Common Names in English:
Sweet Black-Eyed Susan, Sweet Coneflower
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Heliantheae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that can be readily recognized due to the association of a receptacular bract or chaff scale with each disk floret in the head . The heads usually include bisexual , actinomorphic disk florets with tubular corollas that have 4 or 5 distal lobes and also peripheral zygomorphic female or sometimes sterile florets with strap-shaped corollas that have 3 or fewer distal teeth. However, the ray flowers are sometimes absent and the heads are then discoid , containing only bisexual florets with tubular corollas. The pappus is absent or more commonly ranges from scales to stiff bristles . -- Gerald Carr.
, biennials, or perennials
, mostly 50-300 cm (mostly fibrous
rooted or rhizomatous
, sometimes taprooted). Stems 1-15+, erect
, branched distally, glabrous
, sometimes glaucous. Leaves basal and cauline; alternate; petiolate
or sessile; blades
, lanceolate, linear
, or spatulate
, often pinnately lobed
to 1-2-pinnatifid, ultimate
, serrate, or coarsely toothed
glabrous or hairy, sometimes glaucous, sometimes gland-dotted. Heads radiate
, borne singly or in ± corymbiform
arrays. Involucres (early flowering) hemispheric
to rotate, 15-30+ mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, 5-20 in 1-2(-3) series (narrowly triangular to lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, subequal
, herbaceous, distally or throughout). Receptacles subspheric to ovoid
, or conic to columnar
, paleate (paleae mostly tan proximally, green to maroon distally, obovate
, each ± clasping
a floret, apices acute to cuspidate
glabrous or hairy, sometimes gland-dotted, resin ducts
2-3, maroon, 1 medial
and 1 near each margin; receptacles plus paleae and florets
= discs, 8-80 Ã— 5-30 mm). Ray florets 0 or 5-25+, neuter
; corollas (spreading
) usually yellow to yellow-orange or bicolor (laminae
often proximally maroon or each with a maroon splotch, distally yellow), sometimes wholly maroon (orangish red to maroon in R. graminifolia. Disc florets 50-800+, bisexual
; corollas yellow, yellowish green, or brown-purple (often bicolor), tubes
shorter than cylindric
5, triangular. Cypselae (black) ± obpyramidal
and 4-angled (often minutely cross
), faces glabrous, angles
sometimes hairy; pappi 0, ± coroniform
, or of 2-8+ unequal scales
. x = 16, 18, 19.
Species 23: North America; introduced in Europe.
The species of Rudbeckia are distributed among three major clades or lineages . Although relationships among the lineages are not robustly resolved, the lineages are treated here as sections (as they have been traditionally). Rudbeckia hirta and sometimes other species of the genus are used in experimental studies relating to initiation of flowering and hairy root culture . Most species are rich sources of phytochemicals that may offer potential for pharmaceutical or other uses.
Species Rudbeckia subtomentosa
, to 200 cm (rhizomatous
, rhizomes stout). Stems
, to 0.5 mm). Leaves:
apices acute to obtuse
or acuminate, faces
densely hirsute and gland-dotted
fewer adaxially) ; basal 15-30 × 3-10 cm, bases
, ovate to elliptic, proximal
3-25 × 1-15
cm, usually 3-5-lobed, bases truncate
to cuneate or rounded
(8-25) in loose
to 1.5 cm (faces hairy
and ± gland-dotted). Receptacles
conic to hemispheric
; paleae 4-6 mm, apices acute, abaxial
and gland-dotted. Ray florets 10-16; laminae
(yellow to yellow-orange)
, 20-40 × 5-8 mm, abaxially sparsely
hairy, abundantly gland-dotted. Discs 10-17 × 5-15 mm.
Disc florets 200-400+; corollas yellowish green on basal 1/2,
otherwise brown-purple, 3-4.2 mm; style branches ca.
1 mm, apices
acute. Cypselae 2-3.5 mm; pappi coroniform
, to ca.
0.2 mm. 2n = 38. [source]
Rudbeckia subtomentosa is often cultivated as an ornamental . [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: July, August, September, October. • Flower Color: gold, yellow-orange
Size: 36-48" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,028 meters (0 to 9,934 feet).
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Coneflower [For Olaus (Olof) Johannes Rudbeck, 1630-1702, and Olaus (Olof) Olai Rudbeck, 1660-1740, father and son, professors at Uppsala University, predecessors of Linnaeus]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Rudbeckia subtomentosa Pursh
- Specific epithet: subtomentosa - Pursh
- Genus: Rudbeckia () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Coneflower [For Olaus (Olof) Johannes Rudbeck, 1630-1702, and Olaus (Olof) Olai Rudbeck, 1660-1740, father and son, professors at Uppsala University, predecessors of Linnaeus]
- Subtribe: Rudbeckiinae ()
- Tribe: Heliantheae ()
- Subfamily: Asteroideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: New Zealand Plant Name Database, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:249582E5-C77C-442F-A863-F4AA70260EA9
Last scrutiny: 15-Aug-09
Members of the genus Rudbeckia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 84 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
R. alpicola (Showy Coneflower) · R. auriculata (Eared Coneflower) · R. bicolor (Pinewoods Coneflower) · R. californica (California Coneflower) · R. californica var. californica (California Coneflower) · R. fulgida (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. fulgida var. fulgida (Eastern Coneflower) · R. fulgida var. deamii (Deam's Coneflower) · R. fulgida var. fulgida (Rachel's Eyes Black Eyed Susan) · R. fulgida var. palustris (Prairie Coneflower) · R. fulgida var. spathulata (Orange Coneflower) · R. fulgida var. speciosa (Orange Coneflower) · R. fulgida var. sullivantii (Sullivant's Coneflower) · R. fulgida var. sullivantii 'Goldsturm' (Black Eyed Susan) · R. fulgida var. umbrosa (Orange Coneflower) · R. fulgida 'Irish Eyes' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. fulgida 'Marmalade' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. glaucescens (Waxy Coneflower) · R. graminifolia (Grassleaf Coneflower) · R. grandiflora (Rough Coneflower) · R. grandiflora var. alismifolia (Rough Coneflower) · R. grandiflora var. grandiflora (Rough Coneflower) · R. heliopsidis (Sunfacing Coneflower) · R. hirta (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta L. 'Sputnik' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta var. angustifolia (Blackeyed Susan) · R. hirta var. angustifolia (T.V. Moore) Perdue (Blackeyed Susan) · R. hirta var. floridana (Blackeyed Susan) · R. hirta var. hirta (Blackeyed Susan) · R. hirta var. pulcherrima (Blackeyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Autumn Colors' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Becky Mix' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Cherokee Sunset' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Chim Chiminee' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Chocolate Orange' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Cordoba' (Cordoba Gloriosa Daisy) · R. hirta 'Goldilocks' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Hot Chocolate' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Indian Summer' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Irish Eyes' (Irish Eyes Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Marmalade' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Maya' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Moreno' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Prairie Sun' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Rustic Dwarfs Mix' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Sonora' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Toto' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Toto Lemon' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. hirta 'Toto Rustic' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. klamathensis (Klamath Coneflower) · R. laciniata (Cut-Leaf Coneflower) · R. laciniata var. ampla (Green-Head Coneflower) · R. laciniata var. bipinnata (Cutleaf Coneflower) · R. laciniata var. digitata (Cutleaf Coneflower) · R. laciniata var. gaspereauensis (Greenhead Coneflower) · R. laciniata var. humilis (Greenhead Coneflower) · R. laciniata var. laciniata (Cutleaf Coneflower) · R. laciniata 'Goldquelle' (Cutleaf Cone Flower) · R. laciniata 'Gold Drop' (Cut-Leaf Coneflower) · R. laciniata 'Herbstsonne' (Herbstsonne Cutleaf Coneflower) · R. laciniata 'Hortensia' (Cut-Leaf Coneflower) · R. maxima (Cabbage Leaf Coneflower) · R. missouriensis (Missouri Coneflower) · R. mohrii (Mohr's Coneflower) · R. mollis (Softhair Coneflower) · R. montana (Montane Coneflower) · R. nitida (Shining Coneflower) · R. nitida var. nitida (Shiny Coneflower) · R. nitida'Herbstonne' (Autumn Glory) · R. occidentalis (Western Coneflower) · R. occidentalis var. occidentalis (Western Coneflower) · R. occidentalis 'Black Beauty' (Western Coneflower) · R. occidentalis 'Green Wizard' (Black Eyed Susan) · R. purpurea (Eastern Purple Coneflower) · R. scabrifolia (Roughleaf Coneflower) · R. speciosa 'Viette's Little Suzy' (Black-Eyed Susan) · R. subtomentosa (Sweet Black-Eyed Susan) · R. subtomentosa 'Henry Eilers' (Sweet Black-Eyed Susan) · R. texana (Rudbeckia Texana) · R. triloba (Brown-Eyed Susan) · R. triloba var. pinnatiloba (Browneyed Susan) · R. triloba var. rupestris (Browneyed Susan) · R. triloba var. triloba (Browneyed Susan) · R. 'Takao' (Coneflower)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658120
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-12045
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13749218
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:241771-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 416345
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 36783
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: RUSU
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 60784
- Lowell E. Urbatsch, Patricia B. Cox "Rudbeckia". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 43, 44, 45. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Rudbeckia subtomentosa". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 53, 59. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 196.240 meters (643.832 feet), Standard Deviation = 231.030 based on 8,227 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]