, wetland or terrestrial
, occasionally emergent or floating, [often epiphytic or climbing
], usually with milky
or watery latex, rarely colored
. Rhizomes, corms, or stolons present; rhizomes vertical
or horizontal, creeping
at or near surface
, sometimes branched; corms underground, starchy; stolons at or near surface. Stems absent [sometimes aboveground or aerial
]. Cataphylls usually present. Leaves rarely solitary, alternate or clustered; petiole
rarely absent, with sheathing
, occasionally sagittate-cordate, larger than 1.5 cm; venation
parallel or pinnate- or palmate-netted. Inflorescences spadices, each with 3--900 usually tightly grouped, sessile flowers, subtended by spathe
; spathe rarely absent, persistent
(sometimes only proximally) or deciduous, variously colored; spadix cylindric
, various parts occasionally naked or with sterile
flowers. Flowers bisexual
usually on same plants
or functionally on different plants, staminate flowers
distal to pistillate when unisexual; perianth absent or present; stamens 2--12, distinct
in synandria; ovaryies 1, 1--3(--many) -locular, sessile or embedded
in spadix; styles 1; stigmas hemispheric
, capitate, or discoid
[sometimes strongly lobed
]. Fruits berries
, distinct or connate at maturity. Seeds 1--40(--many) per berry.
Genera 105, species more than 3300 (8 genera, 10 species in the flora ; species in 10 additional genera may persist locally within flora area, see talbe 203.1) : nearly worldwide, primarily tropical regions .
Araceae are best characterized by the inflorescence, a fleshy cylindric or ovoid, unbranched spadix subtended or surrounded by a spathe. True spathes are absent in the Nearctic genus Orontium and in the Australian genus Gymnostachys. Other plant families with a compressed spadix-like inflorescence, such as Piperaceae and Cyclanthaceae, either do not have a structure equivalent to a spathe (Piperaceae) or have early-deciduous bracts (Cyclanthaceae) . Plants are usually glabrous , rarely pubescent or spiny (pubescent in Pistia) . Many Araceae exhibit typical monocotyledonous parallel leaf venation, but some genera have net leaf venation more typical of dicotyledons.
Infrafamilial classification of the Araceae is under active study. The only classification of the family to date to utilize modern phylogenetic techniques (S. J. Mayo et al. 1997) recognizes seven subfamilies, of which three are represented in native temperate North American aroid flora: Orontioideae (Orontium, Symplocarpus, Lysichiton) ; Calloideae (Calla) ; and Aroideae (Peltandra, Arisaema, and Pistia) . Acorus, a genus historically included in Araceae, is treated as a separate family in theat flora based on extensive morphologic and chemical evidence that supports its removal from Arales (M. H. Grayum 1987) .
The number of genera of Araceae occurring in temperate North America is low in comparison with other continents, and primitive taxa are disproportionately represented. Orontioideae and Calloideae, which include four of the seven native genera found in the flora area, are the basal clades within Araceae. Plants in these subfamilies possess the primitive states for many characteristics in Araceae and share few derived characteristics with other aroid genera (M. H. Grayum 1990) . The more advanced genera native to the flora area include one genus endemic to eastern North America (Peltandra), a pantropical genus with an uncertain native distribution (Pistia), and a genus clearly Eurasian in origin (Arisaema) .
Araceae contain crystals of calcium oxalate , which are often cited as causing the intense irritation experienced when handling or consuming the raw plant tissue of many genera in the family. This supposition is contradicted by the fact that although irritation generally is not produced by properly cooked plants, the crystals remain after heating. Other compounds must therefore be involved with causing this reaction. Studies of Dieffenbachia demonstrated that a proteolytic enzyme , as well as other compounds, are responsible for the severe irritation caused by this plant and that raphides of calcium oxalate do not play a major role (J. Arditti and E. Rodriguez 1982) . Whether irritation is caused by enzymes or crystals, that aspect of Araceae has resulted in aroid genera being included in many lists of poisonous plants (e.g. , K . F. Lampe and M. A. McCann 1985; G. A. Mulligan and D. B . Munro 1990; K. D. Perkins and W. W. Payne 1978) .
Despite the toxic effects of Araceae, species of several genera are cultivated as food plants, mainly as subsistence crops in tropical areas. The major edible Araceae are Colocasia esculenta and several species of Xanthosoma, grown primarily for their corms and sometimes for their leaves. Most North American species of Araceae were historically used by Native Americans, as both food and medicine (T. Plowman 1969) . The family, is currently more valued for its many ornamental species , and is the most important family in North America for indoor foliage plants (T. B. Croat 1994) . Araceae commonly grown as ornamentals in American homes include species of Aglaonema (Chinese-evergreen), Anthurium, Caladium, Dieffenbachia (dumbcane), Epipremnum (golden pothos), Philodendron, Spathiphyllum, Syngonium, and Zantedeschia (calla-lily) .
Plants of some cultivated species of Araceae escape and may persist or naturalize , especially in warmer climates. One of these species, Colocasia esculenta, is widespread enough to warrant full inclusion in the flora, but other introduced species of Araceae are very local in occurrence. Uncommon species represented by herbarium specimens or literature reports as escaped or persisting from cultivation are listed (table 203.1) with distinguishing characteristics and areas of occurrence.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- (Bartl., 1830) Takhtajan, 1997
- (Dumortier, 1829) Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Alismatales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Aranae () - (Dumortier, 1829) Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Aridae () - (Bartl., 1830) Takhtajan, 1997
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Monstera officinalis (Roxb.) Schott • Pothos officinalis Roxb. • Scindapsus annamicus Gagnep.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 11-Nov-2003
Members of the genus Scindapsus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A forest flora of Chota Nagpur including Gangpur and the Santal-Parganahs / by H.H. Haines. -- Dehra Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh; 1910. url p. 551.
- A general system of botany, descriptive and analytical. In two parts. Part I. Outlines of organography, anatomy, and physiology. Part II. Descriptions and illustrations of the orders. By Emm. Le Maout [and] J. Decaisne. With 5500 figures by L. Steinheil a London, Longmans, Green & Co.1873. url , .
- A manual of Indian botany. London, Blackie & Son Ltd., 1920. url , .
- A manual of poisonous plants, chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations, by L.H. Pammel Cedar Rapids, Ia., The Torch press, 1911. url p. 966.
- A manual of poisonous plants: chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations / by L. H. Pammel. 1911 Cedar Rapids, Ia.: The Torch Press, 1910-11. url p. 966.
- Bengal plants: a list of the phanerogams, ferns and fern-allies indigenous to, or commonly cultivated in, the Lower provinces and Chittagong, with definitions of the natural orders and genera, and keys to the genera and species. 2 1903 Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India1903. url p. 1114.
- Canada's missing dimension: science and history in the Canadian Arctic Islands / Ottawa: Canadian Museum of Nature, 1990. url p. 117, p. 852.
- Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine Archipelago, Manila, Bureau of printing, 1910. url p. 125.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 42, p. 435, p. 451, p. 454, p. 575.
- Flora medica; a botanical account of all the more important plants used in medicine in different parts of the world. London, Longman, 1838. url p. 636.
- Hand-book of Indian flora; being a guide to all the flowering plants hitherto described as indigenous to the continent of India. [Madras?]Trabancore Sircar Press, 1864-69. url , .
- Observations on the gestation of some sharks and rays / Calcutta: Asiatic Society, 1891. url p. 276, p. 287.
- Pharmacographia Indica.by William Dymock, C.J.H. Warden, and David Hooper. 1890-1893 London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1893. url p. 69.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 481.
- The botany of Bihar and Orissa: an account of all the known indigenous plants of the province and of the most important or most commonly cultivated exotic ones / with maps and introduction by H. H. Haines. London: Printed by Adlard and sold by agents for Indian Official Publications, 1921-25. url p. 1249, p. 859.
- The natural productions of Burmah: or, notes on the fauna, flora, and minerals of the Tenasserim provinces and the Burman empire / by Francis Mason. Maulmain: American Mission Press, 1850. url p. 175.
- The vegetable kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system / by John Lindley. London: Bradbury and Evans, 1846. url p. 828.
- The vegetable kingdom; or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, LondonBradbury & Evans1853 url p. 194, p. 828.
- Vernacular list of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency. Madras, Printed by the Superintendant, Government Press, 1915. url p. 330, p. 418, p. 490, p. 717, p. 809, p. 810.
- Bown, D. 1988. Aroids: Plants of the Arum Family. Portland.
- Grayum, M. H. 1990. Evolution and phylogeny of the Araceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 628--697.
- Lampe, K. F. and M. A. McCann. 1985. AMA Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. Chicago.
- Mayo, S. J., J. Bogner, and P. C. Boyce. 1997. The Genera of Araceae. 1 vol. + laser disc. [London.]
- Mulligan, G. A. and D. B. Munro. 1990. Poisonous Plants of Canada. Ottawa, Canada.
- Perkins, K. D. and W. W. Payne. 1978. Guide to the Poisonous and Irritant Plants of Florida. Gainesville, Florida.
- Plowman, T. 1969. Folk uses of New World aroids. Econ. Bot. 23: 97--122.
- Thompson, S. A. 1995. Systematics and Biology of the Araceae and Acoraceae of Temperate North America. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Illinois. Add Urbana-Champaign.
- Wilson, K. A. 1960. The genera of the Arales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 41: 47--72.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 01, 2008:
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5908973
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-188567
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:88899-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1509016