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Common Names in French:
Species Sarracenia x swaniana
Herbs, clump- or mat-forming, not stoloniferous
horizontal or vertical
. Pitchers marcescent
, usually monomorphic
(sometimes trimorphic in S. alabamensis, summer forms differing
forms), not twisted, green, yellow-green, reddish, or
, gradually tapering from base
in S. purpurea, S. rosea), firm or soft, exterior
or finely pubescent
; orifice round to oval
, not facing ground
opening terminally except in S. psittacina, gaping
to completely covered by hood
; hood arising abaxially from rim
orifice, erect to recurved adaxially, ovate
to orbiculate or reniform
flattened or dome-shaped (subglobose in S. psittacina), not
cordate to attenuate, often forming distinct
neck, apex apiculate
(not apiculate in S. purpurea, S. rosea).
Phyllodia absent or persistent, produced
in mid summer, green,
oblanciform or falcate
. Scapes 1 (sometimes 2 in S. alabamensis,
S. jonesii, S. rubra), longer
or shorter than pitcher; bracts
3, usually appressed
to sepals, clasping
arched, ovate-triangular or ovate-oblong, apex obtuse
Flowers usually odoriferous
(fragrant as in roses or ill-scented
as in cat urine), rarely odorless (S. minor) ; sepals persistent,
broadly ovate-triangular or ovate, margins entire, apex obtuse or
rounded; petals deciduous, only slightly touching basally, pendulous
of style disc, pandurate
, the larger distal portions
, orbiculate, ovate, or elliptic
, margins entire or erose,
apex rounded; stamens 50-100, barely coherent at base in 10-17 vague
fascicles, falling separately; filaments
slightly variable in length
, not versatile; ovary globose
to conic, shallowly
5-lobed, apex rounded; style distally expanded into broad umbrellalike
disc with midribs
(arms) extending into 5 evenly spaced, reflexed
lobes; stigmas simple
, (1 mm), at base
of style-disc notches
). Capsules globose to ovoid
, basipetally dehiscent
in S. leucophylla). Seeds 400-1000, irregularly clavate
to reniform-obovate, laterally keeled
, tuberculate to reticulate-tuberculate.
x = 13. [source]
Species 11: North America; introduced in Europe, Asia. [source]
Sarracenia species are among the most beautiful and intriguing plants in the world; we know very little of their phylogenetic origins and affinities. They have been important ornamental plants since the early nineteenth century. Artificial hybrids were made in England in the late nineteenth century (J. H. Veitch 1906). Today, all species and some natural and man-made hybrids are widely grown by hobbyists and botanical gardens around the world. [source]
In Sarracenia, recognition of some species is often based less on flower traits than on subtle characteristics of the pitcher leaves. Species determinations must be done using the largest, most mature pitchers from healthy plants growing in moist soil and full sun. Pitchers from heavily shaded or dry sites may be smaller, flat like phyllodial leaves, or weak and decumbent. The keys here are based on typical pitcher traits. It is best to examine multiple leaves from multiple plants in a population and to note presence or absence of phyllodia. In addition, distinctly different types and sizes of leaves may be produced throughout the growing season , and these are noted in the species descriptions. [source]
The pitchers of Sarracenia may be produced before, during, or after the emergence of the flowers; pitcher phenology can be useful for species identification. Flower buds are initiated during late summer, remaining dormant until the following spring. Sometimes, these flowers may bloom out of season in late summer or fall . The pitchers of certain species are marcescent, withering in the winter but not abscising. Other species have persistent pitchers. [source]
Sarracenia species hybridize readily. The hybrids are fertile and may backcross and interbreed to form hybrid swarms . The swarms are legendary along the Gulf Coast (and may have increased due to habitat disturbance ), leading to great confusion in species identification. At the end of this treatment, we have enumerated the known naturally occurring F1 hybrids. [source]
Nearly every species of Sarracenia has been found in the wild in an anthocyanin-free form, lacking the normal red coloration in the flowers or pitchers. One of these all-yellow variants from the Northeast is well known and has been named S. purpurea forma heterophylla (Eaton) Fernald, the epithet referring to sun and shade pitchers of different morphologies on the type specimen. Most other color variants have not been named. Amateur collectors frequently refer to yellow variants of any taxon as the "heterophylla form." These plants are very rare and virtually unrepresented in herbaria. [source]
Sarracenia habitats in the Southeast are maintained by fire. This is especially true in the pine flatwoods and savannas . Without frequent fires, these open, sunny, acidic, low-nutrient habitats quickly become dense thickets of woody or grassy vegetation. The pitcher plants will invariably be shaded, and appear weakened and atypical . Most of them will survive to some degree and will be rejuvenated after a fire. [source]
We realize that some of our decisions to recognize taxa below the rank of species are controversial. Our treatment reflects our thoughts after decades of study and observation in the wild and the common garden. Most of the difficult-to-distinguish taxa have allopatric distributions, separating them from their similar relatives--a first step in making it possible to recognize them as separate entities. Knowledge of the exact geographic origin of specimens in question will be useful, especially with members of the Sarracenia purpurea and S. rubra complexes. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: March.
Size: 6-12" tall.
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 6.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Sarracenia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 167 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
S. x swaniana (Hybrid Pitcher Plant) · S. ahlesii (Ahles' Pitcherplant) · S. alata (Pale Pitcher Plant) · S. alata f. pubescens (Tall Pitcher) · S. alata 'Green' (Tall Pitcher) · S. alata 'Orange Sunset' (Tall Pitcher) · S. areolata (Pitcherplant) · S. catesbaei (Catesby's Pitcherplant) · S. chelsonii (Chelson's Pitcherplant) · S. courtii (Court's Pitcherplant) · S. excellens (Pitcherplant) · S. exornata (Pitcherplant) · S. flava (Biscuit-Flower) · S. flava var. atropurpurea (Tall Pitcher) · S. flava var. cuprea 'Copper Lid' (Tall Pitcher) · S. flava var. maxima (Tall Pitcher) · S. flava var. ornata (Tall Pitcher) · S. flava 'All Green' (Tall Pitcher) · S. formosa (Pitcherplant) · S. gilpinii (Gilpin's Pitcherplant) · S. harperi (Harper's Pitcherplant) · S. leucophylla (Crimson Pitcherplant) · S. leucophylla var. pubescens (Tall Pitcher) · S. leucophylla 'Schnell's Ghost' (Schnell's Ghost White Topped Pitcher Plant) · S. leucophylla 'Tarnok' (Crimson Pitcherplant) · S. minor (Hooded Pitcher Plant) · S. minor 'Okefenokee Giant' (Giant Hooded Pitcher Plant) · S. mitchelliana (Hybrid Pitcher Plant) · S. moorei (Moore's Pitcherplant) · S. oreophila (Green Pitcher Plant) · S. psittacina (Parrot Pitcher Plant) · S. purpurea (Common Pitcher Plant) · S. purpurea f. heterophylla (Pitcher) · S. purpurea gibbosa (Huntsman´s-Cup) · S. purpurea purpurea (Huntsman´s-Cup) · S. purpurea purpurea var. Purpurea (Purple Pitcher Plant) · S. purpurea var. burkii (Pitcher Plant) · S. purpurea var. montana (Purple Pitcherplant) · S. purpurea var. purpurea (Purple Pitcherplant) · S. purpurea venosa var. purpurea (Huntsman´s-Cup) · S. purpurea subsp. gibbosa (Purple Pitcherplant) · S. readii (Hybrid Pitcher Plant) · S. rehderi (Rehder's Pitcherplant) · S. rubra (Sweet Pitcher Plant) · S. rubra alabamensis (Alabama Canebrake Pitcher Plant) · S. rubra gulfensis (Gulf Pitcherplant) · S. rubra jonesii (Mountain Sweet Pitcherplant) · S. rubra rubra (Sweet Pitcher Plant) · S. rubra wherryi (Wherry's Pitcherplant) · S. rubra subsp. alabamensis (Alabama Canebrake Pitcher-Plant) · S. rubra subsp. gulfensis (Gulf Pitcherplant) · S. rubra subsp. gulfensis 'Green' (Tall Pitcher) · S. rubra subsp. jonesii (Mountain Sweet Pitcher-Plant) · S. rubra subsp. wherryi (Wherry's Pitcherplant) · S. umlauftiana (Hybrid Pitcher Plant) · S. wrigleyana (Scarlet Belle Pitcher Plant) · S. x (Ahles' Pitcherplant) · S. x ahlesii (Pitcher Plant) · S. x alava (Pitcher Plant) · S. x areolata (Pitcher Plant) · S. × catesbaei (Catesby's Pitcher Plant) · S. x chelsonii (Pitcher Plant) · S. × courtii (Court's Pitcherplant) · S. x excellens (Hybrid Pitcher Plant) · S. x exornata (Pitcher) · S. x farnhamii (Pitcher Plant) · S. x formosa (Pitcher Plant) · S. x gilpinii (Pitcher Plant) · S. x harperi (Pitcher Plant) · S. x melanorhoda (Pitcher Plant) · S. x mineophila (Pitcher Plant) · S. x miniata (Pitcher Plant) · S. x mitchelliana (Pitcher Plant) · S. x moorei (Pitcher Plant) · S. × popei (Pope's Pitcherplant) · S. x pureophila (Pitcher Plant) · S. × readii (Read's Pitcherplant) · S. x rehderi (Pitcher Plant) · S. x swaniana (Pitcher Plant) · S. x umlauftiana (Pitcher Plant) · S. x willisii (Pitcher Plant) · S. x wrigleyana (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Abandoned Hope' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Adrian Slack' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Anxious Debate' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Big Mama' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Blackankle' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Blackened Redfish' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Black Tube' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Boob Tube' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Brook's Hybrid' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Brunswick Beauty' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Bug Pipes' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Bug Scoop' (Tall Pitcher) · S. 'Burgundy' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Carolina Cooler' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Case's Resolve' (Hybrid Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Chas' Brew' (Pitcher Plant) · S. 'Citronelli' (Pitcher) · S. 'Claret' (Pitcher Plant)
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- Bell, C. R. 1952. Natural hybrids in the genus Sarracenia I. History, distribution and taxonomy. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 68: 55-80.
- Bell, C. R. and F. W. Case. 1956. Natural hybrids in the genus Sarracenia II. Current notes on distribution. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 72: 142-152.
- Case, F. W. and R. B. Case. 1976. The Sarracenia rubra complex. Rhodora 78: 270-325.
- Folkerts, G. W. 1982. The Gulf Coast pitcher plant bogs. Amer. Sci. 70: 260-267.
- Gibson, T. C. 1983. Competition, Disturbance, and the Carnivorous Plant Community in the Southeastern United States. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Utah.
- McDaniel, S. 1971. The genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae). Bull. Tall Timbers Res. Sta. 9: 1-36.
- Mellichamp, T. L. 1992. Hybrid pitcher plants. Bull. Amer. Rock Gard. Soc. 50: 3-10.
- Schnell, D. E. 1998. A pitcher key to the genus Sarracenia L. (Sarraceniaceae). Castanea 63: 489-492.
- Schnell, D. E. 2002. Carnivorous Plants of the United States and Canada, ed. 2. Portland.
- Wherry, E. T. 1935. Distribution of the North American pitcherplants. In: M. V. Walcott. 1935. Illustrations of North American Pitcherplants. Washington. Pp. 1-23.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 13, 2012.
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 4607693