, monoecious, dioecious, or polygamous, evergreen
or deciduous; trunk
, branches, and branchlets
, rarely T-shaped or stellate
. Leaves simple, usually alternate, rarely opposite or verticillate
, sometimes crowded at apices of branches; stipules usually small and caducous
, sometimes larger, leaflike and persistent
, rarely absent; petiole
generally present, sometimes with apex 2-glandular and/or with additional glands
along petiole length; leaf blade
usually pinnate-veined, sometimes 3-5-veined from base
or palmate-veined, with or without pellucid
dots or lines
, sometimes with a pair of glands at junction of blade and petiole, margin
entire or toothed
, teeth glandular
or not. Inflorescences axillary
, or cauliflorous
, of various forms: racemose, spicate
, or paniculate
, sometimes flowers fasciculate, or solitary; pedicels often articulate
; bracts and bracteoles usually small to minute. Flowers radially symmetric
, hypogynous, perigynous, or epigynous
; perianth cyclic
, rarely spiral
, in unisexual flowers remnants of opposite sex present or absent. Sepals imbricate or valvate
, rarely spathaceous
, mostly (2 or) 3-6, rarely more, usually free
at base only, sometimes partly united
into a tube
, caducous or persistent, rarely accrescent
. Petals 3-8, rarely more, often isomerous
and alternating with sepals, free, imbricate or valvate, rarely contorted, similar to sepals or not, sometimes with a fleshy
, or petals absent. Disk present, entire, lobed
, or comprised of free or connate disk glands, these extrastaminal
, interstaminal, or intrastaminal
(bisexual or staminate flowers
), or extragynoecial (pistillate
flowers), or disk absent. Stamens 1 to many (ca.
100), 1- or many seriate
, sometimes in epipetalous
bundles, or on margin of cupular disk or rim
of calyx tube; filaments
free, rarely united into a column; anthers
2-thecate, usually longitudinally dehiscent
, rarely opening by terminal pores, connective
sometimes shortly projected
or glandular. Ovary superior or semi-inferior, 1-loculed, with 2-9 parietal
placentas, rarely incompletely 2-9(or more) -celled by placentas protruding deeply into locule; ovules 2 or more on each placenta, orthotropous
, or hemi-anatropous; styles isomerous with placentas, free or partly to completely united, rarely absent, stigmas small or large, capitate to flattened and branched. Fruit capsular
, rarely a drupe, pericarp mostly smooth
, sometimes winged
. Seeds 1 to many, with or without a fleshy sometimes brightly colored
and/or aril, sometimes with long hairs, or broadly winged; endosperm usually copious
and fleshy; embryo straight or curved
; cotyledons usually broad, often cordate.
About 87 genera and ca. 900 species: mostly in tropical and subtropical regions, some extending into the temperate zone; 12 genera (one endemic) and 39 species (nine endemic) in China; four additional species (all endemic) are poorly known (see Homalium) .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,051 meters (0 to 10,010 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 Ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 Ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Vahl Publication : Eclog. Am. i. 51. t. 9.
Members of the genus Ryania
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 283.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 50 2004 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 105, p. 99.
- Cranberries;: the national cranberry magazine. Portland, CT [etc.]: Taylor Pub. Co. [etc.]. url p. 13.
- Flora of Peru / by J. Francis Macbride. 13 1941 Chicago, [Ill.]: Field Museum of Natural History,  url p. 35.
- Grisebach, A. H. R. Flora of the British West Indian islands /by A.H.R. Grisebach. -18 London, L. Reeve, 1864. url p. 296.
- Insects; the yearbook of agriculture, 1952. Washington: U.S.G.P.O., 1952. url p. 224, p. 774.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 130 1956 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 103, p. 123, p. 131, p. 40.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 15, p. 15.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 573.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 200.
- The World List of Threatened Trees WCMC, IUCN url p. 485.
- The illustrated dictionary of gardening, a practical and scientific encyclopedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists. Ed. by George Nicholson. Assisted by Professor J. W. H. Trail and J. Garrett. London: L. U. Gill, -89. url p. 338.
- The natural history of plants. By H. Baillon. Tr. by Marcus M. Hartog. London, L. Reeve & co., 1871-88. url p. 281.
- The natural history of plants. Translated by Marcus M. Hartog. LondonL. Reeve1871- url p. 281.
- Lai Shushen. 1999. Flacourtiaceae. In: Ku Tsuechih, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 52(1): 1-80.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed December 04, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 13 providers.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 04, 2007:
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3457487
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15492422
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:112052-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 112052-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 890202
- Qiner Yang & Sue Zmarzty "Flacourtiaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 112, 138. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 336.030 meters (1,102.461 feet), Standard Deviation = 570.000 based on 553 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]