The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Lactuceae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that are easily recognized because the flowering heads are composed of wholly of ligulate florets that are usually 5-lobed. Another very distinguishing feature is the milky sap . Although not apparent without magnification, the pollen is distinctive in that the spines are more or less restricted to discrete ridges or flanges on the surface of the grain. In other members of the family the spines are distributed more or less evenly over the surface of the pollen grain . The pappus usually consists of scales or stiff hairs . -- Gerald D. Carr.
, biennials, or perennials [subshrubs
], 5-100+ cm; taprooted. Stems 1, erect
, branched from bases
and/or distally, glabrous
. Leaves basal and cauline; basal sessile or petiolate
, distal sessile; blades
ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate or linear
entire or pinnately lobed
glabrous or ± arachnose [tomentose
]). Heads borne singly or in loose
arrays. Peduncles not inflated
, sometimes bracteate
. Calyculi 0. Involucres ovoid
, 6-12[-16+] mm diam. (larger in fruit). Phyllaries 18-30+ in 3-5+ series, deltate or ovate
to lanceolate or lance-linear
(± flat proximally, not enfolding subtended florets
), unequal, margins scarious
, apices obtuse
to acute. Receptacles flat, pitted
, glabrous, epaleate. Florets 30-100+; corollas whitish to yellow or purplish. Cypselae whitish to brownish, narrowly columnar
(sometimes ± stipitate
), not beaked
usually 10, sometimes 0, faces mostly glabrous, sometimes distally villosulous [lanate
]; pappi persistent
, of 28-50+, whitish, subequal
in 2-3 series. x = 7.
Species ca. 175: introduced ; Europe, Asia.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Scorzonera
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 12 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. hispanica (Black Oyster Plant) · S. hispanica 'Belstar' (Black Salsify) · S. hispanica 'Blackrooted Duplex' (Black Salsify) · S. hispanica 'Einjahrige' (Black Salsify) · S. hispanica 'Noir De Russie' (Black Salsify) · S. hispanica 'Vrn Maxima' (Black Salsify) · S. hispanica 'Vrn Westlandia' (Black Salsify) · S. humilis (Dwarf Viper´s Grass) · S. laciniata (Cutleaf Vipergrass) · S. manshurica (Manshurian Viper´s Grass) · S. mongolica (Mongolian Viper´s Grass) · S. sinensis (Chinese Viper´s Grass)
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- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 13 1909-1912 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 353, p. X.
- Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai; from the Taurus to Ras Muhammad, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Syrian desert. By Rev. George E. Post. Beirut, Syria, Syrian Protestant College url p. 411.
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url p. 109, p. 172.
- Forest culture and eucalyptus trees, San FranciscoCubery1876 url p. 409, p. 543.
- Select extra-tropical plants readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation with indications of their native countries and some of their uses / by Baron Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: R. S. Brain, govt. printer, 1895. url p. 499, p. 452, p. 556.
- Select extra-tropical plants, readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation, with indications of their native countries and some of their uses. By Baron Ferd. von Mueller. .. Sydney, T. Richards, government printer, 1881. url p. 313, p. 383.
- Some account of the fauna and flora of Sinai, Petra, and Wa?dy 'Arabah, London, Pub. for the Committee of the Palestine exploration fund by A. P. Watt, 1891. url , .
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 27.
- Wrightia. 1 1947 Richardson, Tex. [etc.]University of Texas at Dallas. url p. 188, p. 290.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 05, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5932727
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15193300
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:243262-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1970744