Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Bulgarian:
Common Names in Chinese:
Fu Pen Zi, Fu Pen Zi (Taiwan), Shan Mei
Common Names in Czech:
Maliník Obecný, Malina, Ostruiník Maliník
Common Names in Danish:
Almindelig Hindbær, Hindbær, Hindbærbusk (Plant)
Common Names in Dutch:
Framboos, Frambozenstruik (Plant)
Common Names in English:
American Red Raspberry, Canby Red Raspberry, Common Red Raspberry, European Raspberry, European Red Raspberry, Indian Summer Raspberry, Raspberry, Raspberry Bush, Red Raspberry, Red Raspberry Rubus Idaeus, Western Red Raspberry
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Finnish:
Vaapukka, Vadelma, Vattu
Common Names in French:
Framboise, Framboise (Fruit), Framboisier, Framboisier (Plant), Ronce De L´ida (Plant)
Common Names in German:
Himbeere, Himbeerstrauch (Plant)
Common Names in Greek:
Smeura (Fruit-Plur), Vatómouro (Fruit-Sing), Vatomouriá (Plant), Vatomura (Fruit-Plur), Zméouro (Fruit -Sing), Zmeouriá (Plant)
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Hindi:
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Italian:
Amponello, Frambosa, Lampone, Lampone Rosso, Malina, Rovo Ideo
Common Names in Japanese:
Ezo-Ichigo, Ki Ichigo, Razuberi, Razuberii, Reddo Razuberii, Yezo Ichigo, Yezo-Ichigo
Common Names in Korean:
Na Mu Ddal Gi
Common Names in Portuguese:
Framboesa, Framboesa Comum (Fruit), Framboeseira, Framboeseiro Comum (Plant)
Common Names in Romanian:
Zmeur (Fruit), Zmeur (Plant)
Common Names in Russian:
M Malina Obyknovennaia, Malina Obyknovennaja, малина обыкновенная
Common Names in Sanskrit:
Common Names in Spanish:
Chordón, Frambuesa (Fruit), Frambueso, Frambueso (Plant), Frutilla De La India (Mexico)
Common Names in Swedish:
Hallon (Fruit), Hallonbuske (Plant), Hallonsnår (Plant)
Common Names in Ukrainian:
Common Names in Vietnamese:
Cây Mâm Xôi (Canes), Qu Mâm Xôi (Fruit)
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, deciduous, rarely evergreen
or semievergreen, sometimes perennial
herbs. Stems erect
, or prostrate
, usually with prickles or bristles
, sometimes with glandular
, rarely unarmed
. Leaves alternate, petiolate
, palmately or pinnately compound
or undivided, toothed
, glabrous or hairy, sometimes with glandular hairs, bristles, or glands
; stipules persistent
, ± adnate
basally, undivided or occasionally lobed
, persistent or caducous
, near base
of petiole or at junction of stem and petiole, free
, usually dissected
, occasionally entire. Flowers bisexual
, rarely unisexual
dioecious, in cymose
, or corymbs, or several in clusters
or solitary. Calyx expanded, sometimes with a short, broad tube
; sepals persistent, erect or reflexed
, (4 or) 5( 8) . Petals usually 5, rarely more, occasionally absent, white, pink, or red, glabrous or hairy, margin
entire, rarely premorse. Stamens numerous
, sometimes few, inserted
of hypanthium; filaments
. Carpels many, rarely few, inserted on convex
torus, each carpel becoming a drupelet
achene; locule 1; ovules 2, only 1 developing, collateral
, pendulous; style filiform, subterminal
, glabrous or hairy; stigma simple, capitate. Drupelets or drupaceous achenes aggregated on semispherical, conical
, or cylindrical torus, forming an aggregate fruit, separating from torus and aggregate hollow, or adnate to torus and falling with torus attached at maturity and aggregate solid; seed pendulous, testa membranous; cotyledons plano-convex
About 700 species: worldwide, particularly abundant in temperate regions of N hemisphere, a few species extending into S hemisphere; 208 species (139 endemic) in China.
Species Rubus idaeus
Shrubs 1-2 m tall. Branchlets brown or reddish brown, terete , sparsely tomentose when young, with sparse prickles, without stalked glands . Leaves imparipinnate , 5-7-foliolate, rarely 3-foliolate; petiole 3-6 cm, petiolule of terminal leaflet ca. 1 cm, petiolule and rachis tomentose, with sparse, minute prickles, without glandular hairs ; stipules linear , pubescent ; blade of leaflets narrowly ovate or elliptic , often ovate on terminal leaflet, 3-8 × 1.5-4.5 cm, abaxially densely tomentose, adaxially glabrous or pilose , base rounded , sometimes subcordate on terminal leaflet, margin unevenly coarsely serrate or doubly serrate, sometimes lobed on terminal leaflet, apex shortly acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, short racemes , rarely several flowers in clusters in leaf axils ; rachis, pedicels, and abaxial surface of calyx densely tomentose, with dense or sparse, needle-like prickles, without glandular hairs; bracts linear, soft hairy . Pedicel 1-2 cm. Flowers 1-1.5 cm in diam. Sepals erect , ovate-lanceolate, margin gray tomentose, apex caudate . Petals white, spatulate , puberulous or glabrous, base broadly clawed. Stamens many, shorter than petals; filaments broadened and flattened. Pistils shorter than stamens; ovary and base of style densely gray tomentose. Aggregate fruit red or orange, subglobose, 1-1.4 cm in diam. densely shortly tomentose; pyrenes prominently pitted . 2n = 14*. [source]
Habit: Erect • Growth Form: Multiple Stem • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: March. • Flower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: Small saucer-shaped flowers
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 384000 • Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Bright green, crinkled , toother, lobed leaves • Foliage Shape: Ovate • Foliage Color: Green • Normal foliage color: Green • Underside foliage: Green • Juvenile foliage: Green • Mature foliage: Green • New foliage: Green • Spring foliage: Green • Summer foliage: Green • Fall foliage: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Summer • Growth Rate: Fast Growing • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: None • Mature Height (feet): 7.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 7 • Size: 18-24" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Rapid • Lifespan: Lifespan
Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Feed with a commercial fertilizer before new growth begins in spring . Train one-year-old canes on trellis, prune canes that have fruited.
Forests , forest margins, thickets, valleys, slopes , meadows, roadsides, waste places; 500--2500 m. .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,632 meters (0 to 11,916 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: Yes • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: Yes • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Low • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 6.5 • Fertility Requirement: High
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High • Minimum Precipitation: 16 • Maximum Precipitation: 33 • Moisture Use: Low • Water Requirements: Water regularly, when top 3" of soil is dry.
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -39 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 128 • Heat Zones: High: 8 (>90 to 120 days) Low:1 (< 1 days) (map) • Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Rosaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Rose Family
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Batidaea idaea (L.) Greene • Batidaea strigosa itascica Greene • Batidaea vulgaris Nieuwl. • Rubus frambaesianus Lam.
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Rubus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 366 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
R. aboriginum (Garden Dewberry) · R. aculiferus (Thorny Dewberry) · R. adjacens (Peaty Dewberry) · R. alaskensis (Alaska Blackberry) · R. alceifolius (Giant Bramble) · R. aliceae (Roadside Raspberry) · R. allegheniensis (Allegheny Blackberry) · R. allegheniensis var. allegheniensis (Allegheny Blackberry) · R. alter (Maine Dewberry) · R. alumnus (Oldfield Blackberry) · R. andrewsianus (Andrews' Blackberry) · R. apogaeus (Falling Dewberry) · R. aptatus (Drybank Dewberry) · R. arcticus acaulis (Arctic Blackberry) · R. arcticus stellatus var. stellatus (Alaskan Raspberry) · R. arcuans (Wand Dewberry) · R. arenicola (Sanddwelling Dewberry) · R. argutus (Prickly Florida Blackberry) · R. arizonensis (Arizona Blackberry) · R. armeniacus (Himalayan Blackberry) · R. arvensis (Field Blackberry) · R. audax (Tampa Blackberry) · R. baileyanus (Bailey's Dewberry) · R. bartonianus (Barton's Raspberry) · R. bellobatus (Kittatinny Blackberry) · R. bicknellii (Nantucket Blackberry) · R. biformispinus (Pasture Dewberry) · R. bifrons (Himalayan Berry) · R. bigelovianus (Lowland Blackberry) · R. blanchardianus (Blanchard's Dewberry) · R. boyntonii (Boynton's Dewberry) · R. buergeri 'Variegata' (Variegated Bramble) · R. burnhamii (Burnham's Blackberry) · R. bushii (Bush's Blackberry) · R. caesius (Dewberry) · R. caesius forma mitissimus (European Dewberry) · R. calycinoides (Creeping Bramble) · R. calycinoides 'Emerald Carpet' (Emerald Carpet Creeping Raspberry) · R. canadensis (Smooth Blackberry) · R. canadensis var. micmacorum (Smooth Blackberry) · R. canescens (Tomentose Blackberry) · R. centralis (Illinois Dewberry) · R. chamaemorus (Cloudberry) · R. cockburnianus (White-Stemmed Bramble Rubus Cockburnianus) · R. collinus (Hill Blackberry) · R. conanictuensis (Conanicut Island Blackberry) · R. concameratus (West Virginia Blackberry) · R. coreanus var. tomentosus (Korean Blackberry) · R. cubitans (Sprawling Dewberry) · R. cuneifolius (Sand Blackberry) · R. curtipes (Shortstalk Dewberry) · R. dalibarda (Dewdrop) · R. deamii (Deam's Dewberry) · R. defectionis (Eclipse Blackberry) · R. deliciosus (Delicious Raspberry) · R. densissimus (Morgantown Blackberry) · R. depavitus (Aberdeen Dewberry) · R. discolor (Blackberry) · R. dissimilis (Bristly Oswego Blackberry) · R. doggettii (Blackberry) · R. elegantulus (Showy Blackberry) · R. ellipticus (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. ellipticus f. concolor (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. ellipticus f. laciniatus (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry) · R. exeter (Baton Rouge Blackberry) · R. exsularis (Fenceline Dewberry) · R. fecundus (Dc Dewberry) · R. felix (Woodland Dewberry) · R. flagellaris (Dewberry) · R. flavinanus (Windham County Blackberry) · R. floricomus (Manyflower Blackberry) · R. florulentus (Big Blackberry) · R. fraseri (Fraser's Blackberry) · R. fraternalis (Northeastern Dewberry) · R. frondisentis (Leafy Blackberry) · R. frondosus (Yankee Blackberry) · R. fructosa 'Thornless Boysenberry' (Trailing Boysenberry) · R. fruticosus (Bramble) · R. fruticosus 'Loch Maree' (Blackberry 'loch Maree') · R. fryei (Cacapon River Blackberry) · R. furtivus (Openground Dewberry) · R. geniculatus (False Himalayan Berry) · R. glandicaulis (Glandstem Blackberry) · R. glaucifolius (San Diego Raspberry) · R. glaucus (Andes Berry) · R. gnarus (Pollock's Mill Blackberry) · R. grimesii (Grimes' Dewberry) · R. griseus (Loogootee Blackberry) · R. gulosus (New Brunswick Blackberry) · R. hancinianus (Windswept Prairie Dewberry) · R. hanesii (Hanes' Blackberry) · R. harmonicus (Kennebunkport Dewberry) · R. hawaiensis (Hawai'i Blackberry) · R. heterophyllus (Ecotone Blackberry) · R. hispidoides (Bog Dewberry) · R. hispidus (Bristly Dewberry) · R. hispidus var. pervarius (Running Blackberry) · R. huttonii (Hutton's Dewberry) · R. hypolasius (Pineland Dewberry) · R. ictus (Savannah Dewberry)
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- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 2911, p. 3028.
- The translocation of solutes in plants: a critical consideration of evidence bearing upon solute movement / by Otis F. Curtis. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1935. url p. 138.
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- Tracts relative to botany, tr. from different languages. Illustrated by nine copper plates, and occasional remarks. London, Printed by Phillips and Fardon [etc.]1805. url p. 70.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 29, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Observations du Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien.
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- GBIF-Spain, Aranzadi Zientzi Elkartea
- GBIF-Spain, Botánica, Universidad de León: LEB-Cormo
- GBIF-Spain, CIBIO, Alicante:ABH-GBIF
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Jardi Botanic de Valencia: VAL
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Univ. Herbarium SALAMANCA: SALA
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Extremadura, UNEX
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas: FCO
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad del País Vasco/EHU, Bilbao: Herbario BIO
- GBIF-Spain, Universitat de Girona: HGI-Cormophyta
- Herbario SANT, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, SANT herbarium vascular plant collection
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), EURISCO
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Colorado Museum, Zoological specimens
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2650092
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-20669
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 5304283
- GRIN Nomen Number: 32348
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 24947
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: RUSTC2 RUI
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 60589
- Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Lu Lingdi (Lu Ling-ti, David E. Boufford "Rubus". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 264, 286,294. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Rubus". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 208. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 275.130 meters (902.657 feet), Standard Deviation = 347.460 based on 20,000 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]