One of the easiest shrubs to identify throughout the year, smooth sumac has a spreading , open form growing up to 15 feet tall. Tiny green flowers in the spring are insignificant, but are later replaced by large cones of crimson berries that remain throughout the winter. Leaves are alternate, compound and turn a beautiful scarlet in the fall . Buds are small, covered with brown hair and borne on fat, hairless twigs . Bark on older wood is smooth and grey to brown.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in English:
Smooth Sumac, Red Sumac, Scarlet Sumac, Scarlet Sumach, Smooth Sumach, Vinegar-Bush, Vinegar-Tree
Common Names in French:
Polygamous or dioecious trees
, usually sapiferous; sap
often irritant. Leaves compound
. Flowers small, greenish, in axillary
panicles. Calyx persistent
, 4-6-lobed; lobes
imbricate. Petals 4-6, spreading
. Disk present. Stamens as many as or twice the number of petals; anthers
, imperfect in the female flowers. Ovary unilocular
; styles 3, usually free
. Drupe small and dry.
Commonly known as sumacs. A genus of 250 species occurring in the warm temperate and subtropical regions of both the hemispheres. Represented in Pakistan by 7 species, 4 of which are native .
ID Features: No pubescence on stems. Leaf scar encircles buds. Greenish yellow flowers. Red fruit spikes. Alternate pinnately compound leaves. Stout stems.
Habit: A deciduous large shrub or small tree that grows in colonies.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Odd-pinnately compound leaves. 12" top 18" long. 11 to 31 leaflets . Lanceolate leaflet shape. Leaflets , 2" to 5" long. Serrated leaf margins. Dark green leaf color. Red rachis. • Fall foliage: Yellow, red or orange fall color. Very showy.
Growth Rate: Moderate. • Size: 10' to 15' high, equally as wide.
Landscape Uses: Massing or groupings. Highway buffer . Woods edge . Naturalistic areas. Bank covers . • Liabilities: Verticillium Wilt. Aphids, scales , rusts and mites .
Hardy to zone 3.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,998 meters (0 to 9,836 feet).
Culture: Easily transplanted. Soil adaptable. Suckers . Full sun to partial shade.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Rhus calophylla Greene • Rhus glabra var. laciniata Carr. • Rhus glabra var. occidentalis Torr.
Publishing author : L.
Members of the genus Rhus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 46 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
R. aromatica (Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica var. arenaria (Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica var. aromatica (Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica var. serotina (Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica 'Gro-low' (Gro-Low Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica 'Grow-Low' (Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica 'Konza' (Konza Fragrant Sumac) · R. ashei (Ash's Sumac) · R. chinensis (Chinese Sumac) · R. copallina (Dwarf Sumac) · R. copallina copallina (Mountain Sumach) · R. copallina leucantha (Southern Sumac) · R. copallinum (Flameleaf Sumac) · R. copallinum var. copallinum (Flameleaf Sumac) · R. copallinum var. latifolia (Winged Sumac) · R. copallinum var. leucantha (Winged Sumac) · R. coriaria (Elm-Leaved Sumac) · R. crenata (Dune Crowberry) · R. glabra (Smooth Sumac) · R. glabra 'Laciniata' (Cutleaf Staghorn Sumac) · R. glauca (Gray-Green Taaibos) · R. hirta (Staghorn Sumac) · R. integrifolia (Lemonade Berry) · R. kearneyi (Desert Sumac) · R. lancea (African Sumac) · R. lanceolata (Prairie Sumac) · R. lentii (Pink Flowering Sumac) · R. michauxii (False Poison Sumac) · R. microphylla (Littleleaf Sumac) · R. ovata (Chapparal Sumac) · R. pendulina (River Karee) · R. pulvinata (Pulvinate Sumac) · R. sandwicensis (Neleau) · R. trichocarpa (Japanese Sumac) · R. trilobata (Aromatic Sumac) · R. trilobata var. anisophylla (Smoothleaf Skunkbush) · R. trilobata var. pilosissima (Fragrant Sumacpubescent Skunkbush Sumac) · R. trilobata var. quinata (Grand Canyon Skunkbush) · R. trilobata var. racemulosa (Summer Skunkbush) · R. trilobata var. simplicifolia (Single-Leaf Skunkbush) · R. trilobata var. trilobata (Ill-Scented Sumac) · R. typhina 'Tiger Eyes' (Staghorn Sumac) · R. virens (Evergreen Sumac) · R. virens choriophylla var. choriophylla (Evergreen Sumac) · R. virens var. choriophylla (Evergreen Sumac) · R. virens var. virens (Evergreen Sumac)
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- Guide to the trees and shrubs of Minnesota, MinneapolisUniversity of Minnesota1910 url p. 15.
- Handbook of nature-study for teachers and parents, based on the Cornell nature-study leaflets, Ithaca, N. Y., Comstock Publishing Company, 1911. url .
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url , , , .
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, by Helen R. Albee; illustrated from photographs. New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url , , p. 177, p. 81.
- Henderson's Handbook of plants and general horticulture / By Peter Henderson. New York, P. Henderson & Co., 1910. url p. 371, p. 480.
- Heteroptera, or true bugs of eastern North America, with especial reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida, by W.S. Blatchley. .. Indianapolis, The Nature publishing company, 1926. url p. 182, p. 771.
- Hill prairies of Illinois. Urbana, 1955. url p. 392, p. 396, p. 398, p. 399, p. 401, p. 402, p. 405, p. 432.
- Histology of medicinal plants, New York, J. Wiley & sons, inc.; [etc., etc.]1916 url p. 73.
- Histology of medicinal plants, by William Mansfield. New York, J. Wiley & sons, inc.; [etc., etc.]1916. url p. 73.
- Histology of medicinal plants. New YorkWiley1916 url p. 73.
- History of the vegetable drugs of the Pharmacopeia of the United States / Cincinnati, O.: J. U. & C. G. Lloyd, 1911. url p. 70.
- House & garden's book of gardens; containing over four hundred illustrations of special flower types, plans and suggestions for landscape work, a complete gardener's calendar of the year's activities, planting and spraying tables, and New York, C. Nast & Company, 1921. url p. 21.
- How to attract birds in northeastern United States / W. L. McAtee. Washington, D. C.: Govt. Print. Off., 1917. url p. 14.
- How to keep bees for profit, New York, The Macmillan company, 1918. url p. 299, p. 302.
- How to know wild fruits; a guide to plants when not in flower by means of fruit and leaf; by Mary Elisabeth Herbert. New York, Macmillan, 1914. url , p. 339.
- How to make a country place; an account of the successes and the mistakes of an amateur in thirty-five years of farming, building and development: together with a practical plan for securing a home and an independent income, star New York, Orange Judd company; [etc., etc.]1914. url p. 373.
- I. Notes on insects bred from the bark and wood of the American larch. By M. W. Blackman and Harry H. Stage. II. On the insect visitors to the blossoms of wild blackberry and wild spiraea --a study in seasonable distribution. By M. W. Blackman. Syracuse, The University,  url p. 95, p. 96.
- Illinois Natural History Survey bulletin. Champaign, Ill.: The Survey, 1987- url p. 303.
- Illinois River Bluffs area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, [and the] State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1998- url p. 169, p. 183.
- Illinois biological monographs. Urbana, Univ. of Illinois Press. url p. 49, p. 70.
- Illinois wild flowers, by John Voss and Virginia S. Eifert. Springfield,  url p. 241, p. 98.
- Illustrated key to the wild and commonly cultivated trees of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada; based primarily upon leaf characters, New YorkHolt1912 url p. 122, p. 167.
- Insect galls of Springfield, Massachusetts, and vicinity / by Fannie A. Stebbins. Springfield, Mass.: Springfield Museum of Natural History, 1909. url p. 132, p. 41.
- Insects galls of Springfield, Massachusetts, and vicinity. Springfield, Mass., The Museum, 1909. url p. 132, p. 41.
- Introduction to botany, Boston, Ginn and company[c1914] url .
- Introduction to botany. Boston, Ginn url p. 148.
- Iowa parks. Conservation of Iowa historic, scenic and scientific areas. Also, a description of numerous areas suitable for public state parks, with reasons for their preservation. Report of the State board of con Pub. by the state of Iowa. Des Moines url p. 145, p. 166, p. 57, p. 74.
- Iowa parks. Des Moines url p. 145, p. 166, p. 57, p. 74.
- Iroquois uses of maize and other food plants, by Arthur C. Parker. Albany, University of the state of New York, 1910. url p. 93, p. 96.
- Journal of agricultural research. Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1913-1949.. url , , p. 221, p. 223, p. 225, p. 227, p. 228, p. 229, p. 517, p. 518, p. 522, p. 524.
- Journal of economic entomology. [College Park, Md., etc.]Entomological Society of America [etc.] url .
- Journal of ethnobiology. 18 1998 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 237, p. 238, p. 300, p. 43.
- Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science. Lexington, KY: The Academy, 1998- url p. 130, p. 165, p. 41, p. 59, p. 81, p. 83.
- Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington [etc., Washington Academy of Sciences] url , p. 262.
- Key and flora, northern and central states. Boston, Ginn,  url p. 148.
- Key and flora: northern and central states / Boston: Ginn, 1908. url .
- Key to important woody plants of eastern Oregon and Washington, by Doris W. Hayes and George A. Garrison. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1960. url p. 134, p. 222, p. 225, p. 84.
- Lake Maxinkuckee. A physical and biological survey by Barton Warren Evermann and Howard Walton Clark. [Indianapolis]Dept. of Conservation, State of Indiana [Wm. B. Burford, printer]1920. url p. 353.
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- Landscape garden series, ed. by Ralph Rodney Root. Davenport, Ia.: The Garden Press,  url p. 14, p. 22.
- Lessons with plants. Suggestions for seeing and interpreting some of the common forms of vegetation. New York: Macmillan, 1914[c1907] url .
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url , , , , , , , , p. 11, p. 12, p. 28, p. 36, p. 37, p. 43, p. 57, p. 59.
- Mammals of the Mexican boundary of the United States: a descriptive catalogue of the species of mammals occurring in that region; with a general summary of the natural history, and a list of trees / Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1907. url .
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 810.
- Manual of the trees of North America (exclusive of Mexico) by Charles Sprague Sargent, with seven hundred and eighty-three illustrations from drawings by Charles Edward Faxon and Mary W. Gill. Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin company, 1922. url p. 662, p. 662.
- Memoir / Ithaca, N.Y. url p. 634.
- Michigan bird life, a list of all the bird species known to occur in the state together with an outline of their classification and an account of the life history of each species, wtih special reference to its relation t [Lansing]Michigan Agricultural College, 1912. url .
- Michigan bird life: a list of all the bird species known to occur in the State together with an outline of their classification and an account of the life history of each species, with special reference to its relation t by Walter Bradford Barrows. Lansing: Michigan Agricultural College, 1912. url p. 414.
- Minimum areas for different vegetations, their determination from species-area curves. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1949. url p. 88.
- Minnesota trees and shrubs: an illustrated manual of the native and cultivated woody plants of the State / Frederic E. Clements, C. Otto Rosendahl, Frederic K. Butters. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1912. url p. 230.
- Miscellaneous papers on the botany of Michigan, by C. K. Dodge. Prepared under the direction of Alexander G. Ruthven. Published as a part of the Annual report of the Board of Geological Survey for 1920. Lansing, Mich., Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford, State Printers, 1921. url p. 106, p. 153, p. 201, p. 53, p. 78.
- Miscellaneous publication - University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History. 1957 Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1946-1996. url p. 15, p. 48.
- Miscellaneous publications / University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology. Ann Arbor, Mich.: The University, 1916- url p. 31.
- Morphological studies of the genus Cercospora, Urbana, Ill., 1930 url p. 49, p. 70.
- Museum bulletin / Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 25, p. 70, p. 93, p. 96.
- Nantucket wild flowers / by Alice O. Albertson; illustrated by Anne Hinchman. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1921. url p. 191, p. 191, p. 438, p. 438.
- National Arboretum contribution. Washington, D.C.: The Arboretum: 1953- url p. 28.
- Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, U. S. Govt. print. off., 1938. url , , , p. 228, p. 229, p. 230, p. 231, p. 258.
- Naturalist's guide to the Americas, prepared by the Committee on the Preservation of Natural Conditions of the Ecological Society of America, with assistance from numerous organizations and individuals, assembled and edited by chairman, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1926. url p. 155, p. 155, p. 379, p. 379, p. 456, p. 456.
- Nature's healing arts: from folk medicine to modern drugs / by Lonnelle Aikman; photos. by Nathan Benn and Ira Block; paintings by Tony Chen; prepared by the Special Publications Division. Washington: National Geographic Society, c1977. url p. 196.
- New England trees in winter, by A. F. Blakeslee and C. D. Jarvis. Storrs, Conn.: Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station, 1911. url p. 342, p. 526.
- New York State Museum bulletin. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1916-1944. url p. 32, p. 37, p. 39, p. 80, p. 98.
- New manual of botany of the central Rocky mountains (vascular plants) by John M. Coulter, rev. by Aven Nelson. Cincinnati [etc.]American book company[c1909] url p. 313.
- New manual of botany. A handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, rearr. and extensively rev. by Benjamin Lincoln Robinson and Merritt Lyndon Fernald. New YorkAmerican Book Co.[c1908] url p. 552.
- New or unusual plant injuries and diseases found in Connecticut, 1916-1919 / [New Haven]: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1920. url p. 476.
- North American trees; being descriptions and illustrations of the trees growing independently of cultivation in North America, north of Mexico and the West Indies; with the assistance of John Adolph Shafer. New YorkHolt1908 url p. 608.
- Notes on the distribution and bibliography of North American bees of the families, Apidae, Meliponidae, Bombidae, Euglossidae, and Anthophoridae, New York1920 url p. 511, p. 533.
- Observations on the flowering plants, ferns and fern allies growing wild in Marquette County, Michigan, in 1916 and 1917, especially in the vicinity of the Huron Mountain Club. Ann Arbor, Michigan, Published by the University, 1918. url .
- Occasional papers of the Museum of Natural History, the University of Kansas. 1989 Lawrence, Kan.: The University, 1971-1994. url p. 11, p. 36.
- Official guide to the museums of economic botany. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off., by Darling1907 url p. 54.
- Origin and history of all the pharmacopeial vegetable drugs, chemicals and preparations with bibliography... Prepared under the auspices of and pub. by the American drug manufacturers' association, Washington, D.C. Cincinnati: The Caxton press, [c1921] url p. 271, p. 445.
- Ornamental shrubs of the United States (hardy, cultivated) Cincinnati [etc]American Book Company[c1910] url , .
- Our mountain garden / by Mrs. Theodore Thomas (Rose Fay). .. New York: E.P. Dutton, c1915. url p. 237.
- Our native trees and how to identify them; a popular study of their habits and their peculiarities, New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1917. url .
- Our northern shrubs and how to identify them: a handbook for the nature-lover / New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1922, c1903. url , , , , , , .
- Our trees, how to know them: photographs from nature by Arthur I. Emerson, with a guide to their recognition at any season of the year and notes on their characteristics, distribution, and culture. PhiladelphaiJ.B. Lippincott url p. xix.
- Oxford gardens, based upon Daubeny's Popular guide to the physick garden of Oxford: with notes on the gardens of the colleges and on the University park, by R. T. Günther. Oxford: Parker & son; [etc., etc.], 1912. url p. 64.
- Parks: a manual of municipal and county parks compiled as a result of a nation-wide study of municipal and county parks conducted by the Playground and Recreation Association of America, in co-operation with edited by L.H. Weir. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., 1928. url p. 681, p. 687, p. 688, p. 689, p. 690, p. 691.
- Pennsylvania trees / by J.S. Illick. Harrisburg., Pa.: W. S. Ray, State Printer, 1915. url p. 182, p. 185, p. 65.
- Pennsylvania trees. Harrisburg, Pa.W.S. Ray, State Printer1914 url p. 182, p. 185, p. 65.
- Pharmaceutical botany, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co.[c1914] url .
- Pharmaceutical botany, with glossary of botanical terms. Philadelphia, Blakiston url p. 109, p. 180, p. 356, p. 5.
- Phytologia memoirs. Plainfield, N.J.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, 1980- url p. 375.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 127, p. 269, p. 36, p. 360, p. 38, p. 42, p. 420, p. 44, p. 52, p. 57, p. 60, p. 61, p. 62, p. 63, p. 66, p. 86, p. 92.
- Plant culture; a working hand-book of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse, by George W. Oliver. New York, A. T. De La Mare Printing and Publishing Co., c1912. url , p. 260, p. 260.
- Plant culture; a working handbook of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse, New York, A. T. De La Mare Co., Inc.[c1921] url .
- Plant ecology, by W. B. McDougall. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger url p. 225.
- Plant indicators: the relation of plant communities to process and practice. WashingtonCarnegie Institution of Washington1920 url , p. xiii.
- Plant pest handbook for Connecticut / New Haven: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1933-1934. url p. 167.
- Plants for California landscapes: a catalog of drought tolerant plants. [Sacramento, Calif.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Water Resources,  url p. 71.
- Plants of Iowa; a preliminary list of the native and introduced plants of the state, not under cultivation; comp. by Wesley Greene, secretary. Des Moines, Bishard brothers, printers, 1907. url p. 189, p. 28, p. 28.
- Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns / by E.N. Lowe. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1921. url p. 187, p. 34, p. 40, p. 48.
- Potter's cyclopaedia of botanical drugs and preparations / by R.C. Wren. London: Potter & Clarke,  url p. 274, p.
- Practical plant propagation; an exposition of the art and science of increasing plants as practiced by the nurseryman, florist and gardener, by Alfred C. Hottes. New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc., 1922. url p. 213.
- Practical veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1917. url , , p. 268, p. 514.
- Proceedings - California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 350.
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 350.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia. [s.l.]: Entomological Society of British Columbia. url p. 39.
- Proceedings of the International conference on plant hardiness and acclimatization, 1907, held in the rooms of the American institute of the city of New York and in the Museum building of the New York botanical garden, october 1st to 3rd, 1907. [New York?]c1910. url p. 132.
- Propagation of wild birds; a manual of applied ornithology, treating of practical methods of propagation of quails, grouse, wild turkey, pheasants, partridges, pigeons and doves, and waterfowl, in America, and of attracting and by Herbert K. Job. Illustrated from photographs mostly by the author. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page, 1915. url p. 242, p. 302.
- Proposed estuarine sanctuary grant award to the state of New York for a Hudson River estuarine sanctuary. Albany, N.Y.: New York, Dept. of Environmental Conservation,  url p. 47.
- Quinby's new bee-keeping. The mysteries of bee-keeping explained. Combining the results of fifty years' experience, with the latest discoveries and inventions, and presenting the most approved methods, forming a complete guide New York, Orange Judd company, 1919. url , .
- Rapid ecological assessment of selected state lands in southcentral Montana for plant species of special concern / prepared by James P. Vanderhorst; prepared for Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. 12.
- Report on the progress and condition of the U.S. National Museum for the year ending June 30. .. / Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum. Washington: G.P.O., 1907-1951. url p. 115, p. 115.
- Report, State Entomologist of Minnesota to the Governor. St. Paul, Minn.: Agricultural Experiment Station, url p. 169.
- Resources of southern Alabama: a statistical guide for investors and settlers, with an exposition of some of the principles of economic geography / by Roland M. Harper. University, Ala.: Geological Survey of Alabama, . url p. 32.
- Rock River area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, Natural History Survey Division, in conjunction with State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, IL: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1996- url p. 130, p. 52, p. 77, p. 83.
- Rocky mountain flowers; an illustrated guide for plantlovers and plant-users; with twenty-five plates in color and twenty-one plates in black and white [by] Frederic Edward Clements...and Edith Schwartz Clements... 1914 New York city, the H.W. Wilson company, 1914. url explanation of plate 34.
- Scientific and applied pharmacognosy, intended for the use of students in pharmacy, as a hand book for pharmacists, and as a reference book for food and drug analysts and pharmacologists. New York, Wiley, 1920. url p. 169, p. 402, p. 403.
- Secrets of ornamental planting, comprising "Landscaping simplified, hardy ornamental shrubs and trees", and "The rose garden." Chicago, The Commonwealth Press, c1916 url p. 22.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 482.
- Station bulletin. Durham, N.H.: Agricultural Experiment Station, University of New Hampshire, 1948- url p. 74.
- Students' handbook to accompany Plants and their uses / by Frederick Leroy Sargent. New York: Henry Holt, 1914. url .
- Studies of the vegetation of Missouri. .. / By Julian A. Steyermark. 9 1940 [Chicago, 1940- url p. 397, p. 398, p. 412, p. 417, p. 432, p. 441, p. 454, p. 457, p. 459, p. 460, p. 465, p. 468, p. 470.
- Sturtevant's notes on edible plants / Edited by U.P. Hedrick. Albany: J.B. Lyon, 1919. url p. 493.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url , , p. 34, p. 41, p. 51, p. 54, p. 56, p. 67, p. 72, p. 73, p. 77.
- Taxonomic literature: a selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types (TL2) Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, 1976-1988. url p. 361, p. 362, p. 523, p. 526.
- Technical publication / New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Syracuse, N.Y.: The College, 1914- url p. 62, p. 65, p. 70, p. 95, p. 96.
- Textbook of landscape gardening, designed especially for the use of non-professional students, New York, John Wiley & sons, inc.; [etc., etc.]1922. url .
- The "Illinois way" of beautifying the farm / by Wilhelm Miller. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, 1914. url p. 29.
- The American midland naturalist. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame. url , , p. 106, p. 147, p. 93.
- The Asa Gray bulletin. 1 1952 Ann Arbor, Mich. url p. 151, p. 155, p. 311, p. 377.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 334, p. 458, p. 459, p. 495, p. 527.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. 39 1925 Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url munro , p. 163, p. 168, p. 170, p. 234, p. 329.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921. url p. 682.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 41 1981 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 104, p. 183, p. 190, p. 282, p. 60, p. 736, p. 74.
- The Guide to nature. Stamford, Conn.: Agassiz Association, c1908-1935. url p. 205, p. 262.
- The Indiana weed book, Indianapolis, The Nature publishing company, 1912. url .
- The Indiana weed book, by W. S. Blatchley. Indianapolis: The Nature publishing company, 1912. url p. 94.
- The Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS. Cedar Falls, Iowa: The Academy, 1988- url p. 113, p. 154, p. 181, p. 199.
- The North American cup-fungi (inoperculates) New York, 1951. url p. 306.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 210, p. 284, p. 45.
- The art of landscape architecture, its development and its application to modern landscape gardening, London, G.P. Putnam's sons, 1915. url .
- The bacteriology of diphtheria, including sections on the history, epidemiology and pathology of the disease, the mortality caused by it, the toxins and antitoxins and the serum disease, by F. Loeffler, Arthur Newsholme, F. B. Mallory, G. S. Graham-Smith, George Dean, William H. Park, Charles F. Bolduan. Ed. by G. H. F. Nuttall and G. S. Graham-Smith Cambridge [Eng.]University Press, 1913 url p. 117.
- The biology of flowering plants, by Macgregor Skene. .. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1924. url p. 32, p. 512.
- The book of forestry, by Frederick Franklin Moon. New York [etc.]: D. Appleton and company, 1916. url p. 246.
- The book of hardy flowers; a simple and complete descriptive guide to the cultivation in gardens of the trees and shrubs, perennial and annual flowers, that are hardy, or are suitable for planting out-of-doors in summer in temp Ed. by H. H. Thomas. .. Beautifully illustrated with thirty-two direct color photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke and sixty-four half-tone plates. 1915 New York, Funk & Wagnalls company; [etc., etc.] url p. 377.
- The book of woodcraft and Indian lore, with over 500 drawings by the author, Ernest Thompson Seton. .. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & Company, 1922. url p. 587.
- The book of woodcraft. .. New York, The Sun dial press, inc. url p. 587.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url , , p. 163, p. 163, p. 187, p. 190, p. 207, p. 207, p. 337, p. 337, p. 338, p. 338.
- The complete home landscape, by Arthur J. Jennings, in collaboration with Leonard H. Johnson. New York, A. T. De La Mare, 1924. url p. 121, p. 133, p. 138, p. 139, p. 142, p. 150.
- The conservation of the wild life of Canada / by C. Gordon Hewitt. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1921. url p. 188.
- The drug plants of Illinois / Leo R. Tehon; drawings by Kay H. Wadsworth. Urbana, Ill.: Natural History Survey Division, 1951. url p. 96.
- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url .
- The flora of the town of Southold, Long Island, and Gardiner's Island / New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1914? url p. 204, p. 245, p. 4.
- The garden beautiful; home woods and home landscape, by W. Robinson. .. Illustrated with engravings on wood. London: J. Murray, 1907. url p. 143.
- The handbook for practical farmers, dealing with the more important aspects of farming in the United States, ed. by Hugh Findlay. .. special chapters dealing with farm problems and practices by practical experts in different parts of the United States. .. New York and London, D. Appleton and company, 1920. url p. 418.
- The higher fungi of the Chicago region. By Will Sayer Moffatt. Chicago, Chicago Academy of Sciences, 1909- url p. 144.
- The identification of trees & shrubs; how to recognize, without previous knowledge of botany, wild or garden trees and shrubs native to the north temperate zone, with 2, 500 diagrams made by the author. New York, Dutton url p. 175.
- The landscape gardening book, wherein are set down the simple laws of beauty and utility which should guide the development of all grounds, by Grace Tabor. New York, R. M. McBride, 1916. url p. 20.
- The microanalysis of powdered vegetable drugs, by Albert Schneider. .. with 237 illustrations Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co.[c1921] url , p. 122, p. 125, p. 127, p. 19, p. 24, p. 464, p. 465, p. 466, p. 467.
- The native flora of the vicinity of Cold Spring Harbor, L.I., New York. n.p., 1925 url p. 176, p. 248.
- The natural history and topography of Groton, Massachusetts / by Samuel Abbott Green. .. [Cambridge, J. Wilson and Son]1912-14. url p. 22.
- The natural style in landscape gardening [by] Frank A. Waugh. Boston: R.G. Badger; [etc., etc., c1917] url p. 52, p. 52.
- The parasitic fungi of New Jersey / by Carl A. Schwarze. New Brunswick: New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1917. url p. 140, p. 214.
- The plant life of Maryland, by Forrest Shreve [et al.] Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1910. url p. 159, p. 190, p. 258, p. 452.
- The plants of Michigan; simple keys for the identification of the native seed plants of the state, by Henry Allan Gleason. Ann Arbor, G. Wahr, c1918. url p. 68.
- The plants of Prince Edward Island / Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1985. url p. 190.
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 537.
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 537.
- The ruffed grouse, its life story, ecology and management, by Frank C. Edminster. New York, The Macmillan company, 1947. url p. 129.
- The ruffed grouse; life history, propagation, management, by Gardiner Bump [and others] With 4 paintings in full color by Fred. Everett and 127 sketches by Clayton B. Seagears and Fred. Everett. [Albany?]1947. url p. 912.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 2692, p. 2693, p. 2695, p. 2696, p. 2952, p. 2955.
- The tree book. A popular guide to a knowledge of the trees of North America and to their uses and cultivation. By Julia Ellen Rogers. With sixteen plates in colour and one hundred and sixty in black-and-white from photographs by A. Radclyffe Dugmore. Garden City, New York, Doubleday, Page, 1912. url .
- The tree book: A popular guide to a knowledge of the trees of North America and to their uses and cultivation / New York: Doubleday, Page, 1920. url , .
- The tree book: a popular guide to a knowledge of the trees of North America and to their uses and cultivation / Garden City: Doubleday, Page, 1914. url , .
- The tree book; a popular guide to a knowledge of the trees of North America and to their uses and cultivation, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & Company, 1913. url , .
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx River Bioblitz
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2652271
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-28782
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13286354
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:70565-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 31689
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 28782
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 70565-1
- MoBot NameID: 1300002
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: RHGLO
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 13754
- Yashin J. Nasir "Rhus". in Flora of Pakistan Page 4.. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 315.650 meters (1,035.597 feet), Standard Deviation = 361.920 based on 1,052 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]