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Common Names in English:
Common Threesquare, Chair-Maker's Rush, Chairmaker´s Rush, Common Three-Square Bulrush, Common Threesquare Bulrush, Schoenoplectus
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Informal Latinized N:
, cespitose or not, rhizomatous
or not, stoloniferous
or not. Roots
, principally adventitious. Stems (culms
) usually trigonous
, occasionally terete
, rarely compressed
, usually solid, rarely hollow or septate
. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, usually 3-ranked, rarely 2-ranked or multi-ranked, bases
enclosing stem, margins
usually fused; junction of sheaths and blades
often with adaxial
flaps of tissue
of hair (ligules) ; blades frequently absent from some basal leaves
, rarely from cauline leaves, when present divergent or ascending
, flat, folded, plicate
, rolled, or terete, linear
) a shortened axis; glumaceous
) 1-many, spirally arranged
, sometimes 2-ranked, usually appressed
or ascending; scales usually all fertile
, each subtending
a single flower, sometimes proximal
and/or distal scales empty; lateral
spikes often with basal, usually empty, usually 2-keeled scale (prophyll) ; occasionally prophyll subtending and enclosing rachilla, bearing 1 pistillate
, sometimes (0-) 3 staminate flowers
and empty scales (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia) . Secondary inflorescences panicles, often modified to corymb, pseudoumbel, cyme (anthela), raceme
, spike, or capitulum (head
), rarely single spike, usually subtended by foliaceous
or, less frequently, glumaceous bracts; secondary inflorescences sometimes simulating spikelets (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia) . Flowers hypogynous, bisexual
in most genera, unisexual
in Scleria, Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia; perianth absent or with (1-) 3-6(-30) bristles
and/or scales, usually falling off with fruit; stamens usually (1-) 3, rarely more, usually distinct
; pistils 1, 2-3(-4) -carpellate, fused, locule 1; style undivided or branches 2-3(-4) ; stigma sometimes papillate
. Fruits achenes, usually trigonous or biconvex
; pericarps thin (except in Scleria) . Seeds 1; testa thin, free
from pericarp; embryo basal; endosperm abundant. x
= 5-ca. 100.
Genera ca. 100, species ca. 5000 (27 genera, 843 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
No consensus exists regarding the number of genera and the overall relationships of genera within Cyperaceae. The most recent account of the family (P. Goetghebeur 1998) recognized 104 genera distributed among 4 subfamilies and 14 tribes . That arrangement differs somewhat from that of J. Bruhl (1995) . With one minor exception the arrangement of the family here follows that of Goetghebeur.
The family is characterized by the occurrence of a number of unusual cytological features including: (1) chromosomes with diffuse centromeres , (2) post-reductional meiosis, and (3) pollen grains formed from tetrads in which 3 of the 4 microspores fail to develop. The first two features are found in at least some Juncaceae and are unique to the two families. Juncaceae also have pollen in tetrads, but in that family all four microspores produce pollen grains. Some species in some genera of Cyperaceae (particularly Eleocharis) possess chromosomes with localized centromeres (S. S. Bir et al. 1993) . The wide range of chromosome numbers found in Cyperaceae is largely because of agmatoploidy; polyploidy has been hypothesized for some genera, especially Eleocharis, although polyploidy has not been demonstrated unequivocally.
Because of morphologic similarities in vegetative and inflorescence characters, the family has commonly been associated with Poaceae. Cytological features discussed above clearly indicate that to be a superficial similarity . Data from rbcL studies also support the view that Cyperaceae and Poaceae are not closely related (M. R. Duvall et al. 1993b; G. M. Plunkett et al. 1995) ; they do support the concept of close relationship between Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
For most families of flowering plants the phenological data given are flowering times. Because most Cyperaceae cannot be reliably identified when in flower, in this volume fruiting time is given for all species by season , sometimes qualified by early, mid, or late, or by months. The fruiting time has been interpreted broadly to include the period when the fruit is more or less fully formed but not yet ripe . The fruiting period provided covers the entire range of the taxon . Quite a difference between fruiting periods in different parts of the range of the species may well occur, especially for widespread species and species with extensive elevation range.
For a recent, comprehensive review of the economic importance of Cyperaceae, see D. A. Simpson and C. A. Inglis (2001) .
, cespitose or not, rhizomatous
or not. Culms
solitary or not, cylindric
to strongly trigonous
with internal air
cavities. Leaves basal, rarely 1(2) cauline; sheaths
; ligules membranous, glabrous; blades
well developed to rudimentary
dorsiventrally flat to C-shaped or laterally compressed
, soft, smooth or margins
sometimes distally scabrous
. Inflorescences terminal
, capitate to openly paniculate
1100+; involucral bracts
15, leaflike, proximal
. Spikelets terete
, 325 × 25 mm; scales
deciduous, 8+, spirally arranged
, each subtending
flower, or proximal scale empty (sometimes called a bracteole), floral
scales with apex entire or 2-fid, midrib
usually prolonged into mucro
, smooth or abaxial
surface scabrous, margins ciliate
. Flowers bisexual
(basal flowers pistillate
in amphicarpic species) ; perianth of 06(8) bristles
, straight or curved
, spinulose, straplike, sometimes fringed
with soft, blunt
, shorter than to somewhat exceeding achene; stamens 3; anthers
3 mm; styles linear
, 23-fid, base
not or scarcely enlarged, deciduous in fruit. Achenes biconvex
to trigonous, with apical beak
, faintly to prominently rugose
or with transverse
, 2.53.5 mm including 0.12 mm beak.
Species ca. 77: worldwide.
Schoenoplectus includes some difficult species complexes, each with different ranges outside of North America, that are discussed under the first species in each complex . The four sections recognized here were delineated by S. G. Smith and E. Hayasaka (2001). About ten species from eastern Asia and Africa have not yet been assigned to a section.
Schoenoplectus californicus and members of the S. lacustris and S. pungens complexes are often ecologically dominant in wetlands, where they provide valuable food and habitat for waterfowl and other animals. In North America their culms are used, mostly historically, for making mats, baskets, chair seats, houses, boats , and other objects. Some species are cultivated as ornamentals . Indicator boxes for weediness are marked here on the basis of the status listed under Scripus.
Species Schoenoplectus pungens
Rhizomes often vertical
, 1-6 mm diam., firm to hard; scales
than internodes, disintegrating to fibers. Culms
, sides convex
proximally, deeply concave to
flat distally, 0.1-2 m
× 1-6 mm, smooth
. Leaves basal; sheath
fronts membranous distally, orifice
; ligules 2-fid, 1 mm; blades
2-6, proximally V-shaped,
distally trigonous to asymmetrically laterally flattened in cross
distally; distal blade (1-) 2-5
times as long as sheath, 50-750 × 2-9 mm.
bract usually erect
, resembling leaf blade but trigonous
proximally, (1-) 3-20 cm. Spikelets
1-5(-10), 5-23 × 3-5(-7)
mm; scales bright (to very dark) orange-, red-brown, or purplish
brown to straw-colored, often prominently lineolate-spotted, midrib
mostly paler, ovate
, 3.5-6 × 2-3 mm, smooth or awn
, flanks ribless except sometimes
proximal scales, midrib prominent, apex acute (to obtuse
(0.3-) 0.5-1 mm deep, awn mostly irregularly bent, 0.5-1.5(-2.5)
mm. Flowers: perianth members
4-8, sometimes fewer, brown, bristlelike,
variably slender to stout, equal or unequal, all equaling achene
body to all rudimentary
, retrorsely spinulose; anthers
2-3 mm; styles
2-3-fid. Achenes brown, biconvex
, (2-) 2.5-3.5 × 1.3-2.3 mm; beak
mm. 2n = 74, 78. Fruiting spring-summer (south), summer (north).
Three varieties of Schoenoplectus pungens (under Scirpus americanus) were recognized for North America by T. Koyama (1963), and three more or less equivalent varieties were recognized by S. G. Smith (1995). These varieties are described informally and illustrated here but not formally recognized because their morphologic delimitation should be evaluated and their exact ranges are still uncertain. [source]
Schoenoplectus pungens (Vahl) Palla var. pungens has brown to straw-colored spikelet scales, bifid styles, and lenticular achenes. It is the only variety that occurs in Europe and North America. In North America, it extends from the Atlantic Coast to Saskatoon and is reported from Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, and Missouri. [source]
Schoenoplectus pungens (Vahl) Palla var. longispicatus (Britton) S. G. Smith has bright orange to reddish (or purplish) brown or often stramineus and lineolate-spotted spikelet scales, trifid styles, and trigonous to lenticular achenes. Endemic to the flora area, variety longispicatus occurs in western North America, except Pacific Coast, east to Saskatoon, Manitoba, and Ontario, along the north shore of Lake Superior, south to Iowa, Minnesota, western Wisconsin, Missouri, and southern Mississippi. [source]
Schoenoplectus pungens (Vahl) Palla var. badius (J. Presl & C. Presl) S. G. Smith has uniformly dark chestnut spikelet scales, trifid styles 3-fid, and trigonous or thickly biconvex achenes. In North America, variety badius occurs along the Pacific Coast (to slightly inland) from British Columbia south to California. Outside the flora area it occurs in Baja California, Mexico, temperate South America, Australia, including Tasmania, and New Zealand. [source]
The name Scirpus americanus [subsp. monophyllus (J. Presl & C. Presl) T. Koyama] var. monophyllus was misapplied to Schoenoplectus pungens var. badius (T. Koyama 1963). The type of the basionym Scirpus monophyllus J. Presl & C. Presl from Peru belongs to Schoenoplectus americanus (S. G. Smith 1995). [source]
Schoenoplectus americanus, S. pungens, and S. deltarum belong to the small œScirpus americanus complex T. Koyama (1963), in which the species are sometimes difficult to delimit. Schoenoplectus pungens was long known incorrectly as S. americanus Persoon; the type of that name is conspecific with plants formerly treated as S. olneyi A. Gray (A. E. Schuyler 1974). Putative Schoenoplectus pungens × S. americanus hybrids [= S. ×contortus (Eames) S. G. Smith] are locally common . 2n = ca. 86-128. [source]
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,998 meters (0 to 9,836 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Small, 1903
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- Sedge Family
- (H.G.L. Reichenbach) Palla, 1888, nom. cons.
- Naked-stemmed bulrushes, scirpes, schoenoplecte [Greek schoinos, a rush, reed, and plectos, plaited, twisted, woven, in reference to the use of culms in making useful objects]
- Specific epithet:
- (Vahl) Palla
- Botanical name: - Schoenoplectus pungens (Vahl) Palla
- Specific epithet: pungens - (Vahl) Palla
- Genus: Schoenoplectus () - (H.G.L. Reichenbach) Palla, 1888, nom. cons. - Naked-stemmed bulrushes, scirpes, schoenoplecte [Greek schoinos, a rush, reed, and plectos, plaited, twisted, woven, in reference to the use of culms in making useful objects]
- Tribe: Fuireneae ()
- Subfamily: Cyperoideae ()
- Family: Cyperaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Sedge Family
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Juncanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Enum. Pl. 2: 255. 1805 • Scirpus americanus Pers. var. pungens (Vahl) Barros & Osten • Scirpus Americanus Pungens • Scirpus pungens Vahl
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 21-Jun-2005
Members of the genus Schoenoplectus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 40 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. acutus (Hardstem Bulrush) · S. acutus var. acutus (Hardstem Bulrush) · S. acutus var. occidentalis (Tule) · S. americanus (American Bulrush) · S. californicus (California Bulrush) · S. californicus var. spoliatus (California Bulrush) · S. californicus var. tereticulmis (California Bulrush) · S. carinatus (Oblong Bulrush) · S. contortus (Contorted Bulrush) · S. deltarum (Delta Bulrush) · S. erectus (Sharpscale Bulrush) · S. etuberculatus (Canby's Bulrush) · S. fluviatilis (River Bulrush) · S. glaucus (Tuberous Bulrush) · S. hallii (Hall's Bulrush) · S. heterochaetus (Pale Great Bulrush) · S. juncoides (Kaluha) · S. lacustris (Lakeshore Bulrush) · S. lacustris tabernaemontani 'Albescens' (Variegated Bulrush) · S. lacustris tabernaemontani 'Zebrinus' (Zebra Rush) · S. maritimus (Cosmopolitan Bulrush) · S. mucronatus (Bog Bulrush) · S. mucronatus f. hosoiri (Rough-Seed Bulrush) · S. novae-angliae (New England Bulrush) · S. pungens (Common Threesquare) · S. pungens var. badius (Common Threesquare) · S. pungens var. longebracteatus (Common Threesquare Bulrush) · S. pungens var. longispicatus (Common Threesquare) · S. pungens var. polyphyllus (Common Threesquare Bulrush) · S. pungens var. pungens (Common Threesquare) · S. purshianus (Weakstalk Bulrush) · S. robustus (Sturdy Bulrush) · S. saximontanus (Rocky Mountain Bulrush) · S. smithii (Smith's Bulrush) · S. subterminalis (Swaying Bulrush) · S. tabernaemontani (Bullrush) · S. torreyi (Torrey's Bulrush) · S. triqueter (Streambank Bulrush) · S. triqueter f. hoppei (Triangular Club-Rush) · S. x carinatus (Oblong Bulrush)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
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- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 119, p. 398, p. 399, p. 400, p. 401, p. 402.
- Plant species of concern and plant associations of Powder River county, Montana / Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, c2002. url , , , .
- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley: a list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River / by Conway MacMillan. Minneapolis: Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, 1892. url p. 99.
- Using vegetation to assess wetland condition: a multimetric approach for temporarily and seasonally flooded depressional wetlands and herbaceous-dominated intermittent and emphmeral riverine wetlands in the northwestern glaciated plains ecoregion Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, 2004. url .
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- Raynal, J. 1976. Notes Cyperologiques: 26. Le genre Schoenoplectus II. Lamphicarpie et la sect. Supini. Adansonia, n. s. 16: 119155.
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- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
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- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 22, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 11 providers.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
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- World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Release date: November 27, 2009
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2671897
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-263065
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:152156-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 416581
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 508146
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SCPUL3 SCP
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 61750
- Peter W. Ball, A. A. Reznicek, David F. Murray "Cyperaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 23 Page 3, 4, 192, 243, 252. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- S. Galen Smith "Schoenoplectus". in Flora of North America Vol. 23 Page 6, 7, 8, 28, 38, 44, 48, 168. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Schoenoplectus". in Flora of North America Vol. 23 Page 5, 28, 45, 46, 51, 52, 53. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 540.730 meters (1,774.049 feet), Standard Deviation = 597.280 based on 1,057 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]