, on rock, or rarely epiphytic. Stems erect
or nearly erect, rarely long-creeping, scaly
. Steles radially symmetric
or dorsiventral (with structurally distinct
) dictyosteles. Leaves monomorphic
, rarely almost dimorphic
leaves taller and more erect than sterile
with 1 vascular bundle X-shaped in cross
or with 2 vascular bundles
back to back and C-shaped. Blades
to 4-pinnate, commonly with tiny glandular
and a few linear scales
, rarely with spreading
hairs. Veins free
to anastomosing. Sori borne on veins, ± lunate
. Indusia usually present, shape
conforming to sorus and originating along 1 side of sorus. Sporangia with stalk
of 1 row
, annulus vertical
stalk. Spores monolete; perispore
, or perforate
. Gametophytes surficial
, green, cordate.
Genera 1, species ca. 700 (1 genus, 28 species, and 3 nothospecies in the flora ) : worldwide.
Members of this family can usually be identified by the combination of clathrate stem scales and indusiate linear sori. Supporting anatomic characteristics include the two vascular bundles in the petiole that unite distally in the petiole to form an X-shaped petiolar strand , and the single row of cells in the sporangial stalk. The scales consist of cells with dark, thick, radial walls and clear, thin, tangential walls, giving the scales a clathrate (latticelike) appearance reminiscent of lead moldings between plates of stained glass.
As construed here, Aspleniaceae comprise a single, huge, extremely diverse genus, Asplenium . A satisfactory taxonomic division into subgenera or satellite genera has not been possible because of the absence of any significant gaps . Various segregates have been proposed (e.g. , Camptosorus, Phyllitis, Ceterach, Pleurosorus ), but numerous "intergeneric" hybrids occur.
The members of Asplenium are popular with plant evolutionists, field naturalists, and fern gardeners, not only because of the interesting morphology of the plants but also because of their remarkable ability to form spectacular hybrids, often combining dramatically different leaf shapes. In North America, 23 diploid hybrids and allopolyploids have been recorded. At least two of these hybrid combinations occur as both sterile diploids and their fertile allotetraploid derivatives. Only those hybrids that are reproductively competent (through vigorous clone-forming by root proliferations or apogamy, or rarely through sexual reproduction) are treated in the key and fully described below.
Only about two-fifths of the reproductively competent species are believed to be cladistically divergent species; the other three-fifths are of hybrid origin (allopolyploids) . For two of the allotetraploids, sterile diploids of the same parentage are also known. The most unusual allopolyploid phytogeographically is Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, the parents of which are known only in the Old World. These reticulate relationships are summarized in the reticulogram.
Polyploidy is widespread in Asplenium, and the chromosome numbers vary from 2 x to 6 x . Two species, Asplenium trichomanes and A . heterochroum, occur in different levels of polyploidy---2 x and 4 x, and 4 x and 6 x, respectively. The highest chromosome number known for Asplenium in North America is 2 n = 216 (in A . trichomanes-dentatum and the hexaploid form of A . heterochroum ) . The only three apogamous taxa are A . monanthes (3 x ), A . resiliens (3 x ), and A . Ã— heteroresiliens (5 x ) .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Phyllitis balansae (Baker) C. Chr. • Phyllitis balansae (Baker) C.Chr.
Publishing author : Baker Publication : Hooker's Icon. Pl. 17: 1653 1886 [Nov 1886]
Members of the genus Scolopendrium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Gastony, G. J. 1986. Electrophoretic evidence for the origin of a fern species by unreduced spores. Amer. J. Bot. 73: 1563--1569.
- Kramer, K. U. and R. Viane. 1990. Aspleniaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 1+ vol. Berlin etc. Vol. 1, pp. 52--56.
- Reichstein, T. 1981. Hybrids in European Aspleniaceae (Pteridophyta). Bot. Helv. 91: 89--139.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3417749
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:17221450-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 1049991-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1101524