, or vines
, rarely subshrubs
or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple
, opposite, rarely whorled
or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose
, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual
, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic
. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands
usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform
, or rarely rotate, lobes
overlapping to right
or left, rarely valvate
. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments
or connivent into a cone adherent
to pistil head
, dehiscing longitudinally, base
, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular
; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate
, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical
, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic
. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny
, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete
About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.
Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.
Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Place of publication
: Asiat. Res. 12:568, t. 5. 1816
Name verified on 27-Apr-2001 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Members of the genus Sarcolobus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A bibliographic enumeration of Bornean plants, by E. D. Merrill. Singapore, Printed by Fraser & Neave, ltd., 1921 url p. 503, p. 503.
- Bengal plants: a list of the phanerogams, ferns and fern-allies indigenous to, or commonly cultivated in, the Lower provinces and Chittagong, with definitions of the natural orders and genera, and keys to the genera and species. 2 1903 Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India1903. url p. 693.
- Botanical publications of E.D. Merrill. [New York, etc., 1899- url p. 503.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 156, p. 418, p. 574.
- Indian trees: an account of trees, shrubs, woody climbers, bamboos, and palms indigenous or commonly cultivated in the British Indian empire / London: A. Constable, 1906. url p. 470.
- Succulent plants in trade from the wild: analysis of conservation status and international trade UK Dept of the Environment, Transport and Regions url p. 159.
- Suggestions received by the Agricultural & Horticultural Society of India for extending the cultivation and introduction of useful and ornamental plants: with a view to the improvement of the agricultural and commercial resources of India / compiled by Henry Harpur Spry. Calcutta: Bishop's College Press, 1841. url p. 35.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 742.
- The botany of Bihar and Orissa: an account of all the known indigenous plants of the province and of the most important or most commonly cultivated exotic ones / with maps and introduction by H. H. Haines. London: Printed by Adlard and sold by agents for Indian Official Publications, 1921-25. url p. 555.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. 4 1885 London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 28, p. 28.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- The flora of Singapore. Singapore, 1900 url p. 112.
- The gardens' bulletin, Straits Settlements. Singapore: Straits Times Press, 1913-1941. url p. 37.
- Tsiang Ying & Li Ping-tao. 1977. Apocynaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 1-249.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed January 20, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (May 03, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 21, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5898292
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15074329
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:100926-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 418466
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3001293