Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Xing an Xuan Gou Zi, Ye Sheng Huang Mei, Yun Mei
Common Names in Czech:
Moruka, Ostruiník Moruka
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Bergframboos, Dauwbes, Gele Bosbraam, Gele Framboos, Kruipbraam
Common Names in English:
Cloudberry, Amber-Fruited False Raspberry, Bake-Apple, Bakeapple (Canada), Baked-Apple-Berry, Salmonberry, Yellow Berry, Yellow-Berry
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Finnish:
Hilla, Hillan, Lämpötila Hillan, Lakan, Lakka, Molte, Muurain
Common Names in French:
Chicouté(canada), Chicoutai (Canada), Faux Mûrier, Framboise Ambrée, Framboise Jaune, Mûre Arctique, Mûre Blanche (Canada), Mûre Des Marais, Mûrier Nain, Margot (Canada), Plaquebière (Canada), Ronce Des Tourbières, Ronce Petit-Mûrier
Common Names in German:
Moltebeere, Moltebeeren, Torfbeere, Torfbeeren, Torfbrombeere
Common Names in Greek:
Vatos To Khamaimoro
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Horomu Ichigo, Kura Udo Berii
Common Names in Norwegian:
Molte, Multe, Multebær, Myrbær
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Serbian:
Common Names in Slovak:
Common Names in Spanish:
Romegueró De Torbera (Catalan)
Common Names in Swedish:
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, deciduous, rarely evergreen
or semievergreen, sometimes perennial
herbs. Stems erect
, or prostrate
, usually with prickles or bristles
, sometimes with glandular
, rarely unarmed
. Leaves alternate, petiolate
, palmately or pinnately compound
or undivided, toothed
, glabrous or hairy, sometimes with glandular hairs, bristles, or glands
; stipules persistent
, ± adnate
basally, undivided or occasionally lobed
, persistent or caducous
, near base
of petiole or at junction of stem and petiole, free
, usually dissected
, occasionally entire. Flowers bisexual
, rarely unisexual
dioecious, in cymose
, or corymbs, or several in clusters
or solitary. Calyx expanded, sometimes with a short, broad tube
; sepals persistent, erect or reflexed
, (4 or) 5( 8) . Petals usually 5, rarely more, occasionally absent, white, pink, or red, glabrous or hairy, margin
entire, rarely premorse. Stamens numerous
, sometimes few, inserted
of hypanthium; filaments
. Carpels many, rarely few, inserted on convex
torus, each carpel becoming a drupelet
achene; locule 1; ovules 2, only 1 developing, collateral
, pendulous; style filiform, subterminal
, glabrous or hairy; stigma simple, capitate. Drupelets or drupaceous achenes aggregated on semispherical, conical
, or cylindrical torus, forming an aggregate fruit, separating from torus and aggregate hollow, or adnate to torus and falling with torus attached at maturity and aggregate solid; seed pendulous, testa membranous; cotyledons plano-convex
About 700 species: worldwide, particularly abundant in temperate regions of N hemisphere, a few species extending into S hemisphere; 208 species (139 endemic) in China.
Species Rubus chamaemorus
, 5-30 cm tall, dioecious, with long branched
rhizomes. Stems annual
, somewhat woody, simple
cm tall, with few squamous leaves, pubescent
, with intermixed sparse,
. Leaves simple; petiole
3-6(-9) cm, pubescent
or with sparse, short glandular hairs when young; stipules free
leaflike, brownish, oblong
, 5-10 × 4-7 mm, pubescent, with
sparse, intermixed short glandular hairs when young, glabrescent
cauline leaf blade
, 4-9 cm in diam., abaxially
pubescent, ± with intermixed short glandular hairs when young,
adaxially subglabrous or slightly pilose
, with uneven coarse
, 1-flowered. Pedicel 3.5-6 cm, pubescent, with sparse, intermixed
short glandular hairs. Flowers unisexual
, 2-3 cm in diam., usually
larger than pistillate
, to 3 cm in diam. Calyx abaxially
pubescent, sometimes with intermixed short glandular hairs; tube
1.5-2 mm; sepals erect, spreading
, 4 or 5, oblong, 0.8-1.2 cm ×
4-6 mm, apex obtuse or acute. Petals 4 or 5, white, obovate
cm × 7-10 mm, apex retuse
. Stamens shorter than petals; filaments
, basally somewhat broadened. Pistils abortive
flowers; in pistillate flowers ca.
20; styles linear, long, but stamens
not developed or without anthers
in pistillate flowers. Aggregate
fruit orange-red or becoming yellowish brown, subglobose, ca. 1 cm
in diam., glabrous
; pyrenes smooth
or slightly rugulose
fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 56. [source]
The following taxa have been described from or reported for China, but we have seen no specimens and are therefore unable to treat them in this account. Further revisionary study is necessary. [source]
Rubus calophyllus C. B . Clarke (J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 25: 19. 1889), described from India, reported for Xizang (œTibet) : F. K . Ward 6321. [source]
Rubus chui Handel-Mazzetti (Oesterr. Bot. Z. 90: 121. 1941), described from Sichuan: K. L. Chu 3019; K. L. Chu 3533. [source]
Rubus hiemalis Focke (Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. GenÃ¨ve 20: 105. 1917, not Kuntze, 1879), described from Taiwan: O. Warburg 10161. [source]
Rubus nigricaulis Prochanov (Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 5: 54. 1924), described from Yunnan: A. Henry s.n. [source]
Rubus parapungens H. Hara (Bull . Univ. Mus. Univ. Tokyo 2: 58. 1971; R. horridulus J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit . India 2: 341. 1878, not P. J. Mueller, 1868; R. pungens CambessÃ¨des var. horridulus H. Hara) : a specimen (at E, not seen) from SE Xizang has been identified as this taxon (Eona Aitken, pers. comm. ). [source]
Rubus pekinensis Focke (Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. GenÃ¨ve 20: 104. 1917), described from Hebei: O. Warburg 6549. [source]
Rubus rectangulifolius Kuntze (Meth. Sp.-Beschr. Rubus, 60, 78. 1879), described from China: G. Staunton s.n. [source]
Rubus sinosudrei H. Léveillé (Bull. Acad. Int. Géogr. Bot. 24: 251. 1914), described from Guizhou: J. Esquirol 3506. [source]
Rubus sweginzowianus Sivers ex Focke (Biblioth. Bot. 17(Heft 72) : 188. 1911), described from Gansu: M. v. Sivers s.n. [source]
Rubus viburnifolius Franchet (Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 1: 63. 1895, not Focke, 1910, nor (Greene) Rydberg, 1913), described from ?NE Yunnan (œTchen-fong-chan) : Delavay s.n. [source]
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub , Forb/herb • Growth Form: Thicket Forming • Shape and Orientation: Semi-Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: Late Spring • Flower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Moderate • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Rapid • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 1.0 • Size: 6-12" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Moderate • Lifespan: Lifespan
Forests , mossy bogs , mossy tundra ..
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,422 meters (0 to 4,665 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: Yes • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: High • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: None • Minimum pH: 4.0 • Maximum pH: 5.2 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intermediate
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: None • Minimum Precipitation: 35 • Maximum Precipitation: 55 • Moisture Use: High
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -38 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 90 • Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Chamaemorus anglica Clus. Ex Greene • Chamaemorus chamaemorus (L.) House • Chamaemorus Hill • Chamaemorus norwegica Clus. Ex Greene • Rubus nubis Gray • Rubus pseudochamaemorus Tolm. • Rubus yessoicus Kuntze
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 2009
Members of the genus Rubus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 366 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
R. aboriginum (Garden Dewberry) · R. aculiferus (Thorny Dewberry) · R. adjacens (Peaty Dewberry) · R. alaskensis (Alaska Blackberry) · R. alceifolius (Giant Bramble) · R. aliceae (Roadside Raspberry) · R. allegheniensis (Allegheny Blackberry) · R. allegheniensis var. allegheniensis (Allegheny Blackberry) · R. alter (Maine Dewberry) · R. alumnus (Oldfield Blackberry) · R. andrewsianus (Andrews' Blackberry) · R. apogaeus (Falling Dewberry) · R. aptatus (Drybank Dewberry) · R. arcticus acaulis (Arctic Blackberry) · R. arcticus stellatus var. stellatus (Alaskan Raspberry) · R. arcuans (Wand Dewberry) · R. arenicola (Sanddwelling Dewberry) · R. argutus (Prickly Florida Blackberry) · R. arizonensis (Arizona Blackberry) · R. armeniacus (Himalayan Blackberry) · R. arvensis (Field Blackberry) · R. audax (Tampa Blackberry) · R. baileyanus (Bailey's Dewberry) · R. bartonianus (Barton's Raspberry) · R. bellobatus (Kittatinny Blackberry) · R. bicknellii (Nantucket Blackberry) · R. biformispinus (Pasture Dewberry) · R. bifrons (Himalayan Berry) · R. bigelovianus (Lowland Blackberry) · R. blanchardianus (Blanchard's Dewberry) · R. boyntonii (Boynton's Dewberry) · R. buergeri 'Variegata' (Variegated Bramble) · R. burnhamii (Burnham's Blackberry) · R. bushii (Bush's Blackberry) · R. caesius (Dewberry) · R. caesius forma mitissimus (European Dewberry) · R. calycinoides (Creeping Bramble) · R. calycinoides 'Emerald Carpet' (Emerald Carpet Creeping Raspberry) · R. canadensis (Smooth Blackberry) · R. canadensis var. micmacorum (Smooth Blackberry) · R. canescens (Tomentose Blackberry) · R. centralis (Illinois Dewberry) · R. chamaemorus (Cloudberry) · R. cockburnianus (White-Stemmed Bramble Rubus Cockburnianus) · R. collinus (Hill Blackberry) · R. conanictuensis (Conanicut Island Blackberry) · R. concameratus (West Virginia Blackberry) · R. coreanus var. tomentosus (Korean Blackberry) · R. cubitans (Sprawling Dewberry) · R. cuneifolius (Sand Blackberry) · R. curtipes (Shortstalk Dewberry) · R. dalibarda (Dewdrop) · R. deamii (Deam's Dewberry) · R. defectionis (Eclipse Blackberry) · R. deliciosus (Delicious Raspberry) · R. densissimus (Morgantown Blackberry) · R. depavitus (Aberdeen Dewberry) · R. discolor (Blackberry) · R. dissimilis (Bristly Oswego Blackberry) · R. doggettii (Blackberry) · R. elegantulus (Showy Blackberry) · R. ellipticus (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. ellipticus f. concolor (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. ellipticus f. laciniatus (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. exeter (Baton Rouge Blackberry) · R. exsularis (Fenceline Dewberry) · R. fecundus (Dc Dewberry) · R. felix (Woodland Dewberry) · R. flagellaris (Dewberry) · R. flavinanus (Windham County Blackberry) · R. floricomus (Manyflower Blackberry) · R. florulentus (Big Blackberry) · R. fraseri (Fraser's Blackberry) · R. fraternalis (Northeastern Dewberry) · R. frondisentis (Leafy Blackberry) · R. frondosus (Yankee Blackberry) · R. fructosa 'Thornless Boysenberry' (Trailing Boysenberry) · R. fruticosus (Bramble) · R. fruticosus 'Loch Maree' (Blackberry 'loch Maree') · R. fryei (Cacapon River Blackberry) · R. furtivus (Openground Dewberry) · R. geniculatus (False Himalayan Berry) · R. glandicaulis (Glandstem Blackberry) · R. glaucifolius (San Diego Raspberry) · R. glaucus (Andes Berry) · R. gnarus (Pollock's Mill Blackberry) · R. grimesii (Grimes' Dewberry) · R. griseus (Loogootee Blackberry) · R. gulosus (New Brunswick Blackberry) · R. hancinianus (Windswept Prairie Dewberry) · R. hanesii (Hanes' Blackberry) · R. harmonicus (Kennebunkport Dewberry) · R. hawaiensis (Hawai'i Blackberry) · R. heterophyllus (Ecotone Blackberry) · R. hispidoides (Bog Dewberry) · R. hispidus (Bristly Dewberry) · R. hispidus var. pervarius (Running Blackberry) · R. huttonii (Hutton's Dewberry) · R. hypolasius (Pineland Dewberry) · R. ictus (Savannah Dewberry)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 29, 2008:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- Institute of Dendrology PAS, Institute of Dendrology PAS, Flora of Sudety Mountains
- Institute of Nature Conservation PAS, National System of Proetcted Areas
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular plant data for Scottish Vice-counties
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2650020
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-6
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:735781-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 32286
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 24850
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: RUCH
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 60549
- Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Lu Lingdi (Lu Ling-ti, David E. Boufford "Rubus". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 264, 286,294. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Rubus". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 285. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 438.300 meters (1,437.992 feet), Standard Deviation = 356.100 based on 8,454 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]