gooseberryleaf Globemallow) · S. hermaphrodita (Virginia Fanpetals) · S. incana (Shrubby Indian Mallow) · S. indica (Monkeybush) · S. inflexa (Pineland Fanpetals) · S. jamaicensis (Jamaican Fanpetals) · S. lindheimeri (Showy Fanpetals) · S. linifolia (Flaxleaf Fanpetals) · S. longipes (Stockflower Fanpetals) · S. neomexicana (New Mexico Fanpetals) · S. repens (Javanese Fanpetals) · S. rhombifolia (Arrowleaf Sida) · S. rhombifolia retusa (Paddy´s-Lucerne) · S. rhombifolia rhombifolia (Arrowleaf Sida) · S. salviifolia (Escoba Parada) · S. santaremensis (Moth Fanpetals) · S. spinosa (Prickly Fanpetals) · S. spinosa f. albiflora (Prickly Sida) · S. spinosa var. flava (Prickly Sida) · S. spinosa var. spinosa (Prickly Sida) · S. stipularis (Stipule Fanpetals) · S. tragiifolia (Catnip Noseburn) · S. urens (Tropical Fanpetals) · S. urens var. aurea (Ortie-Razier)
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- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed December 07, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 07, 2007:
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647720
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21738
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13741478
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:563783-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 105689
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21738
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: NAHE3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 51256
- Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert & Laurence J. Dorr "Malvaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 240, 264,299, 302. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Sida". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 265, 270. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]