The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Senecioneae are a tribe of closely related genera that can be recognized most readily by the nature of the pappus and the involucral bracts or phyllaries. The phyllaries are basically in one well developed, often partially or wholly connate series of equal length that closely envelope the head . Frequently there are a few, very much smaller and mostly randomly distributed, often necrotic-tipped bracts near the base of the main series. The pappus is of fine, soft, often pure white capillary hairs . Heads may be either discoid or radiate . -- Gerald Carr.
, biennials, perennials
, or shrubs
, 5-100(-250+) cm (perennating
taprooted, fibrous-rooted, branched caudices, or suberect to creeping
, seldom branched; herbage
, often glabrescent
at flowering) . Stems single or clustered, erect
or branched) . Leaves basal and/or cauline; alternate; petiolate
or sessile (bases sometimes clasping
) ; blades
subpalmately to pinnately nerved, mostly ovate
or deltate to oblanceolate
, lanceolate, linear
, or filiform
(and most intermediate shapes
), rarely suborbiculate (sometimes palmately or pinnately lobed to 2-3-pinnatifid), ultimate
entire or denticulate
to serrate or toothed
(sometimes with relatively many callous
or teeth), faces
glabrous or hairy (usually arachnose to tomentose
, often glabrescent) . Heads (sometimes nodding
) usually radiate
(rarely quasi-disciform), usually in corymbiform
to cymiform, sometimes paniculiform
, arrays (sometimes from axils of distal leaves), sometimes borne singly. Calyculi usually of 1-8+ bractlets
(bractlets often intergrading with distal peduncular bracts, mostly 1 / 5 - 1 / 2 + times phyllaries), sometimes 0. Involucres mostly cylindric
, 5-15(-40) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, usually ± 5, 8, 13, or 21  in (1-) 2 series, distinct
(margins interlocking), erect (often reflexed
in fruit), mostly oblong
to lanceolate or linear, subequal
or equal, margins usually scarious
. Receptacles flat to convex
, foveolate, epaleate. Ray florets usually ± 5, 8, 13, or 21 , pistillate
, sometimes 0; corollas usually yellow, sometimes ochroleucous
or white, rarely reddish to purplish (laminae
sometimes barely surpassing
phyllaries; peripheral pistillate florets usually 0, sometimes 1-8+; corollas usually yellow, sometimes ochroleucous or white) . Disc florets (5-) 13-80+, bisexual
, fertile; corollas usually yellow, rarely ochroleucous, white, reddish, or purplish, tubes
shorter than to equaling campanulate throats, lobes
5, erect to recurved, usually ± deltate; style branches stigmatic
in 2 lines
, apices usually truncate-penicillate. Cypselae cylindric or prismatic
, usually 5-ribbed or -angled, glabrous or hairy (especially on ribs
sometimes myxogenic) ; pappi usually persistent (fragile), sometimes readily falling, of 30-80+, white to stramineous
. x = 10.
Species 1000+: nearly worldwide, mostly in warm-temperate, subtropical , and tropical regions at mid and upper elevations .
The concept of Senecio in traditional North American floristics stems from nineteenth century botanists who saw the genus as a diverse assemblage held together by similar morphologies of the heads and florets . Studies in the past two decades have shown Senecio in the broad sense to be a collection of separate lineages ; a better taxonomy is to be had by treating the lineages as genera. Some of the lineages were recognized in the past as infrageneric assemblages. A treatment of Senecio by T. M. Barkley (1978) reflected the traditional circumscription of the genus; a narrower circumscription is used here. Present concepts, plus a catalogue of genera, were presented by Barkley (1999) .The "species-groups" recognized here are given names purely as a matter of convenience; the groups and their names are intentionally given no formal taxonomic status (T. M. Barkley 1978) . Some of the groups may represent natural evolutionary alliances ; that remains to be clarified.The following taxa are not established members of the flora but are nonetheless noteworthy:Senecio brasiliensis (Sprengel) Lessing var. tripartitus (de Candolle) Baker is a South American weed of disturbed sites, introduced on the Gulf Coast near Pensacola, Florida, in 1893-1894. Its presence was discussed by J. M. Greenman (1917) and by L. J. Uttal (1982), both of whom treated it as Senecio canabinaefolius Hooker & Arnott. It is toxic to livestock; it seems not to have persisted in the flora.Senecio bicolor (Willdenow) Viviani (S. cineraria de Candolle) is one of the plants called "dusty miller" in the horticultural trade. It occasionally persists in the flora after cultivation.Species of the African genus Euryops are commonly cultivated in California and Florida and, to a lesser extent, in other warm areas of the flora. They would key here to Senecio. They are shrubs with leaves dissected or prominently toothed, phyllaries connate for the proximal third of their lengths , and yellow corollas. Apparently none persist for long after cultivation.Relatively recent collections from low-lying (50-100 m ), seasonally wet, disturbed areas in Orange and San Diego counties, California, have included semi-weedy perennial herbs or subshrubs 100-200 cm that are initially arachnose to tomentose, soon glabrescent, and have oblanceolate to linear or filiform leaves (2-7 cm), notably small heads in corymbiform arrays, ± 13 phyllaries 3-4 mm, and 7-8 ray florets with corolla laminae 2-3 mm. G. L. Nesom (pers. comm. ) has suggested that these plants are Senecio linearifolius A. Richard, a native of Australia and Tasmania.References to shapes, sizes, bases, margins, induments , etc. , of "leaves" in keys and descriptions refer to principal (largest, most conspicuous ) leaves at flowering unless otherwise indicated.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,544 meters (0 to 14,908 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Groundsel, ragwort, butterweed [reputedly from Latin senex, old man or woman, alluding to the white pappus bristles resembling the white hair of an elderly person]
- Specific epithet:
- Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
- Botanical name: - Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
- Specific epithet: scandens - Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
- Genus: Senecio () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Groundsel, ragwort, butterweed [reputedly from Latin senex, old man or woman, alluding to the white pappus bristles resembling the white hair of an elderly person]
- Subtribe: Senecioninae ()
- Tribe: Senecioneae ()
- Subfamily: Asteroideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: Flora of Japan, Flora Malesiana, Flora of Taiwan, IPNI, Flora of China Checklist , Tropicos, Euro+Med, Vietnam Flora, LCR Editor. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:C6FE22E7-9ECA-4409-BC14-A4318F3EB2C8
Last scrutiny: 02-Nov-09
Members of the genus Senecio
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 174 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
Myrica pennsylvanica (Northern Bayberry) · Myrica pensylvanica 'Morton' (Silver Sprite Bayberry) · S. acaulis (Senecio) · S. actinella (Flagstaff Ragwort) · S. amplectens (Alpine Groundsel) · S. amplectens holmii (Holm's Groundsel) · S. amplectens var. amplectens (Showy Alpine Ragwort) · S. amplectens var. holmii (Holm's Groundsel) · S. ampullaceus (Texas Groundsel) · S. angulatus (Climbing Groundsel) · S. anteuphorbium (Senecio) · S. aphanactis (Chaparral Ragwort) · S. aquaticus (Water Ragwort) · S. arborescens (Estrella) · S. arizonicus (Arizona Ragwort) · S. aronicoides (Rayless Ragwort) · S. articulatus (Candle Plant) · S. aschenborianus (Senecio) · S. astephanus (San Gabriel Ragwort) · S. atratus (Tall Blacktip Ragwort) · S. aurea (Golden Groundsel) · S. ballyi (Senecio) · S. bellidioides (Alpine Groundsel) · S. bicolor (Silver Ragwort) · S. bicolor cineraria (Dusty Miller) · S. bigelovii (Nodding Groundsel) · S. bigelovii Gray var. hallii Gray (Nodding Ragwort) · S. bigelovii var. bigelovii (Biglow's Ragwort) · S. bigelovii var. hallii (Hall's Ragwort) · S. blochmaniae (Dune Ragwort) · S. bolanderi var. bolanderi (Bolander's Ragwort) · S. californicus (California Ragwort) · S. cannabifolius (Aleutian Ragwort) · S. cannabinifolius (Hempleaf Ragwort) · S. cineraria 'Cirrus' (Cirrus Dusty Miller) · S. cineraria 'Silver Dust' (Dusty Miller) · S. clarkianus (Clark's Ragwort) · S. clivorum (Summer Ragwort) · S. confusus 'Sao Paulo' (Mexican Flame Vine) · S. congestus (Clustered Marsh Ragwort) · S. crassifolius (Senecio) · S. crassissimus (Vertical Leaf Senecio) · S. crassulus (Meadow Groundsel) · S. cristobalensis (Senecio) · S. cylindricus (Senecio) · S. dangarensis (Largescaled Rasbora) · S. deflersii (Pickle Plant) · S. dimorphophyllus var. dimorphophyllus (Splitleaf Groundsel) · S. dryadens (Longnose Tapirfish) · S. elegans (Purple Groundsel) · S. elmeri (Elmer's Ragwort) · S. eremophilus (Desert Groundsel) · S. eremophilus var. eremophilus (Desert Ragwort) · S. eremophilus var. kingii (Ragwood Groundsel) · S. eremophilus var. macdougalii (Macdougal's Groundsel) · S. ertterae (Ertter's Ragwort) · S. erucifolius (Hoary Ragwort) · S. erucifolius erucifolius (Hoary Groundsel) · S. eurycephalus Torr. & A.Gray var. eurycephalus Torr. & A.Gray ex A.Gray (Widehead Groundsel) · S. eurycephalus var. eurycephalus (Siskiyou Ragwort) · S. ficoides (Senecio) · S. flaccidus (Douglas Senecio) · S. flaccidus var. douglasii (Douglas' Groundsel) · S. flaccidus var. flaccidus (Threadleaf Groundsel) · S. flaccidus var. monoensis (Green Groundsel) · S. fremontii (Dwarf Mountain Ragwort) · S. fremontii var. blitoides (Dwarf Mountain Ragwort) · S. fremontii var. fremontii (Dwarf Mountain Ragwort) · S. fremontii var. inexpectatus (Dwarf Mountain Ragwort) · S. fremontii var. occidentalis (Dwarf Mountain Ragwort) · S. glastifolius (Holly-Leaved Senecio) · S. gunnii (Mountain Fireweed) · S. haworthii (Senecio) · S. herreanus (String of Beads Cactus) · S. herreianus (Gooseberry) · S. hispidulus (Hispid Fireweed) · S. hybridus (Common Ragwort) · S. hydrophiloides (Tall Groundsel) · S. hydrophilus (Alkali Marsh Groundsel) · S. hypoleucus (Pale Groundsel) · S. inaequidens (Narrow-Leaved Ragwort) · S. integerrimus (Columbia Ragwort) · S. integerrimus Nutt. var. exaltatus (Nutt.) Cronq. (Columbia Groundsel) · S. integerrimus var. exaltatus (Columbia Groundsel) · S. integerrimus var. integerrimus (Lambstongue Ragwort) · S. integerrimus var. major (Lambstongue Groundsel) · S. integerrimus var. ochroleucus (Paleyellow Ragwort) · S. integerrimus var. scribneri (Scribner's Ragwort) · S. jacobaea (Ragwort) · S. jacobaea dunensis (Ragwort) · S. jacobaea jacobaea (Ragwort) · S. jacobsenii (Trailing Jade) · S. kirkii (Tree Daisy) · S. kleinia (Mountain Grass) · S. kleiniaeformis (Spear Head) · S. kleiniiformis (Spearhead) · S. lamarckianus (Bois De Ch) · S. lemmonii (Lemmon Groundsel) · S. linearifolius (Fireweed) · S. littoralis (Woolly Ragwort)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A contribution to the flora of Australia / by William Woolls. Sydney: F. White, 1867. url p. 152.
- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 69.
- A manual of Indian timbers; an account of the growth, distribution, and uses of the trees and shrubs of India and Ceylon with descriptions of their wood-structure, by J. S. Gamble... London: S. Low, Marston & co. ltd., 1902. url p. 428.
- Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsinki: Societas, 1875-1980. url p. 13.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 619.
- Annals of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya. Colombo: Skien; 1901-1924. url , , p. 194.
- Annual report of the Regents / Albany: J.B. Lyon, State Printer, 1890-1903. url p. 573.
- Annual report on the noxious, beneficial and other insects of the State of Missouri. Jefferson City, Mo.: Ellwood Kirby, 1869-1877. url p. 175.
- Botany for academies and colleges: consisting of plant development and structure from seaweed to clematis, Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott company, 1889. url .
- Botany for high schools and colleges. New York: H. Holt, 1885. url .
- Botany. New York, Holt, 1889. url p. 514.
- Bulletin - New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Education Dept. url p. 573.
- C. E. Hobbs Botanical hand-book of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use. Especially designed as a reference book for druggists and apothecaries. Comp. and pub. by Charles E. Hobbs. Boston, Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url p. 58.
- C.E. Hobbs' Botanical hand-book: of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopœial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use: their properties, productions and uses in an abb Boston: Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url .
- Chinese materia medica. extensively revised from F. Porter Smith's work by G. A. Stuart. Shanghai?: Presbyterian Mission Press?, 1911? url p. 403.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 166, p. 464, p. 576.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 134.
- Farm and garden rule-book; New York, The Macmillan company, 1911. url p. 189.
- Farm and garden rule-book; a manual of ready rules and reference with recipes, precepts, formulas, and tabular information for the use of general farmers, gardeners, fruit-growers, stockmen, dairymen, poultrymen, foresters, rur New York, Macmillan, 1919. url p. 189.
- Flora montana formosae; an enumeration of plants found on Mt. Morrison, the central chain and other mountainous regions of Formosa at altitudes of 3, 000-13, 000 ft. By B. Hayata. Tokyo, The University, 1908. url p. 139, p. 36.
- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 885.
- Florists' review Chicago: Florists' Pub. Co. url , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
- Flowers, fruits and leaves. London: Macmillan, 1886. url .
- Fritz Bahr's commercial floriculture; a practical manual for the retail grower, New York, The A. T. De la Mare company, inc.[c1922] url .
- Gardening indoors and under glass; a practical guide to the planting, care and propagation of house plants, and to the construction and management of hotbed, cold-frame and small greenhouse, by F.F. Rockwell. New York, McBride, Nast & Company, 1912. url p. 92.
- Gardening. Chicago, the Gardening Co., 1892-1925. url p. 104.
- General index and supplement to the nine reports on the insects of Missouri / by Charles V. Riley. Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1881. url p. 175, p. 78.
- General index to the flora of Formosa as recorded in all literature up to the publication of Icones plantarum Formosanarum VI = Taiwan shokubutsu somokuroku / [B. Hayata] [Taihoku]: Taiwan Sotokufu Minseibu Shokusankyoku, 1917. url p. 40.
- Horticulture. Boston, Mass.: Horticulture Pub. Co., c1904- url p. 323, p. 495, p. 510, p. 542.
- House plants and how to grow them, by Parker T. Barnes. New York, Doubleday, Page, 1909. url p. 197, p. 197.
- Icones plantarum formosanarum nec non et contributiones ad floram formosanam: or, Icones of the plants of Formosa, and materials for a flora of the island, based on a study of the collections of the Botanical survey of the Government of Formosa / By B. Hayata. .. Taihoku: Bureau of Productive Industry, Government of Formosa, 1911-1921. url p. 67.
- Indian trees: an account of trees, shrubs, woody climbers, bamboos, and palms indigenous or commonly cultivated in the British Indian empire / London: A. Constable, 1906. url p. 402.
- Inventory of seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1914-1924. url p. 56, p. 72.
- Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze Valley, China. Corvallis, Oregon State College url p. 409, p. 410.
- Memorial of life and entomologic work of Joseph Albert Lintner, state entomologist, 1874-98, by Ephraim Porter Felt. Albany: University of the State of New York, 1899. url p. 573.
- Natural science. London: Macmillan & Co., [1892-1899] url p. 71.
- Natural science: a monthly review of scientific progress. London [etc.]: Macmillan and Company [etc.], [1892-1899] url p. 71.
- New Zealand moths and butterflies (Macro-lepidoptera) by G. V. Hudson. .. with 13 plates. London, West, Newman & co., 1898. url p. 140, p. 2, p. 2.
- Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 7 1912-1913 Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Off. url p. 48, p. 50.
- Outlines of botany for the high school laboratory and classroom (based on Gray's Lessons in botany) Prepared at the request of the Botanical Dept. of Harvard University. New York, American Book Co. url .
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 185.
- Plant culture; a working hand-book of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse, by George W. Oliver. New York, A. T. De La Mare Printing and Publishing Co., c1912. url , , p. 109, p. 109, p. 306, p. 310, p. 90, p. 90.
- Plant culture; a working handbook of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse. New York, A. T. De La Mare Printing and Publishing Co., 1900. url p. 193, p. 65, p. 77.
- Plantae Wilsonianae; an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910, by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. Cambridge, University Press, 1913-17. url p. 419, p. 491, p. 653.
- Popular gardening and fruit growing; An illustrated periodical devoted to horticulture in all its branches. Buffalo, New York;Popular gardening publishing company. url p. 111.
- Popular science monthly. New York: D. Appleton, 1872-1950. url p. 490.
- Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Boston: Metcalf and Co., 1846-1958 url p. 215.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url p. 199, p. 714.
- Proceedings of the annual convention of the society of American Florists. Boston [etc.]Society of American Florists and Ornamental Horticulturalists. url p. 109.
- Report of the State Entomologist on injurious and other insects of the state of New York. Albany: Weed, Parsons and Co.; University of the State of New York, 1882- url p. 264, p. 264, p. 91.
- Riviera nature notes / a popular account of the more striking plants and animals of the Riviera and the Maritime Alps. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1903. url p. 157.
- Sargent, C. S. Plantae Wilsonianae: an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910 /by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. 3 1917 Cambridge: The University press, 1913-17. url p. 419, p. 491, p. 653.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 193, p. 466.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url , p. 1030, p. 1045, p. 1067, p. 1107, p. 1151, p. 1165, p. 1195, p. 1219, p. 1273, p. 128, p. 1329, p. 134, p. 1389, p. 176, p. 225, p. 269, p. 27, p. 304, p. 315, p. 359, p. 405, p. 418, p. 450, p. 482, p. 524, p. 534, p. 572, p. 620, p. 669, p. 687, p. 713, p. 747, p. 80, p. 850, p. 853, p. 957, p. 977, p. 999.
- The California horticulturist and floral magazine. San Francisco, Cal.: F.A. Miller & Co., [1870- url p. 332, p. 332, p. 94, p. 94.
- The Canadian horticulturist [monthly] St. Catharines, E.S. Leavenworth. url p. 191.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 1021, p. 1322, p. 1325, p. 28, p. 301, p. 307, p. 311, p. 349, p. 352, p. 385, p. 409, p. 413, p. 413, p. 451, p. 461, p. 465, p. 499, p. 521, p. 530, p. 541, p. 544, p. 569, p. 593, p. 617, p. 640, p. 661, p. 668, p. 700, p. 73, p. 757, p. 793, p. 816.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 351, p. 474, p. 480.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticulturist. Philadelphia, Pa.: Charles H. Marot, 1876-1888. url , p. 10, p. 134, p. 162, p. 162, p. 168, p. 168, p. 35, p. 363, p. 363, p. 383, p. 383, p. 76, p. 8, p. 8, p. 98.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 1178.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 444, p. 752.
- The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan = Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku kiyo. Rika. Tokyo, Japan: The University, 1898-1925. url p. 13, p. 139, p. 208.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 23 1886-88 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 457, p. 75.
- The Philippine journal of science. 5 1910 Manila. url p. 399.
- The Popular science monthly New York: D. Appleton url p. 490.
- The Popular science monthly. New York, Popular Science Pub. Co., etc. url p. 490.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 721.
- The Victorian naturalist. [Melbourne]Field Naturalists Club of Victoria. url p. 16, p. 82.
- The commonly occuring wild plants of Canada a flora for the use of beginners / by H.B. Spotton. Toronto: W.J. Gage, [1887?] url .
- The commonly occurring wild plants of Canada. A flora for the use of beginners. Toronto, W. J. Gage & Co.,  url .
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url p. 265, p. 265.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 352.
- The home florist: a treatise on the cultivation, management and adaptability of flowering and ornamental plants, designed for the use of amateur florists. By Elias A. Long. Springfield, Ohio, C.A. Reeser url p. 293.
- The horticulturist's rule-book; 1908. url p. 309.
- The horticulturist's rule-book; a compendium of useful information for fruit growers, truck gardeners, florists, and others, by L. H. Bailey. New York: The Macmillan company; [etc., etc., ], 1899, 1895. url p. 309.
- The naturalisation of animals & plants in New Zealand, Cambridge [Eng.]University Press, 1922. url .
- The nursery-book: a complete guide to the multiplication of plants / by L. H. Bailey. New York: Macmillan co., 1913, [c1896] url p. 317.
- The nursery-book; a complete guide to the multiplication of plants. .. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1914. url .
- The principles of floriculture, by Edward A. White. .. New York, The Macmillan company, 1915. url p. 437, p. 438, p. 439.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 455.
- The weeds of New South Wales, pt. I- Sydney, W.A. Gullick, Gov't. printer, 1920- url p. 106.
- Tilton's journal of horticulture and florist's companion. Boston: J.E. Tilton and Co., 1869-1871. url p. 319.
- Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. Wellington: New Zealand Institute. url p. 158, p. 265, p. 285, p. 345.
- Travels of Ruiz, Pavón, and Dombey in Peru and Chile (1777-1788) / by Hipólito Ruiz; with an epilogue and official documents added by Agustín Jesús Barreiro; translation by B.E. Dahlgren. 21 1940 Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1940. url p. 28, p. 308, p. 313.
- Vernacular list of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency. Madras, Printed by the Superintendant, Government Press, 1915. url p. 415.
- Window gardening. Devoted specially to the culture of flowers and ornamental plants, for indoor use and parlor decoration. Ed. by Henry T. Williams. New York, H. T. Williams, 1878. url p. 105.
- Zoe:a biological journal. 4 1893 San Diego, Calif. [etc.]Zoe Publishing Co. url p. 286, p. 286.
- Ediger, R. I. 1970. Revision of section Suffruticosi of the genus Senecio (Compositae). Sida 3: 504-524.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 16, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Harvard University Herbaria, Harvard University Herbaria
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3446896
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-1933
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:247480-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 892618
- Theodore M. Barkley "Senecio". in Flora of North America Vol. 20 Page 540,541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 570, 615. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 2,188.890 meters (7,181.398 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,525.720 based on 61 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]