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Rubus chamaemorus

(Cloudberry)

Overview

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Interesting Facts

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Chinese:

Xing an Xuan Gou Zi, Ye Sheng Huang Mei, Yun Mei

Common Names in Czech:

Moruka, Ostruiník Moruka

Common Names in Danish:

Multebær

Common Names in Dutch:

Bergframboos, Dauwbes, Gele Bosbraam, Gele Framboos, Kruipbraam

Common Names in English:

Cloudberry, Amber-Fruited False Raspberry, Bake-Apple, Bakeapple (Canada), Baked-Apple-Berry, Salmonberry, Yellow Berry, Yellow-Berry

Common Names in Estonian:

Rabamuraka, Rabamurakas

Common Names in Finnish:

Hilla, Hillan, Lämpötila Hillan, Lakan, Lakka, Molte, Muurain

Common Names in French:

Chicouté(canada), Chicoutai (Canada), Faux Mûrier, Framboise Ambrée, Framboise Jaune, Mûre Arctique, Mûre Blanche (Canada), Mûre Des Marais, Mûrier Nain, Margot (Canada), Plaquebière (Canada), Ronce Des Tourbières, Ronce Petit-Mûrier

Common Names in German:

Moltebeere, Moltebeeren, Torfbeere, Torfbeeren, Torfbrombeere

Common Names in Greek:

Vatos To Khamaimoro

Common Names in Hungarian:

Törpemálna

Common Names in Italian:

Mora Artica

Common Names in Japanese:

Horomu Ichigo, Kura Udo Berii

Common Names in Norwegian:

Molte, Multe, Multebær, Myrbær

Common Names in Polish:

Malina Moroszka

Common Names in Portuguese:

Amora-Branca-Silvestre, Framboesa-Amarela

Common Names in Russian:

M Moroshka

Common Names in Serbian:

Movarna Jagoda

Common Names in Slovak:

Ostruina Moruka

Common Names in Spanish:

Romegueró De Torbera (Catalan)

Common Names in Swedish:

Hjortron

Description

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Family Rosaceae

Trees , shrubs , or herbs, deciduous or evergreen . Stems erect , scandent , arching , prostrate , or creeping , armed or unarmed . Buds usually with several exposed scales , sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple or compound ; stipules paired , free or adnate to petiole , rarely absent, persistent or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade often serrate at margin , rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate , corymbose , racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic , bisexual , rarely unisexual and then plants dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate . Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed . Stamens usually numerous , rarely few, always in a complete ring at margin of or above disk; filaments usually free, very rarely connate ; anthers small, didymous , rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous , superposed . Styles as many as carpels, terminal , lateral , or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged , usually exalbuminous , very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy and convex abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.

Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.

Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera

Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .

The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. [1]

Genus Rubus

Shrubs or subshrubs , deciduous, rarely evergreen or semievergreen, sometimes perennial creeping dwarf herbs. Stems erect , climbing , arching , or prostrate , glabrous or hairy , usually with prickles or bristles , sometimes with glandular hairs , rarely unarmed . Leaves alternate, petiolate , simple , palmately or pinnately compound , divided or undivided, toothed , glabrous or hairy, sometimes with glandular hairs, bristles, or glands ; stipules persistent , ± adnate to petiole basally, undivided or occasionally lobed , persistent or caducous , near base of petiole or at junction of stem and petiole, free , usually dissected , occasionally entire. Flowers bisexual , rarely unisexual and plants dioecious, in cymose panicles, racemes , or corymbs, or several in clusters or solitary. Calyx expanded, sometimes with a short, broad tube ; sepals persistent, erect or reflexed , (4 or) 5( 8) . Petals usually 5, rarely more, occasionally absent, white, pink, or red, glabrous or hairy, margin entire, rarely premorse. Stamens numerous , sometimes few, inserted at mouth of hypanthium; filaments filiform ; anthers didymous . Carpels many, rarely few, inserted on convex torus, each carpel becoming a drupelet or drupaceous achene; locule 1; ovules 2, only 1 developing, collateral , pendulous; style filiform, subterminal , glabrous or hairy; stigma simple, capitate. Drupelets or drupaceous achenes aggregated on semispherical, conical , or cylindrical torus, forming an aggregate fruit, separating from torus and aggregate hollow, or adnate to torus and falling with torus attached at maturity and aggregate solid; seed pendulous, testa membranous; cotyledons plano-convex .

About 700 species: worldwide, particularly abundant in temperate regions of N hemisphere, a few species extending into S hemisphere; 208 species (139 endemic) in China.[2]

Physical Description

Species Rubus chamaemorus

Herbs perennial , dwarf , 5-30 cm tall, dioecious, with long branched creeping rhizomes. Stems annual , somewhat woody, simple , erect , 30 cm tall, with few squamous leaves, pubescent , with intermixed sparse, short glandular hairs . Leaves simple; petiole 3-6(-9) cm, pubescent or with sparse, short glandular hairs when young; stipules free , leaflike, brownish, oblong , 5-10 × 4-7 mm, pubescent, with sparse, intermixed short glandular hairs when young, glabrescent ; cauline leaf blade reniform or orbicular , 4-9 cm in diam., abaxially pubescent, ± with intermixed short glandular hairs when young, adaxially subglabrous or slightly pilose , base cordate, margin 5-7-lobed; lobes obtuse , with uneven coarse sharp serrations . Inflorescences terminal , 1-flowered. Pedicel 3.5-6 cm, pubescent, with sparse, intermixed short glandular hairs. Flowers unisexual , 2-3 cm in diam., usually staminate larger than pistillate , to 3 cm in diam. Calyx abaxially pubescent, sometimes with intermixed short glandular hairs; tube 1.5-2 mm; sepals erect, spreading , 4 or 5, oblong, 0.8-1.2 cm × 4-6 mm, apex obtuse or acute. Petals 4 or 5, white, obovate , 1.4-1.8 cm × 7-10 mm, apex retuse . Stamens shorter than petals; filaments long, linear , basally somewhat broadened. Pistils abortive in staminate flowers; in pistillate flowers ca. 20; styles linear, long, but stamens not developed or without anthers in pistillate flowers. Aggregate fruit orange-red or becoming yellowish brown, subglobose, ca. 1 cm in diam., glabrous ; pyrenes smooth or slightly rugulose . Fl. May-Jul, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 56. [source]

The following taxa have been described from or reported for China, but we have seen no specimens and are therefore unable to treat them in this account. Further revisionary study is necessary. [source]

Rubus calophyllus C. B . Clarke (J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 25: 19. 1889), described from India, reported for Xizang (œTibet) : F. K . Ward 6321. [source]

Rubus chui Handel-Mazzetti (Oesterr. Bot. Z. 90: 121. 1941), described from Sichuan: K. L. Chu 3019; K. L. Chu 3533. [source]

Rubus hiemalis Focke (Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 20: 105. 1917, not Kuntze, 1879), described from Taiwan: O. Warburg 10161. [source]

Rubus nigricaulis Prochanov (Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 5: 54. 1924), described from Yunnan: A. Henry s.n. [source]

Rubus parapungens H. Hara (Bull . Univ. Mus. Univ. Tokyo 2: 58. 1971; R. horridulus J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit . India 2: 341. 1878, not P. J. Mueller, 1868; R. pungens Cambessèdes var. horridulus H. Hara) : a specimen (at E, not seen) from SE Xizang has been identified as this taxon (Eona Aitken, pers. comm. ). [source]

Rubus pekinensis Focke (Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 20: 104. 1917), described from Hebei: O. Warburg 6549. [source]

Rubus rectangulifolius Kuntze (Meth. Sp.-Beschr. Rubus, 60, 78. 1879), described from China: G. Staunton s.n. [source]

Rubus sinosudrei H. Léveillé (Bull. Acad. Int. Géogr. Bot. 24: 251. 1914), described from Guizhou: J. Esquirol 3506. [source]

Rubus sweginzowianus Sivers ex Focke (Biblioth. Bot. 17(Heft 72) : 188. 1911), described from Gansu: M. v. Sivers s.n. [source]

Rubus viburnifolius Franchet (Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 1: 63. 1895, not Focke, 1910, nor (Greene) Rydberg, 1913), described from ?NE Yunnan (œTchen-fong-chan) : Delavay s.n. [source]

Habit: Subshrub , Shrub , Forb/herbGrowth Form: Thicket Forming • Shape and Orientation: Semi-Erect

Flowers: Bloom Period: Late SpringFlower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: Yes

Seeds: Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes

Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Moderate • Foliage Texture: CoarseFall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No

Size/Age/Growth

Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Rapid • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 1.0 • Size: 6-12" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Moderate • Lifespan: Lifespan

Habitat

Forests , mossy bogs , mossy tundra .[3].

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,422 meters (0 to 4,665 feet).[4]

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: PerennialCoppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: Yes • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No

Growth

Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: High • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: None • Minimum pH: 4.0 • Maximum pH: 5.2 • Fertility Requirement: Medium

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intermediate

Moisture: Drought Tolerance: None • Minimum Precipitation: 35 • Maximum Precipitation: 55 • Moisture Use: High

Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -38 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 90 • Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Chamaemorus anglica Clus. Ex Greene • Chamaemorus chamaemorus (L.) House • Chamaemorus Hill • Chamaemorus norwegica Clus. Ex Greene • Rubus nubis Gray • Rubus pseudochamaemorus Tolm. • Rubus yessoicus Kuntze

Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 2009

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Rubus

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 366 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

R. aboriginum (Garden Dewberry) · R. aculiferus (Thorny Dewberry) · R. adjacens (Peaty Dewberry) · R. alaskensis (Alaska Blackberry) · R. alceifolius (Giant Bramble) · R. aliceae (Roadside Raspberry) · R. allegheniensis (Allegheny Blackberry) · R. allegheniensis var. allegheniensis (Allegheny Blackberry) · R. alter (Maine Dewberry) · R. alumnus (Oldfield Blackberry) · R. andrewsianus (Andrews' Blackberry) · R. apogaeus (Falling Dewberry) · R. aptatus (Drybank Dewberry) · R. arcticus acaulis (Arctic Blackberry) · R. arcticus stellatus var. stellatus (Alaskan Raspberry) · R. arcuans (Wand Dewberry) · R. arenicola (Sanddwelling Dewberry) · R. argutus (Prickly Florida Blackberry) · R. arizonensis (Arizona Blackberry) · R. armeniacus (Himalayan Blackberry) · R. arvensis (Field Blackberry) · R. audax (Tampa Blackberry) · R. baileyanus (Bailey's Dewberry) · R. bartonianus (Barton's Raspberry) · R. bellobatus (Kittatinny Blackberry) · R. bicknellii (Nantucket Blackberry) · R. biformispinus (Pasture Dewberry) · R. bifrons (Himalayan Berry) · R. bigelovianus (Lowland Blackberry) · R. blanchardianus (Blanchard's Dewberry) · R. boyntonii (Boynton's Dewberry) · R. buergeri 'Variegata' (Variegated Bramble) · R. burnhamii (Burnham's Blackberry) · R. bushii (Bush's Blackberry) · R. caesius (Dewberry) · R. caesius forma mitissimus (European Dewberry) · R. calycinoides (Creeping Bramble) · R. calycinoides 'Emerald Carpet' (Emerald Carpet Creeping Raspberry) · R. canadensis (Smooth Blackberry) · R. canadensis var. micmacorum (Smooth Blackberry) · R. canescens (Tomentose Blackberry) · R. centralis (Illinois Dewberry) · R. chamaemorus (Cloudberry) · R. cockburnianus (White-Stemmed Bramble Rubus Cockburnianus) · R. collinus (Hill Blackberry) · R. conanictuensis (Conanicut Island Blackberry) · R. concameratus (West Virginia Blackberry) · R. coreanus var. tomentosus (Korean Blackberry) · R. cubitans (Sprawling Dewberry) · R. cuneifolius (Sand Blackberry) · R. curtipes (Shortstalk Dewberry) · R. dalibarda (Dewdrop) · R. deamii (Deam's Dewberry) · R. defectionis (Eclipse Blackberry) · R. deliciosus (Delicious Raspberry) · R. densissimus (Morgantown Blackberry) · R. depavitus (Aberdeen Dewberry) · R. discolor (Blackberry) · R. dissimilis (Bristly Oswego Blackberry) · R. doggettii (Blackberry) · R. elegantulus (Showy Blackberry) · R. ellipticus (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. ellipticus f. concolor (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. ellipticus f. laciniatus (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. exeter (Baton Rouge Blackberry) · R. exsularis (Fenceline Dewberry) · R. fecundus (Dc Dewberry) · R. felix (Woodland Dewberry) · R. flagellaris (Dewberry) · R. flavinanus (Windham County Blackberry) · R. floricomus (Manyflower Blackberry) · R. florulentus (Big Blackberry) · R. fraseri (Fraser's Blackberry) · R. fraternalis (Northeastern Dewberry) · R. frondisentis (Leafy Blackberry) · R. frondosus (Yankee Blackberry) · R. fructosa 'Thornless Boysenberry' (Trailing Boysenberry) · R. fruticosus (Bramble) · R. fruticosus 'Loch Maree' (Blackberry 'loch Maree') · R. fryei (Cacapon River Blackberry) · R. furtivus (Openground Dewberry) · R. geniculatus (False Himalayan Berry) · R. glandicaulis (Glandstem Blackberry) · R. glaucifolius (San Diego Raspberry) · R. glaucus (Andes Berry) · R. gnarus (Pollock's Mill Blackberry) · R. grimesii (Grimes' Dewberry) · R. griseus (Loogootee Blackberry) · R. gulosus (New Brunswick Blackberry) · R. hancinianus (Windswept Prairie Dewberry) · R. hanesii (Hanes' Blackberry) · R. harmonicus (Kennebunkport Dewberry) · R. hawaiensis (Hawai'i Blackberry) · R. heterophyllus (Ecotone Blackberry) · R. hispidoides (Bog Dewberry) · R. hispidus (Bristly Dewberry) · R. hispidus var. pervarius (Running Blackberry) · R. huttonii (Hutton's Dewberry) · R. hypolasius (Pineland Dewberry) · R. ictus (Savannah Dewberry)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 29, 2008:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Lu Lingdi (Lu Ling-ti, David E. Boufford "Rubus". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 264, 286,294. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. "Rubus". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 285. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  4. Mean = 438.300 meters (1,437.992 feet), Standard Deviation = 356.100 based on 8,454 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-04-14