Common Names in English:
, cespitose or not, rhizomatous
or not, stoloniferous
or not. Roots
, principally adventitious. Stems (culms
) usually trigonous
, occasionally terete
, rarely compressed
, usually solid, rarely hollow or septate
. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, usually 3-ranked, rarely 2-ranked or multi-ranked, bases
enclosing stem, margins
usually fused; junction of sheaths and blades
often with adaxial
flaps of tissue
of hair (ligules) ; blades frequently absent from some basal leaves
, rarely from cauline leaves, when present divergent or ascending
, flat, folded, plicate
, rolled, or terete, linear
) a shortened axis; glumaceous
) 1-many, spirally arranged
, sometimes 2-ranked, usually appressed
or ascending; scales usually all fertile
, each subtending
a single flower, sometimes proximal
and/or distal scales empty; lateral
spikes often with basal, usually empty, usually 2-keeled scale (prophyll) ; occasionally prophyll subtending and enclosing rachilla, bearing 1 pistillate
, sometimes (0-) 3 staminate flowers
and empty scales (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia) . Secondary inflorescences panicles, often modified to corymb, pseudoumbel, cyme (anthela), raceme
, spike, or capitulum (head
), rarely single spike, usually subtended by foliaceous
or, less frequently, glumaceous bracts; secondary inflorescences sometimes simulating spikelets (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia) . Flowers hypogynous, bisexual
in most genera, unisexual
in Scleria, Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia; perianth absent or with (1-) 3-6(-30) bristles
and/or scales, usually falling off with fruit; stamens usually (1-) 3, rarely more, usually distinct
; pistils 1, 2-3(-4) -carpellate, fused, locule 1; style undivided or branches 2-3(-4) ; stigma sometimes papillate
. Fruits achenes, usually trigonous or biconvex
; pericarps thin (except in Scleria) . Seeds 1; testa thin, free
from pericarp; embryo basal; endosperm abundant. x
= 5-ca. 100.
Genera ca. 100, species ca. 5000 (27 genera, 843 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
No consensus exists regarding the number of genera and the overall relationships of genera within Cyperaceae. The most recent account of the family (P. Goetghebeur 1998) recognized 104 genera distributed among 4 subfamilies and 14 tribes . That arrangement differs somewhat from that of J. Bruhl (1995) . With one minor exception the arrangement of the family here follows that of Goetghebeur.
The family is characterized by the occurrence of a number of unusual cytological features including: (1) chromosomes with diffuse centromeres , (2) post-reductional meiosis, and (3) pollen grains formed from tetrads in which 3 of the 4 microspores fail to develop. The first two features are found in at least some Juncaceae and are unique to the two families. Juncaceae also have pollen in tetrads, but in that family all four microspores produce pollen grains. Some species in some genera of Cyperaceae (particularly Eleocharis) possess chromosomes with localized centromeres (S. S. Bir et al. 1993) . The wide range of chromosome numbers found in Cyperaceae is largely because of agmatoploidy; polyploidy has been hypothesized for some genera, especially Eleocharis, although polyploidy has not been demonstrated unequivocally.
Because of morphologic similarities in vegetative and inflorescence characters, the family has commonly been associated with Poaceae. Cytological features discussed above clearly indicate that to be a superficial similarity . Data from rbcL studies also support the view that Cyperaceae and Poaceae are not closely related (M. R. Duvall et al. 1993b; G. M. Plunkett et al. 1995) ; they do support the concept of close relationship between Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
For most families of flowering plants the phenological data given are flowering times. Because most Cyperaceae cannot be reliably identified when in flower, in this volume fruiting time is given for all species by season , sometimes qualified by early, mid, or late, or by months. The fruiting time has been interpreted broadly to include the period when the fruit is more or less fully formed but not yet ripe . The fruiting period provided covers the entire range of the taxon . Quite a difference between fruiting periods in different parts of the range of the species may well occur, especially for widespread species and species with extensive elevation range.
For a recent, comprehensive review of the economic importance of Cyperaceae, see D. A. Simpson and C. A. Inglis (2001) .
, cespitose or not, rhizomatous
or not. Culms
solitary or not, cylindric
to strongly trigonous
with internal air
cavities. Leaves basal, rarely 1(2) cauline; sheaths
; ligules membranous, glabrous; blades
well developed to rudimentary
dorsiventrally flat to C-shaped or laterally compressed
, soft, smooth or margins
sometimes distally scabrous
. Inflorescences terminal
, capitate to openly paniculate
1100+; involucral bracts
15, leaflike, proximal
. Spikelets terete
, 325 × 25 mm; scales
deciduous, 8+, spirally arranged
, each subtending
flower, or proximal scale empty (sometimes called a bracteole), floral
scales with apex entire or 2-fid, midrib
usually prolonged into mucro
, smooth or abaxial
surface scabrous, margins ciliate
. Flowers bisexual
(basal flowers pistillate
in amphicarpic species) ; perianth of 06(8) bristles
, straight or curved
, spinulose, straplike, sometimes fringed
with soft, blunt
, shorter than to somewhat exceeding achene; stamens 3; anthers
3 mm; styles linear
, 23-fid, base
not or scarcely enlarged, deciduous in fruit. Achenes biconvex
to trigonous, with apical beak
, faintly to prominently rugose
or with transverse
, 2.53.5 mm including 0.12 mm beak.
Species ca. 77: worldwide.
Schoenoplectus includes some difficult species complexes, each with different ranges outside of North America, that are discussed under the first species in each complex . The four sections recognized here were delineated by S. G. Smith and E. Hayasaka (2001). About ten species from eastern Asia and Africa have not yet been assigned to a section.
Schoenoplectus californicus and members of the S. lacustris and S. pungens complexes are often ecologically dominant in wetlands, where they provide valuable food and habitat for waterfowl and other animals. In North America their culms are used, mostly historically, for making mats, baskets, chair seats, houses, boats , and other objects. Some species are cultivated as ornamentals . Indicator boxes for weediness are marked here on the basis of the status listed under Scripus.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Small, 1903
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- Sedge Family
- (H.G.L. Reichenbach) Palla, 1888, nom. cons.
- Naked-stemmed bulrushes, scirpes, schoenoplecte [Greek schoinos, a rush, reed, and plectos, plaited, twisted, woven, in reference to the use of culms in making useful objects]
- Specific epithet:
- (Weihe) Soó
- Botanical name: - Schoenoplectus triqueter f. hoppei (Weihe) Soó
- Form: hoppei
- Specific epithet: triqueter - (Weihe) Soó
- Genus: Schoenoplectus () - (H.G.L. Reichenbach) Palla, 1888, nom. cons. - Naked-stemmed bulrushes, scirpes, schoenoplecte [Greek schoinos, a rush, reed, and plectos, plaited, twisted, woven, in reference to the use of culms in making useful objects]
- Tribe: Fuireneae ()
- Subfamily: Cyperoideae ()
- Family: Cyperaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Sedge Family
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Juncanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Place of publication
: Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 10:299. 1888
Name verified on 27-Mar-2003 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 27-Mar-2003
Members of the genus Schoenoplectus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 40 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. acutus (Hardstem Bulrush) · S. acutus var. acutus (Hardstem Bulrush) · S. acutus var. occidentalis (Tule) · S. americanus (American Bulrush) · S. californicus (California Bulrush) · S. californicus var. spoliatus (California Bulrush) · S. californicus var. tereticulmis (California Bulrush) · S. carinatus (Oblong Bulrush) · S. contortus (Contorted Bulrush) · S. deltarum (Delta Bulrush) · S. erectus (Sharpscale Bulrush) · S. etuberculatus (Canby's Bulrush) · S. fluviatilis (River Bulrush) · S. glaucus (Tuberous Bulrush) · S. hallii (Hall's Bulrush) · S. heterochaetus (Pale Great Bulrush) · S. juncoides (Kaluha) · S. lacustris (Lakeshore Bulrush) · S. lacustris tabernaemontani 'Albescens' (Variegated Bulrush) · S. lacustris tabernaemontani 'Zebrinus' (Zebra Rush) · S. maritimus (Cosmopolitan Bulrush) · S. mucronatus (Bog Bulrush) · S. mucronatus f. hosoiri (Rough-Seed Bulrush) · S. novae-angliae (New England Bulrush) · S. pungens (Common Threesquare) · S. pungens var. badius (Common Threesquare) · S. pungens var. longebracteatus (Common Threesquare Bulrush) · S. pungens var. longispicatus (Common Threesquare) · S. pungens var. polyphyllus (Common Threesquare Bulrush) · S. pungens var. pungens (Common Threesquare) · S. purshianus (Weakstalk Bulrush) · S. robustus (Sturdy Bulrush) · S. saximontanus (Rocky Mountain Bulrush) · S. smithii (Smith's Bulrush) · S. subterminalis (Swaying Bulrush) · S. tabernaemontani (Bullrush) · S. torreyi (Torrey's Bulrush) · S. triqueter (Streambank Bulrush) · S. triqueter f. hoppei (Triangular Club-Rush) · S. x carinatus (Oblong Bulrush)
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- Arnold, T. H. & B. C. De Wet, eds. 1993. Plants of southern Africa: names and distribution. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa no. 62. (Pl SAfr)
- Boulos, L. 1995. Flora of Egypt checklist. (L Egypt) [= Scirpus triqueter L.].
- FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America. (F NAmer)
- Grierson, A. J. C. & D. J. Long. 1984–. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim. (F Bhutan)
- Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR. (F USSR) [= Scirpus triqueter L.].
- Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970–. Flora of [West] Pakistan. (F Pak)
- Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963–. Flora iranica. (F Iran)
- Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966–. Flora of Iraq. (F Iraq)
- Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea. (F Eur) [= Scirpus triqueter L.].
- Bruhl, J. 1995. Sedge genera of the world: Relationships and a new classification of the Cyperaceae. Austral. Syst. Bot. 8: 125-305.
- Goetghebeur, P. 1998. Cyperaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin etc. Vol. 4, pp. 141-190.
- Mackenzie, K. K. 1931-1935. Cyperaceae [in part]. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Floraâ¦. 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 18, parts 1-7, pp. 1-478.
- Simpson, D. A. and C. A. Inglis. 2001. Cyperaceae of economic, ethnobotanical and horticultural importance: A checklist. Kew Bull. 56: 257-360.
- Svenson, H. K. 1957. Cyperaceae. Tribe 2, Scirpeae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora.... 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 18, pp. 505-556.
- Tucker, G. C. 1987. The genera of Cyperaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 68: 361-445.
- Beetle, A. A. 1941. Studies in the genus Scirpus L. III. The American species of the section Lacustres Clarke. Amer. J. Bot. 28: 691-700.
- Beetle, A. A. 1942b. Studies in the genus Scirpus L. V. Notes on the section Actaeogeton Reich. Amer. J. Bot. 29: 653-656.
- Beetle, A. A. 1943. Studies in the genus Scirpus L. VI. The section Schoenoplectus Palla. Amer. J. Bot. 30: 395-401.
- Chase, A. 1904. The North American allies of Scirpus lacustris. Rhodora 6: 65-71, plates 52, 53.
- Koyama, T. 1962b. The genus Scirpus Linn. Some North American aphylloid species. Canad. J. Bot. 40: 913-937.
- Koyama, T. 1963. The genus Scirpus Linn. Critical species of the section Pterolepis. Canad. J. Bot. 41: 1107-1131.
- Raynal, J. 1976. Notes Cyperologiques: 26. Le genre Schoenoplectus II. Lamphicarpie et la sect. Supini. Adansonia, n. s. 16: 119155.
- Schuyler, A. E. 1971. Scanning electron microscopy of achene epidermis in species of Scirpus (Cyperaceae) and related genera. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 123(2): 2952.
- Smith, S. G. and E. Hayasaka. 2001. Delineation of Schoenoplectis sect. Malacogeton (Cyperaceae), new combination, and distinctions of species. J. Jap. Bot. 76: 339343.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 16029828
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:879808-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 409613
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 879808-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3373596
- Peter W. Ball, A. A. Reznicek, David F. Murray "Cyperaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 23 Page 3, 4, 192, 243, 252. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- S. Galen Smith "Schoenoplectus". in Flora of North America Vol. 23 Page 6, 7, 8, 28, 38, 44, 48, 168. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]