- Famous for sorrel soup , its large, succulent, slightly acidic leaves give a lemony zest to salads , sauces, and omelettes. The moderately acidic young leaves are used in salads, while the stronger old leaves are used to make soups and sauces to accompany lamb, veal, chicken, and fish. The flowers may be eaten as a vegetable or used for garnish.
- The leaf juice is used to remove rust, mold, and ink stains .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Arabic:
Common Names in Bulgarian:
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in Danish:
Almindelig Syre, Dusksyre, Syre
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Dock, Acid Sorrel, Bread-And-Cheese, Brown Sugar, Cock Sorrel, Common Sorrel, Cuckoo´s Mest, Cuckoo´s Sorrel, Cuckoo´s Sorrow, Dock Seed, Donkey´s Oats, Field Sorrel, Garden Sorrel, Gipsy´s Baccy, Green Sauce, Green Snob, Green Sorrel, Lammie Sourocks, Lonondon Green Suce, Redshank, Sallet, Sheep Sorrel, Soldiers, Soorik, Sor Saps, Sor Sog, Sorrel, Sorrel Dock, Sorrow, Sour Dock, Sour Docken, Sour Grab, Sour Grass, Sour Leaves, Sour Sab, Sour Salves, Sour Sauce, Sour Sodge, Sour Sops, Sour Suds, Sourdock, Sourlick, Sourock, Sow-Sorrel, Spinach Dock, Tom Thumb´s Thousand Fingers
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Aigrette, Grande Oseille, Oreille De Brebis, Oseille, Oseille Commune, Oseille Des Jardins, Oseille Des Prés, Patience, Patience Acide, Rumex à Feuilles Sagittées, Rumex Oseille, Surelle, Surette, Vinette
Common Names in German:
Garten-Sauerampfer, Große Sauerampfer, Großer Ampfer, Sauerampfer, Wiesensauerampfer
Common Names in Greek:
Oxalida, Oxilapatho, Oxilidi, Xinethra, Xinithra, Xinolapatho
Common Names in Icelandic:
Common Names in Italian:
Acetosa Maggiore, Erba Brusca, Romice Acetosa, Saleggiola
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Polish:
Szczaw Pospolity, Szczaw Zwyczajny
Common Names in Portuguese:
Azeda, Azeda-Brava, Azedas, Azedas-Bravas, Erva-Vinagreira, Vinagreira
Common Names in Russian:
Shchavel Obyknovennyi (Avel Obyknovennyj)
Common Names in Slovenian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Acedera Común, Acedera De Lagarto, Acedera De Sapo, Acetosa, Agreta, Agrilla, Alacamines, Alcalamines, Azedinha Da Horta, Vinagrera, Vinagrera Común, Vinagrerilla, Vinagrerita, Vinagreta, Zarrampín
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Turkish:
Koca Kuzu Kula, Kuzukula
Common Names in Vietnamese:
Cây Chút Chít, Chút Chít
, or small trees
, sometimes monoecious or dioecious. Stems erect
, or scandent
, often with swollen nodes, striate
, or prickly. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
; stipules often united
to a sheath
(ocrea) . Inflorescence terminal
, racemose, paniculate
, or capitate. Pedicel occasionally articulate
. Flowers small, actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
. Perianth 3-6-merous, in 1 or 2 series, herbaceous, often enlarged in fruit or inner tepals enlarged, with wings
, or spines. Stamens usually (3-) 6-9, rarely more; filaments
or united at base
2-loculed, opening lengthwise; disk annular
) . Ovary superior, 1-loculed; styles 2 or 3, rarely 4, free or connate
at lower part. Fruit a trigonous
, or biconcave
achene; seed with straight or curved
embryo and copious
About 50 genera and 1120 species: worldwide, but primarily N temperate with a few species in tropical regions ; 13 genera (two endemic) and 238 species (65 endemic) in China.
, biennial, or annual
(subg. Rumex and Platypodium) or dioecious (subg. Acetosa and Acetosella), occasionally polygamomonoecious, with taproots
and usually short caudex
, or sometimes rhizomatous
. Stems erect
, or prostrate
or papillose-pubescent. Leaves basal (in some species) and cauline, alternate, petiolate
; ocrea persistent
or partially deciduous, membranous; petioles
present on basal and proximal
cauline leaves, absent on distal cauline leaves, bases
not articulated; blades
variable in shape
, basal (if present) and proximal cauline leaves from broadly ovate
or almost orbiculate to linear
, becoming progressively smaller and narrower distally, margins
entire (or basally lobate
), flat, or occasionally undulate
. Inflorescences terminal
, sometimes terminal and axillary
, paniclelike, rarely simple
. Pedicels present. Flowers bisexual
, (1-) 4-30 per ocreate
fascicle, base stipelike; perianth green, pinkish, or red, campanulate
, glabrous; tepals (5-) 6, connate
, outer 3 remaining small, inner 3 usually enlarging, sometimes 1-3 with central vein
transformed into tuberculate
(tubercle) ; stamens 6; filaments
, glabrous; anthers
, yellow to brownish yellow, ovate to elongate
; styles 3, spreading
, distinct; stigmas 3, fimbriate or plumose
. Achenes included
and usually veiny
perianth, tan to dark brown, unwinged to weakly winged
, 3-gonous, sometimes compressed-3-gonous or nearly pyramidal
, glabrous. Seeds: embryo straight. x = 7, 8, 9, 10 (polyploidy widespread in the genus).
Species 190-200: almost worldwide, but mostly in temperate regions of both hemispheres; some taxa occur in many regions of the world as naturalized or casual aliens .
Carefully collected mature specimens with well-developed inner tepals are desirable for reliable identification of Rumex species. Vegetative characters (in particular, growth habit, basal and proximal cauline leaves, and inflorescences) also are crucial.
In Rumex the distal part of a functional pedicel (below the articulation with a true pedicel) is formed by the narrowed connate basal parts of the outer tepals (also known as a stipelike hypanthium base or pseudopedicel). However, for simplification of the keys and descriptions , the whole functional pedicel (including pseudopedicel) is referred to simply as pedicel.
The genus Rumex in the broad sense may be divided into at least four segregate genera: Rumex in the narrow sense, Acetosa, Acetosella, and Bucephalophora (see e.g. , Á. Löve 1983; Löve and B . M. Kapoor 1967; N. N. Tzvelev 1987b, 1989b). These taxa probably represent distinct phylogenetic lineages ; they have, however, not been generally accepted as separate genera by most taxonomists, including K . H. Rechinger (1937, 1949), monographer of Rumex in the broad sense. Moreover, in some cases they are connected by intermediate forms (especially Acetosa and Acetosella) and evidently are more closely related to each other than to any outgroup genus.
Many Old World species of Rumex may be divided in their native areas of distribution into quite distinct subspecies or varieties. However, the same species occurring in North America as introduced aliens often are represented by atypical , intermediate specimens or even populations (as is true also for many native North American taxa occurring as aliens in Europe), which in many cases obscures those taxonomic distinctions.
Species Rumex acetosa
or nearly so, with short and relatively
thin, horizontal or slightly oblique
(usually not reaching
deep into substrate) and ± crowded 2d-order roots
or rarely ascending
, 1 to several from base
, branched in distal
2 (in inflorescence), (25-) 30-90(-110) cm. Leaves: ocrea
oblong-ovate, ovate-lanceolate, to lanceolate,
4-10(-15) × 1-4(-6) cm, normally more than 2.5 times as long
as wide, base sagittate (with acute lobes
directed downward, ±
parallel to petiole
entire, normally flat, apex acute or
. Inflorescences terminal
, occupying distal 3 of stem,
especially in proximal
(with 1st-order branches simple
, or with few
2d-order branches). Pedicels articulated near middle
2-5(-6) mm, articulation
. Flowers (2-) 4-8(-10) in
whorls; inner tepals orbiculate, occasionally broadly ovate
× 3-4 mm, base rounded or cordate, apex obtuse
or occasionally absent. Achenes black to dark brown, 1.8-2.5
× 1.2-1.5 mm, shiny, smooth
. 2n = 14 (pistillate
), 15 (staminate
Rumex acetosa is morphologically uniform in North America. It sometimes is misidentified as R. hastatulus orR. acetosella. Collections from North America are few in herbaria, and this species probably is not as common in the flora area as has been generally assumed. Some literature reports for R. acetosa may refer to other taxa of the species group. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May. • Flower Color: green
Size: Height to 18".
Waste places, meadows, cultivated fields , alluvial habitats ; 0-1000 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).
Culture: Space 12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 6.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to part shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- knotweed, renouées
- Tribe: Rumiceae ()
- Subfamily: Polygonoideae ()
- Family: Polygonaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - knotweed, renouées
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Polygonanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Acetosa pratensis Miller • Rumex acetosa pratensis (Miller) A. Blytt & O. C. Dahl
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Rumex
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 107 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
R. acetosa (Dock) · R. acetosa lapponicus (Garden Sorrel) · R. acetosa thyrsiflorus (Garden Sorrel) · R. acetosa subsp. alpestris (Garden Sorrel) · R. acetosa subsp. lapponicus (Garden Sorrel) · R. acetosa 'Rhubarb Pie' (Dock) · R. acetosella (Common Sheep Sorrel) · R. acetosella tenuifolius (Narrow-Leaved Sheep´s Sorrel) · R. acutus (Acute Dock) · R. albescens (Oahu Dock) · R. alexidis (Alex's Dock) · R. alpestris alpestris (Garden Sorrel) · R. alpinus (Munk's Rhubarb) · R. altissimus (Pale Dock) · R. altissimus ellipticus (Smooth Dock) · R. ambiguus (Garden Sorrel) · R. aquaticus (Western Dock) · R. aquaticus var. fenestratus (Western Dock) · R. arcticus (Arctic Dock) · R. arcticus var. arcticus (Arctic Dock) · R. arcticus var. perlatus (Arctic Dock) · R. arifolius (Garden Sorrel) · R. beringensis (Bering Sea Dock) · R. brownei (Browne's Dock) · R. brownii (Brown´s Dock) · R. bucephalophorus (Red Dock) · R. chrysocarpus (Amamastla) · R. confertus (Asiatic Dock) · R. confusus (Confused Dock) · R. conglomeratus (Clustered Dock) · R. crispus (Curled Dock) · R. crispus subsp. fauriei (Narrowleaf Dock) · R. cristatus (Greek Dock) · R. densiflorus (Dense-Flower Dock) · R. dentatus (Toothed Dock) · R. dentatus var. dentatus (Toothed Dock) · R. digynus (Alpine Mountainsorrel) · R. dissimilis (Dock) · R. franktonis (Frankton Dock) · R. frutescens (Wedgeleaf Dock) · R. giganteus (Pawale) · R. graminifolius (Grass-Leaved Sorrel) · R. hastatulus (Heartwing Dock) · R. hydrolapathum (Great Water Dock) · R. hymenosepalus (Canaigre) · R. kerneri (Kerner's Dock) · R. krausei (Krause's Sorrel) · R. lapponicus (Garden Sorrel) · R. longifolius (Door-Yard Dock) · R. maritimus (Bristle Dock) · R. mexicana (Whitesaddle Goatfish) · R. nematopodus (Arizona Dock) · R. obovatus (Tropical Dock) · R. obtusifolius (Bitter Dock) · R. obtusifolius obtusifolius (Round-Leaved Dock) · R. obtusifolius var. obtusifolius (Broadleaf Dock) · R. orbiculatus (Greater Water Dock) · R. orbiculatus var. borealis (Greater Water Dock) · R. orbiculatus var. orbiculatus (Greater Water Dock) · R. orthoneurus (Chiricahua Mountain Dock) · R. pallidus (Seaside Dock) · R. palustris (Marsh Dock) · R. paraguayensis (Paraguayan Dock) · R. patientia (Patience Dock) · R. paucifolius (Alpine Sheep Sorrel) · R. paucifolius gracilescens (Alpine Sheep Sorrel) · R. paucifolius paucifolius (Alpine Sheep Sorrel) · R. pseudonatronatus (Field Dock) · R. pseudoxyria (Garden Sorrel) · R. pulcher (Fiddle Dock) · R. pulcher var. divarticatus (Fiddle Dock) · R. pulcher var. pulcher (Fiddle Dock) · R. rugosus (Wrinkled Dock) · R. rupestris (Shore Dock) · R. sagittatus (Climbing Dock) · R. sagittatus cordifolius (Turkey-Rhubarb) · R. sagittatus latilobus (Turkey-Rhubarb) · R. salicifolius (Willow Dock) · R. salicifolius var. angustivalvis (Willow Dock) · R. salicifolius var. crassus (Willow-Leaf Dock) · R. salicifolius var. denticulatus (Toothed Willow Dock) · R. salicifolius var. lacustris (Lake Willow Dock) · R. salicifolius var. mexicanus (Mexican Dock) · R. salicifolius var. oreolapathum (Willow Dock) · R. salicifolius var. salicifolius (Willow Dock) · R. salicifolius var. transitorius (Willow Dock) · R. sanguineus (Bloodwort) · R. scutatus (Buckler-Leaved Sorrel) · R. sibiricus (Siberian Dock) · R. skottsbergii (Lava Dock) · R. spiralis (Winged Dock) · R. stenophyllus (Narrow-Leaf Dock) · R. subalpinus (Subalpine Dock) · R. thyrsiflorus thyrsiflorus (Narrow-Leaf Sorrel) · R. tomentellus (Willow Creek Dock) · R. tuberosus (Tuberous Dock) · R. venosus (Pursh Veiny Dock) · R. verticillatus (Swamp Dock) · R. vesicaria (Bladder Dock) · R. vesicarius (Bladder Dock)
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- Mean = 419.960 meters (1,377.822 feet), Standard Deviation = 637.270 based on 5,444 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]