Common Names in English:
Fair Maids of France, Meadow Saxifrage, Mountain Rocket
Herbs or shrubs
, rarely trees
. Leaves simple
, usually alternate or opposite, usually exstipulate
. Flowers usually in cymes, panicles, or racemes
, rarely solitary, usually bisexual
, rarely unisexual
, hypogynous or ± epigynous
, rarely perigynous, usually biperianthial, rarely monochlamydeous
, rarely zygomorphic, 4- or 5(-10) -merous. Sepals sometimes petal-like. Petals usually free
, sometimes absent. Stamens (4 or) 5-10 or many; filaments
2-loculed; staminodes often present. Carpels 2, rarely 3-5(-10), usually ± connate
; ovary superior or semi-inferior to inferior, 2- or 3-5(-10) -loculed with axile placentation
, or 1-loculed with parietal placentation
, rarely with apical placentation; ovules usually many, 2- to many seriate
, sometimes with transitional forms; integument 1- or 2-seriate; styles free or ± connate. Fruit a capsule or berry, rarely a follicle or drupe. Seeds albuminous
, rarely not so; albumen of cellular
type, rarely of nuclear
type; embryo small.
About 80 genera and 1200 species: worldwide; 29 genera (two endemic), and 545 species (354 endemic, seven introduced ) in China.
During the past several years, cladistic analyses of morphological, chemical, and DNA data have made it clear that the recognition of the Saxifragaceae sensu lato (Engler, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 18a: 74-226. 1928) is untenable. Among the angiosperm families, Saxifragaceae sensu lato may in fact represent the most extreme example of a polyphyletic assemblage . For example, recent analyses of DNA sequence data indicate that these taxa represent at least ten separate evolutionary lines , many of which are only distantly related to one another (Morgan & Soltis, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 631-660. 1993; Soltis & Soltis, Amer. J. Bot. 84: 504-522. 1997) . Furthermore, very large molecular phylogenetic analyses of hundreds of angiosperms indicate that these separate lineages are distributed among four of the six traditionally recognized subclasses of dicotyledons (Savolainen et al. , Syst. Biol. 49: 306-362. 2000; Soltis et al., Nature 402: 402-404. 1999) . These recent studies have also greatly clarified how this phylogenetically diverse assemblage should be divided into families and treated taxonomically (see The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG), Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 531-553. 1998) . Recent studies of DNA sequence data have clarified both the circumscription and affinities of a narrowly defined Saxifragaceae (Saxifragaceae sensu stricto) and Hydrangeaceae (Soltis et al., Amer. J. Bot. 82: 504-514. 1995; Savolainen et al., loc. cit. ; Soltis et al., loc. cit. 1999) . Saxifragaceae sensu stricto should consist only of Saxifragoideae, a group of about 30 herbaceous genera. Members of Saxifragaceae sensu stricto from the Chinese flora include Astilbe, Astilboides, Bergenia, Chrysosplenium, Mitella, Mukdenia, Oresitrophe, Rodgersia, Saxifraga, Tanakaea, Tiarella, and the recently described Saniculiphyllum. Close relatives of Saxifragaceae sensu stricto include Itea, Penthorum, and Ribes. These genera, the sole members of Iteoideae, Penthoroideae, and Ribesioideae, respectively, are also best treated in separate families: Iteaceae, Penthoraceae, and Grossulariaceae (see APG, loc. cit.) . These taxa, as well as several others, such as Crassulaceae, are basal to a large assemblage of taxa, most of which were traditionally placed in Rosidae . Sequence data also indicate that Parnassia (the sole member of the Parnassioideae) is a more derived member of the rosid alliance , most closely related to Brexia and Lepuropetalon (also part of Saxifragaceae sensu lato) and Celastraceae. Parnassia and Lepuropetalon should be placed in Parnassiaceae with Brexia part of an expanded Celastraceae (APG, loc. cit.) .
Both morphological and molecular data indicate that Hydrangeoideae and Escallonioideae are, in contrast, allied with taxa traditionally placed in Asteridae. Hydrangeoideae are a well-defined, monophyletic lineage that should be treated as Hydrangeaceae. In China they include Cardiandra, Decumaria, Deinanthe, Deutzia, Dichroa, Hydrangea, Kirengeshoma, Philadelphus, Pileostegia, Platycrater, and Schizophragma, and are closely allied with families such as Cornaceae, Loasaceae, and Nyssaceae. Escallonioideae appear to be polyphyletic, and this group of approximately 14 genera is in need of thorough study. Members of this subfamily are allied with several different lineages of higher asterids. Polyosma, the only member of Escallonioideae in China, appears closely allied with Caprifoliaceae (Xiang & Soltis in Boufford & Ohba, Sino-Japanese Flora: its Characteristics and Diversification, 1998) .
, rarely annual
or biennial. Stem cespitose or simple
. Leaves both basal and cauline, petiolate
or not; leaf blade
simple, entire, margin
; cauline leaves usually alternate, rarely opposite. Inflorescence a solitary flower or few- to many-flowered cyme, bracteate
. Flowers usually bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic; receptacle cyathiform
. Sepals (4 or) 5(or 7 or 8) . Petals (4 or) 5, yellow, orange, white, or red to purple, callose
or not, distinctly veined, margin usually entire. Stamens (8 or) 10; filaments
. Carpels 2, usually connate
at least in placental
region; ovary superior to inferior, usually 2-loculed; placentation usually axile
; ovules many; integuments 1 or 2; nectary
disc sometimes well developed, annular
or semiannular. Fruit a 2-valved capsule. Seeds many.
About 450 species: Asia, Europe, North America, South America (Andes), mainly in alpine areas; 216 species (139 endemic) in China.
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,313 meters (0 to 7,589 feet).
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Saxifraganae () - Reveal, 1994
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : M .Bieb. Publication : Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 314 1808
Members of the genus Saxifraga
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 228 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
S. adscendens oregonensis (Rock Saxifrage) · S. adscendens subsp. oregonensis (Small Saxifrage) · S. aizoides (Yellow Mountain Saxifrage) · S. aleutica (Aleutian Saxifrage) · S. apetala (Western Swamp Saxifrage) · S. aprica (Sierra Saxifrage) · S. arendsii (Mossy Saxifrage) · S. bronchialis (Matted Saxifrage) · S. bronchialis funstonii (Funston's Saxifrage) · S. bronchialis vespertina (Yellowdot Saxifrage) · S. bronchialis subsp. austromontana (Matted Saxifrage) · S. bronchialis subsp. cherlerioides (Yellowdot Saxifrage) · S. bronchialis subsp. funstonii (Funston's Saxifrage) · S. bronchialis subsp. vespertina (Yellowdot Saxifrage) · S. bryophora (Bud Saxifrage) · S. bryophora var. bryophora (Bud Saxifrage) · S. bryophora var. tobiasiae (Tobias' Saxifrage) · S. burseriana (Kabschia Saxifrage) · S. caespitosa caespitosa (Tufted Alpine Saxifrage) · S. caespitosa sileneflora (Tufted Alpine Saxifrage) · S. caespitosa subgemmifera (Tufted Alpine Saxifrage) · S. californica (California Saxifrage) · S. callosa (Encrusted Saxifrage) · S. calycina (Alaska Saxifrage) · S. calycina subsp. unalaschcensis (Alaska Saxifrage) · S. careyana (Carey's Saxifrage) · S. caroliniana (Carolina Saxifrage) · S. cespitosa emarginata (Tufted Alpine Saxifrage) · S. cespitosa exaratoides (Nodding Saxifrage) · S. cespitosa subsp. exaratoides (Tufted Alpine Saxifrage) · S. chrysantha (Goldbloom Saxifrage) · S. cochlearis (Encrusted Saxifrage) · S. codyanus codyanus (Yellowdot Saxifrage) · S. cotyledon (Encrusted Saxifrage) · S. cotyledon 'Pyramidalis' (Encrusted Saxifrage) · S. cotyledon 'Southside Seedling' (Encrusted Saxifrage) · S. crassifolia (Siberian-Tea) · S. crustata (Encrusted Saxifrage) · S. cuneifolia (Robertsoniana Saxifrage) · S. cuneifolia 'Variegata' (Robertsoniana Saxifrage) · S. cuscutaeformis (Dwarf Strawberry Begonia) · S. delicatula (Tufted Alpine Saxifrage) · S. eriophora (Red-Fuzz Saxifrage) · S. eschscholtzii (Ciliate Saxifrage) · S. ferdinandi-coburgi (Kabschia Saxifrage) · S. ferdinandi-coburgi 'Dracula' (Kabschia Saxifrage) · S. ferruginea (Alaska Saxifrage) · S. ferruginea var. ferruginea (Russethair Saxifrage) · S. ferruginea var. newcombei (Newcombe's Saxifrage) · S. ferruginea var. vreelandii (Vreeland's Saxifrage) · S. flagellaris crandallii (Whiplash Saxifrage) · S. flagellaris setigera (Whiplash Saxifrage) · S. flagellaris subsp. crandallii (Crandall's Saxifrage) · S. flagellaris subsp. setigera (Whiplash Saxifrage) · S. foliolosa (Leafystem Saxifrage) · S. fortunei 'Beni Fuji' (Saxifrage) · S. fortunei 'Black Ruby' (Saxifrage) · S. fortunei 'Silver Velvet' (Saxifrage) · S. funstonii funstonii (Funston's Saxifrage) · S. geum (Geum Saxifrage) · S. gormanii (Gorman's Saxifrage) · S. granulata (Fair Maids of France) · S. grisebachii (Engleria Saxifrage) · S. hieraciifolia (Stiffstem Saxifrage) · S. hieraciifolia var. angusticapsula (Stiffstem Saxifrage) · S. hieraciifolia var. hieraciifolia (Stiffstem Saxifrage) · S. hieraciifolia var. rufopilosa (Stiffstem Saxifrage) · S. hirculus coloradensis (Yellow Marsh Saxifrage) · S. hirculus subsp. coloradensis (Yellow Marsh Saxifrage) · S. hirculus subsp. compacta (Yellow Marsh Saxifrage) · S. hirculus subsp. propinqua (Yellow Marsh Saxifrage) · S. hirsuta (Kidney Saxifrage) · S. hitchcockiana (Saddle Mountain Saxifrage) · S. hostii (Encrusted Saxifrage) · S. howellii (Howell's Saxifrage) · S. hyperborea (Pygmy Saxifrage) · S. idahoensis (Idaho Saxifrage) · S. integrifolia (Swamp Saxifrage) · S. iranica (Kabschia Saxifrage) · S. juniperifolia (Kabschia Saxifrage) · S. lilacina (Kabschia Saxifrage) · S. longifolia (Encrusted Saxifrage) · S. luteoviridis (Engleria Saxifrage) · S. lyallii (Redstem Saxifrage) · S. lyallii hultenii (Hulten's Saxifrage) · S. lyallii subsp. hultenii (Hulten's Saxifrage) · S. marginata (Kabschia Saxifrage) · S. marshallii (Marshall's Saxifrage) · S. media (Engleria Saxifrage) · S. mertensiana (Wood Saxifrage) · S. michauxii (Michaux's Saxifrage) · S. micranthidifolia (Brook Lettuce) · S. mutata (Encrusted Saxifrage) · S. nathorstii (East Greenland Saxifrage) · S. nelsoniana carlottae (Brook Saxifrage) · S. nelsoniana cascadensis (Heartleaf Saxifrage) · S. nelsoniana insularis (Heartleaf Saxifrage) · S. nelsoniana pacifica (Pacific Saxifrage) · S. nelsoniana porsildiana (Porsild's Saxifrage) · S. nelsoniana subsp. carlottae (Heartleaf Saxifrage)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- GBIF-Spain, Departamento de Biolog. Veg. II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid: MAF
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- NLBIF, Limnodata
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum - Herbarium GJO, Herbarium GJO
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Justus-Liebig-Universitat Giessen
- SysTax, Museu Botanico Municipal
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5900769
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2888579
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:793753-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 793750-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 648215
- Jin-tang Pan, Cuizhi Gu, Shumei Huang, Chao-fen Wei, Shu-ying Jin, Lingdi Lu, Shinobu Akiyama, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, James Cullen, Richard J. Gornall, Ulla-Maj Hultgård, Hideaki Ohba & Douglas E. Soltis "Saxifragaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 269. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Pan Jintang , Richard Gornall, Hideaki Ohba "Saxifraga". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 280. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 148.270 meters (486.450 feet), Standard Deviation = 217.760 based on 8,180 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]