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Rubus macraei

(Akala)

Overview

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Common Names

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Common Names in English:

Akala

Description

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Family Rosaceae

Trees , shrubs , or herbs, deciduous or evergreen . Stems erect , scandent , arching , prostrate , or creeping , armed or unarmed . Buds usually with several exposed scales , sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple or compound ; stipules paired , free or adnate to petiole , rarely absent, persistent or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade often serrate at margin , rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate , corymbose , racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic , bisexual , rarely unisexual and then plants dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate . Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed . Stamens usually numerous , rarely few, always in a complete ring at margin of or above disk; filaments usually free, very rarely connate ; anthers small, didymous , rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous , superposed . Styles as many as carpels, terminal , lateral , or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged , usually exalbuminous , very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy and convex abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.

Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.

Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera

Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .

The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. [1]

Genus Rubus

Shrubs or subshrubs , deciduous, rarely evergreen or semievergreen, sometimes perennial creeping dwarf herbs. Stems erect , climbing , arching , or prostrate , glabrous or hairy , usually with prickles or bristles , sometimes with glandular hairs , rarely unarmed . Leaves alternate, petiolate , simple , palmately or pinnately compound , divided or undivided, toothed , glabrous or hairy, sometimes with glandular hairs, bristles, or glands ; stipules persistent , ± adnate to petiole basally, undivided or occasionally lobed , persistent or caducous , near base of petiole or at junction of stem and petiole, free , usually dissected , occasionally entire. Flowers bisexual , rarely unisexual and plants dioecious, in cymose panicles, racemes , or corymbs, or several in clusters or solitary. Calyx expanded, sometimes with a short, broad tube ; sepals persistent, erect or reflexed , (4 or) 5( 8) . Petals usually 5, rarely more, occasionally absent, white, pink, or red, glabrous or hairy, margin entire, rarely premorse. Stamens numerous , sometimes few, inserted at mouth of hypanthium; filaments filiform ; anthers didymous . Carpels many, rarely few, inserted on convex torus, each carpel becoming a drupelet or drupaceous achene; locule 1; ovules 2, only 1 developing, collateral , pendulous; style filiform, subterminal , glabrous or hairy; stigma simple, capitate. Drupelets or drupaceous achenes aggregated on semispherical, conical , or cylindrical torus, forming an aggregate fruit, separating from torus and aggregate hollow, or adnate to torus and falling with torus attached at maturity and aggregate solid; seed pendulous, testa membranous; cotyledons plano-convex .

About 700 species: worldwide, particularly abundant in temperate regions of N hemisphere, a few species extending into S hemisphere; 208 species (139 endemic) in China.[2]

Physical Description

Habit: Shrub

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: Perennial

Taxonomy

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Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 2009

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Rubus

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 366 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

R. aboriginum (Garden Dewberry) · R. aculiferus (Thorny Dewberry) · R. adjacens (Peaty Dewberry) · R. alaskensis (Alaska Blackberry) · R. alceifolius (Giant Bramble) · R. aliceae (Roadside Raspberry) · R. allegheniensis (Allegheny Blackberry) · R. allegheniensis var. allegheniensis (Allegheny Blackberry) · R. alter (Maine Dewberry) · R. alumnus (Oldfield Blackberry) · R. andrewsianus (Andrews' Blackberry) · R. apogaeus (Falling Dewberry) · R. aptatus (Drybank Dewberry) · R. arcticus acaulis (Arctic Blackberry) · R. arcticus stellatus var. stellatus (Alaskan Raspberry) · R. arcuans (Wand Dewberry) · R. arenicola (Sanddwelling Dewberry) · R. argutus (Prickly Florida Blackberry) · R. arizonensis (Arizona Blackberry) · R. armeniacus (Himalayan Blackberry) · R. arvensis (Field Blackberry) · R. audax (Tampa Blackberry) · R. baileyanus (Bailey's Dewberry) · R. bartonianus (Barton's Raspberry) · R. bellobatus (Kittatinny Blackberry) · R. bicknellii (Nantucket Blackberry) · R. biformispinus (Pasture Dewberry) · R. bifrons (Himalayan Berry) · R. bigelovianus (Lowland Blackberry) · R. blanchardianus (Blanchard's Dewberry) · R. boyntonii (Boynton's Dewberry) · R. buergeri 'Variegata' (Variegated Bramble) · R. burnhamii (Burnham's Blackberry) · R. bushii (Bush's Blackberry) · R. caesius (Dewberry) · R. caesius forma mitissimus (European Dewberry) · R. calycinoides (Creeping Bramble) · R. calycinoides 'Emerald Carpet' (Emerald Carpet Creeping Raspberry) · R. canadensis (Smooth Blackberry) · R. canadensis var. micmacorum (Smooth Blackberry) · R. canescens (Tomentose Blackberry) · R. centralis (Illinois Dewberry) · R. chamaemorus (Cloudberry) · R. cockburnianus (White-Stemmed Bramble Rubus Cockburnianus) · R. collinus (Hill Blackberry) · R. conanictuensis (Conanicut Island Blackberry) · R. concameratus (West Virginia Blackberry) · R. coreanus var. tomentosus (Korean Blackberry) · R. cubitans (Sprawling Dewberry) · R. cuneifolius (Sand Blackberry) · R. curtipes (Shortstalk Dewberry) · R. dalibarda (Dewdrop) · R. deamii (Deam's Dewberry) · R. defectionis (Eclipse Blackberry) · R. deliciosus (Delicious Raspberry) · R. densissimus (Morgantown Blackberry) · R. depavitus (Aberdeen Dewberry) · R. discolor (Blackberry) · R. dissimilis (Bristly Oswego Blackberry) · R. doggettii (Blackberry) · R. elegantulus (Showy Blackberry) · R. ellipticus (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. ellipticus f. concolor (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. ellipticus f. laciniatus (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. exeter (Baton Rouge Blackberry) · R. exsularis (Fenceline Dewberry) · R. fecundus (Dc Dewberry) · R. felix (Woodland Dewberry) · R. flagellaris (Dewberry) · R. flavinanus (Windham County Blackberry) · R. floricomus (Manyflower Blackberry) · R. florulentus (Big Blackberry) · R. fraseri (Fraser's Blackberry) · R. fraternalis (Northeastern Dewberry) · R. frondisentis (Leafy Blackberry) · R. frondosus (Yankee Blackberry) · R. fructosa 'Thornless Boysenberry' (Trailing Boysenberry) · R. fruticosus (Bramble) · R. fruticosus 'Loch Maree' (Blackberry 'loch Maree') · R. fryei (Cacapon River Blackberry) · R. furtivus (Openground Dewberry) · R. geniculatus (False Himalayan Berry) · R. glandicaulis (Glandstem Blackberry) · R. glaucifolius (San Diego Raspberry) · R. glaucus (Andes Berry) · R. gnarus (Pollock's Mill Blackberry) · R. grimesii (Grimes' Dewberry) · R. griseus (Loogootee Blackberry) · R. gulosus (New Brunswick Blackberry) · R. hancinianus (Windswept Prairie Dewberry) · R. hanesii (Hanes' Blackberry) · R. harmonicus (Kennebunkport Dewberry) · R. hawaiensis (Hawai'i Blackberry) · R. heterophyllus (Ecotone Blackberry) · R. hispidoides (Bog Dewberry) · R. hispidus (Bristly Dewberry) · R. hispidus var. pervarius (Running Blackberry) · R. huttonii (Hutton's Dewberry) · R. hypolasius (Pineland Dewberry) · R. ictus (Savannah Dewberry)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 30, 2008:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Lu Lingdi (Lu Ling-ti, David E. Boufford "Rubus". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 264, 286,294. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-04-14