Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Ou Zhou Ya Cong
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Black Oyster Plant, Black Oysterplant, Black Salsify, Black-Salsify, Common Viper´s Grass, Common Viper´s-Grass, Scorzonera, Spanish Salsify, Spanish-Salsify, Viper´s Grass, Vipers Grass
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Salsifis Noir, Scorsonère, Scorsonère D´espagne, Scorsonère Géant De Russie
Common Names in German:
Geissbart, Schwarzwurzel, Winterspargel
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Italian:
Scorzonera, Scorzonera Di Spagna
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Polish:
Wezymord, Wezymord Czarny, Wezymord Czarny Korsen
Common Names in Portuguese:
Escorcioneira, Salsifi Négro, Salsifi-Negro
Common Names in Romanian:
Common Names in Russian:
černyj Koren, Skorconer, Sladkij Koren, сладкий корен, черный корен
Common Names in Spanish:
Escorzonéra, Escorzonera, Salsifí Negro, Salsifi Negro
Common Names in Swedish:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Lactuceae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that are easily recognized because the flowering heads are composed of wholly of ligulate florets that are usually 5-lobed. Another very distinguishing feature is the milky sap . Although not apparent without magnification, the pollen is distinctive in that the spines are more or less restricted to discrete ridges or flanges on the surface of the grain. In other members of the family the spines are distributed more or less evenly over the surface of the pollen grain . The pappus usually consists of scales or stiff hairs . -- Gerald D. Carr.
, biennials, or perennials [subshrubs
], 5-100+ cm; taprooted. Stems 1, erect
, branched from bases
and/or distally, glabrous
. Leaves basal and cauline; basal sessile or petiolate
, distal sessile; blades
ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate or linear
entire or pinnately lobed
glabrous or ± arachnose [tomentose
]). Heads borne singly or in loose
arrays. Peduncles not inflated
, sometimes bracteate
. Calyculi 0. Involucres ovoid
, 6-12[-16+] mm diam. (larger in fruit). Phyllaries 18-30+ in 3-5+ series, deltate or ovate
to lanceolate or lance-linear
(± flat proximally, not enfolding subtended florets
), unequal, margins scarious
, apices obtuse
to acute. Receptacles flat, pitted
, glabrous, epaleate. Florets 30-100+; corollas whitish to yellow or purplish. Cypselae whitish to brownish, narrowly columnar
(sometimes ± stipitate
), not beaked
usually 10, sometimes 0, faces mostly glabrous, sometimes distally villosulous [lanate
]; pappi persistent
, of 28-50+, whitish, subequal
in 2-3 series. x = 7.
Species ca. 175: introduced ; Europe, Asia.
Species Scorzonera hispanica
Perennials . Leaf blades 120-400 × (1-) 3-6 mm, margins entire (flat or undulate ). Involucres 20-30 × 8-12+ mm. Phyllaries ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, glabrous . Cypselae 10-15(-20) mm; pappi 9-15(-20) mm. 2n = 14. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 18-24" tall.
Disturbed sites; 10-200 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,099 meters (0 to 3,606 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: Caribbean Checklist , African Flowering Plants Database , SANBI, New Zealand Plant Name Database, Flora Malesiana, IPNI, Tropicos, Euro+Med. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:15CDE7BF-30A4-4E42-AF1E-6E0F64A37F35
Last scrutiny: 16-Aug-09
Members of the genus Scorzonera
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 12 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. hispanica (Black Oyster Plant) · S. hispanica 'Belstar' (Black Salsify) · S. hispanica 'Blackrooted Duplex' (Black Salsify) · S. hispanica 'Einjahrige' (Black Salsify) · S. hispanica 'Noir De Russie' (Black Salsify) · S. hispanica 'Vrn Maxima' (Black Salsify) · S. hispanica 'Vrn Westlandia' (Black Salsify) · S. humilis (Dwarf Viper´s Grass) · S. laciniata (Cutleaf Vipergrass) · S. manshurica (Manshurian Viper´s Grass) · S. mongolica (Mongolian Viper´s Grass) · S. sinensis (Chinese Viper´s Grass)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A Manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants / Edinburgh: A. and C. Black, 1875. url , , .
- A catalogue of plants cultivated in the garden of John Gerard, in the years 1596-1599 /edited with notes, references to Gerard's Herball, the addition of modern names, and a life of the author, by Benjamin Daydon Jackson. 1876 London: Privately printed, 1876 url p. 50, p. 63.
- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 248.
- A first report on the relations between climates and crops. By Cleveland Abbe. Prepared under the direction of Willis L. Moore, chief United States Weather Bureau. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1905. url p. 199.
- A general system of botany, descriptive and analytical. In two parts. Part I. Outlines of organography, anatomy, and physiology. Part II. Descriptions and illustrations of the orders. By Emm. Le Maout [and] J. Decaisne. With 5500 figures by L. Steinheil a London, Longmans, Green & Co.1873. url .
- A guide to the orchard and fruit garden; or, An account of the most valuable fruits cultivated in Great Britain: with kalendars of the work required in the orchard and kitchen garden during every month in the year. By George Lindley. Ed. by John Lindley. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1831. url p. 576.
- A handbook of systematic botany / by Dr. E. Warming with a revision of the fungi by Dr. E. Knoblauch, tr. and ed. by M. C. Potter. New York: Macmillan & Co., 1895. url p. 574.
- A handbook of systematic botany; with a revision of the fungi, by E. Knoblauch; tr. and ed. by M.C. Potter. London, Swan url p. 574.
- A manual flora of Egypt / by Reno Muschler. With a preface by Paul Ascherson and Georg Schweinfurth. Berlin, R. Friedlaender, 1912. url p. 1055, p. 1204.
- A manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants. By John Hutton Balfour. London: J. J. Griffin [etc.] 1851. url p. 158, p. 441.
- A manual of botany: including the structure, classification, properties, uses, and functions of plants. London, John Churchill and Sons, 1870. url p. 579.
- A student's text-book of botany, by Sydney H. Vines. With 483 illustrations. London, Macmillan & co., 1896. url , .
- A student's text-book of botany. London, Sonnenschein, 1894. url p. 141, p. 194.
- A text-book of botany / London; Macmillan, 1898. url , , .
- A text-book of botany, by Eduard Strasburger. .. Dr. Heinrich Schenck. .. Dr. Fritz Noll. .. [and] Dr. George Karsten. London, Macmillan and co., limited, 1908. url p. 96.
- Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsinki: Societas, 1875-1980. url p. 107, p. 466, p. 468.
- Amateur cultivator's guide to the flower and kitchen gardens: containing a descriptive list of two thousand varieties of flower and vegetable seeds; also a list of French hybrid gladiolus raised and imported by / Washburn and Company, Seed Merchants. Boston: Washburn, 1869. url p. 122.
- Amino acid pools: distribution, formation and function of free amino acids; proceedings. Edited by Joseph T. Holden. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the Institute for A[d]vanced Learning in the Medical Sciences. Amsterdam, Elsevier Pub. Co.1962. url p. 43, p. 66, p. 808, p. 815.
- An elementary course of botany: structural, physiological, and systematic / by Arthur Henfrey. London: John Van Voorst, 1878. url p. 293.
- An elementary text-book of botany, by Sydney H. Vines. .. London: S. Sonnenschein & co., lim.;1898. url p. 582.
- An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. London, Printed for Longman, Ross, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1828. url p. 1221, p. 870.
- An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with many hundred engravings on wood by Branston. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1827. url p. 1221, p. 870, p. 877.
- An illustrated dictionary of medicine, biology and allied sciences. .. by George M. Gould. 5th ed., with additions and corrections. PhiladelphiaP. Blakiston's Son1907 url p. 1305.
- An illustrated encyclopaedia of gardening, by Walter P. Wright London, J. M. Dent & sons, ltd.; url p. 283, p. 314.
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 106, p. 276, p. 357, p. 441, p. 49, p. 96.
- Botany for high schools and colleges / by Charles E. Bessey. New York: H. Holt, 1883, c1880. url p. 75.
- Botany. New York, Holt, 1889. url p. 573.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1913. url p. 19.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1923 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 125, p. 13, p. 14, p. 15, p. 18, p. 59.
- C.E. Hobbs' Botanical hand-book: of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopœial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use: their properties, productions and uses in an abb Boston: Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url .
- Cassell's dictionary of practical gardening; an illustrated encyclopædia of practical horticulture for all classes; ed. by Walter P. Wright. London, Cassell and company, limited, 1902. url p. 321.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 384, p. 497.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 384, p. 497.
- Commercial gardening, a practical & scientific treatise for market gardeners, market growers, fruit, flower & vegetable growers, nurserymen, etc. By many practical specialists under the editorship of John Weathers. London, The Gresham publishing company, 1913. url p. 198, p. 199.
- Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the phanerogams and ferns / by A. de Bary; translated and annotated by F.O. Bower and D.H. Scott; with 241 woodcuts and an index. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884. url p. 190, p. 434, p. 517, p. 518, p. 524, p. 653.
- Comparative morphology and biology of the fungi, mycetozoa and bacteria / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1887. url .
- Curtis's botanical magazine. 100 1874 London; New York [etc.]: Academic Press [etc.] url tab. 6127.
- Danish fungi as represented in the herbarium of E. Rostrup / revised by J. Lind. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske boghandel, 1913. url p. 365, p. 439, p. 57.
- Dictionary of the common names of plants with list of foreign plants cultivated in the open / by Rudolf Marloth. Cape Town: Specialty Press of South Africa, 1917. url p. 160.
- Diseases of plants induced by cryptogamic parasites: introduction to the study of pathogenic Fungi, slime-Fungi, bacteria, & Algae / London; Longmans, Green & co., 1897. url .
- Early British botanists and their gardens, based on unpublished writings of Goodyer, Tradescant, and others, by R. T. Gunther. With nine plates and twenty-one other illustrations. Oxford, Printed by F. Hall for the author at the University Press, 1922. url p. 317.
- Elementary botany: theoretical and practical. A text-book designed primarily for students of science classes connected with the science and art department of the committee of council on education / London and New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1888. url .
- Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia[Entomological Rooms of the Academy of Natural Sciences] url p. 110, p. 110.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 203, p. 274, p. 456, p. 513, p. 987, p. 989.
- Flowering plants of the Riviera: a sescriptive account of 1800 of the more interesting species / by H. Stuart Thompson; with an introduction on Riviera vegetation by A. G. Tansley London; New York: Longmans, Green, 1914. url p. 144.
- French market-gardening: including practical details of "intensive cultivation" for English growers. London: J. Murray, 1909. url p. 192.
- Fundamental aspects of normal and malignant growth. Amsterdam, Elsevier Pub. Co., 1960. url p. 1018.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 1037.
- Handbook of practical botany for the botanical laboratory and private student / by E. Strasburger; translated and edited from the German with many additional notes by W. Hillhouse. London: Macmillan, 1900. url , p. 472, p. 515.
- Handbook of the British flora: a description of the flowering plants and ferns indigenous to, or naturalised in, the British Isles. For the use of beginners and amateurs. By George Bentham. London, L. Reeve & Co., ltd., 1918. url p. 256.
- History of vegetable substances used in the arts, in domestic economy, and for the food of man. Boston: Lilly, Wait, Colman and Holden, 1833. url p. 254.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. 1914 London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 64.
- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Oxford [etc.]Royal Microscopical Society. url p. 73, p. 805.
- Lessons in Elementary Botany, the part of Systematic Botany based upon material left in manuscript by the late Prof. Henslow. London, MacMillan, 1888. url p. 178.
- Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze Valley, China. Corvallis, Oregon State College url p. 416.
- Memoirs of the American Entomological Society. Philadelphia, American Entomological Society, 1916- url p. 124, p. 131, p. 144.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 12 1902-1907 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 198.
- Methods in microscopial research; vegetable histology. London, Sherratt and Hughes, 1905. url , .
- My garden, its plan and culture together with a general description of its geology, botany, and natural history, London, Bell and Daldy, 1872. url .
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 9 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 391, p. 396, p. 412, p. 423, p. 436.
- Origin of cultivated plants / by Alphonse de Candolle. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1908. url p. 437, p. 44, p. 468.
- Origin of cultivated plants, by Alphonse de Candolle. London, K. Paul, Trench, 1884. url p. 437, p. 468.
- Origin of cultivated plants. By Alphonse de Candolle. New York, D. Appleton and company, 1902. url p. 44.
- Origin of cultivated plants. New York, Appleton, 1892. url , .
- Photomicrographs of botanical studies. Manchester: Flaters, Milborne & McKechnie, [191-?] url , .
- Physiological plant anatomy, tr. by Montagu Drummond. London, MacMillan, 1914. url p. 339, p. 697.
- Plant growth regulation. Ames, Iowa State University Press url p. 691, p. 692, p. 694, p. 838, p. 848.
- Practical plant biochemistry, by Muriel Wheldale Onslow. .. Cambridge, University press, 1920. url p. 156, p. 160.
- Practical plant biochemistry. CambridgeUniversity Press1923 url p. 171, p. 175.
- Practical plant physiology: an introduction to original research for students and teachers of natural science, medicine, agriculture and forestry / by W. Detmer; translated from the 2nd German edition by S.A. Moor. London: Macmillan, 1898. url p. 360.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 1016.
- Quarterly journal of microscopical science. London, J. and A. Churchill [etc.] url , p. 149.
- Report of the botanist / G. P. Clinton. [New Haven]: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1903-1911. url p. 345.
- Root-knot and its control. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1911. url p. 19.
- Science progress in the twentieth century: a quarterly journal of scientific work & thought. London: John Murray, 1906-1916. url p. 468.
- Standard values in nutrition and metabolism, being the second fascicle of a handbook of biological data. Prepared under the direction of the Committee on the Handbok of Biological Data, American Institute of Biological Sciences, National Research Council. Philadelphia, Saunders url p. 378.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 44, p. 459.
- Strasburger's Text-book of botany. Rewritten by Dr. Hans Fitting. .. Dr. Ludwig Jost. .. Dr. Heinrich Schenck. .. Dr. George Karsten. London, Macmillan, 1921. url p. 716.
- Studies in electro-physiology (animal and vegetable) by Arthur E. Baines. .. with 31 original drawings in colour, illustrating the electrical structure of fruits and vegetables, by Gladys T. Baines, and numerous other illustrations. London, Dutton, 1918. url p. 289.
- Text-book of botany, morphological and physiological. Oxford, Clarendon press, 1882. url p. 87, p. 876.
- Text-book of botany: morphological and physiological / by Julius Sachs; edited with an appendix, by Sydney H. Vines Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1883. url p. 87.
- The American gardener's calendar; adapted to the climate and seasons of the United States. By Bernard M'Mahon. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott, 1857. url p. 620.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 196, p. 196, p. 341, p. 422, p. 422, p. 552, p. 552, p. 571, p. 571.
- The British cyclopædia of natural history: combining a scientific classification of animals, plants, and minerals. .. By authors eminent in their particular department. Arranged and ed. by Charles F. Partington. London: Orr & Smith, 1835-37. url p. 631.
- The English flora. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, [1828-30] url p. 338, p. 501.
- The Farmers' register. Richmond, Va.: Edmund Ruffin, 1833-1843. url .
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 129.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 428, p. 77.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 391, p. 412, p. 436.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url p. 252.
- The Phytologist: a botanical journal. London, William Pamplin, 1855-1863. url p. 469.
- The Profitable culture of vegetables for market gardeners, small holders, and others. London, etc., Longmans, Green, 1913. url p. 296.
- The botany of crop plants: a text and reference book. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son, [c1917] url , .
- The botany of crop plants; a text and reference book, by Wilfred W. Robbins. .. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co.[c1917] url p. 635, p. 675.
- The chemical synthesis of vital products and the interrelations between organic compounds / By Raphael Meldola. London: E. Arnold, 1904. url p. 332.
- The culture of vegetables and flowers from seeds and roots, by Sutton and sons. London, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co. ltd., 1908. url p. 118.
- The flora of the presidency of Bombay / By Theodore Cooke. London: Taylor and Francis, 1903-08. url p. 69.
- The garden... London, 1872- url p. 648.
- The gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url , p. 167, p. 231.
- The horticulturist: or, the culture and management of the kitchen, fruit, & forcing garden / by J.C. Loudon; edited and revised by William Robinson. London: F. Warne,  url p. 636.
- The journal of the Horticultural Society of London. London, [England]: Published for the Society, by Longman and Co., 1846-1855. url p. 11.
- The micrographic dictionary; a guide to the examination and investigation of the structure and nature of microscopic objects. London, John Van Voorst, 1856. url p. 790.
- The new American orchardist; or, An account of the most valuable varieties of fruit, of all climates, adapted to cultivation in the United States, with their history, modes of culture, management, uses, &c., and the culture of s Boston, Russell, Odiorne, and Metcalf, 1835. url p. 365.
- The ontogeny of insects; [papers]. London, Academic Press url p. 353.
- The origin and history of our garden vegetables, to which is added their dietetic values. London, Pub. for the Author by the Royal Horticultural Society, 1912. url p. 20, p. 71.
- The principles of vegetable-gardening. New York: Macmillan, [c1921] url , .
- The simpler natural bases / by George Barger. London; Longmans, Green, 1914. url p. 48, p. 55.
- The simpler natural bases. London, Longmans, 1914. url p. 48, p. 55.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 3605, p. 77.
- The suburban horticulturist; or, An attempt to teach the science and practice of the culture and management of the kitchen, fruit, & forcing garden to those who have had no previous knowledge or practice in these departments of g By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with numerous engravings on wood. London, William Smith, 1842. url p. 652.
- The uses of plants: a manual of economic botany with special reference to vegetable products introduced during the last fifty years / by G. S. Boulger. London: Roper & Drowley, 1889. url p. 202, p. 43.
- The vegetable garden; illustrations, descriptions, and culture of the garden vegetables of cold and temperate climates, by MM. Vilmorin-Andrieux, of Paris. English ed. pub. under the direction of W. Robinson. With an addendum by W. P. Thomson. New York, E.P. Dutton and company, 1920. url p. 645.
- The vegetable kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system / by John Lindley. London: Bradbury and Evans, 1846. url p. 708, p. 709.
- The vegetable kingdom; or, Handbook of plants and fruits. New York, Lott, 1843. url p. 147.
- The vegetable kingdom; or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, LondonBradbury & Evans1853 url p. 708.
- Transactions of the Botanical Society. Edinburgh: Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 1841-1891. url p. 186.
- Vegeculture. How to grow vegetables, salads, and herbs in town and country, by Harry A. Day, F. R. H. S. London, Methuen & co., ltd. url p. 41.
- Vegetable gardening. London: T. C. & E. C. Jack, 1919. url p. 115.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 29, 2007:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- GBIF-Spain, BDBCV BioBlitz in Penyagolosa
- GBIF-Spain, Botánica, Universidad de León: LEB-Cormo
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Institut Botanic de Barcelona, BC
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Almería, HUAL
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2669261
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-11610
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:243208-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 33412
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 505091
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SCHI2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 61972
- John L. Strother "Scorzonera". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 218, 306. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Scorzonera hispanica". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 306, 307. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 262.370 meters (860.794 feet), Standard Deviation = 222.520 based on 379 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]