- Fragrant Sumac is not poisonous at all, even though it looks a bit like poison ivy, and a name like "Poison Sumac". It does not contain the poisonous oil urushiol that causes the itchy rash in many people. The hairy berries of Fragrant Sumac are bright red in the fall .
Common Names in English:
Fragrant Sumac, Aromatic Sumac, Lemon Sumac, Polecatbush, Skunkbrush, Squawbush, Sweet Sumac, Sweet Sumach
Polygamous or dioecious trees
, usually sapiferous; sap
often irritant. Leaves compound
. Flowers small, greenish, in axillary
panicles. Calyx persistent
, 4-6-lobed; lobes
imbricate. Petals 4-6, spreading
. Disk present. Stamens as many as or twice the number of petals; anthers
, imperfect in the female flowers. Ovary unilocular
; styles 3, usually free
. Drupe small and dry.
Commonly known as sumacs. A genus of 250 species occurring in the warm temperate and subtropical regions of both the hemispheres. Represented in Pakistan by 7 species, 4 of which are native .
ID Features: Trifoliate leaves. Yellow, pubescent buds. Buds are covered by leaf scar.
Flowers: Dioecious. Yellow flowers. Blooms in late March. 1" long catkins (male). Short, terminal panicles (female). • Bloom Period: Mid Spring • Flower Color: chartreuse, pale yellow, yellow, yellow-green • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 49000 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit: Hairy , red drupe. Female plants only. Matures in August. Persists. Borne in terminal panicles. • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Trifoliate , deciduous leaves. Ovate leaf shape. Coarsely toothed . 3" to 5" long. Pubescent . Underside. Glossy dark green. • Fall foliage: Orange to reddish-purple fall color. Showy. • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Slow. • Mature Height (feet): 5.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 5 • Size: to 6'. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Hardy to zone 3.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,647 meters (0 to 8,684 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: Yes • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Transplant from containers . Full sun to mostly shade. Prefers acidic, well-drained soil. Soil adaptable. Suckers .
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: Low • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 5.0 • Maximum pH: 8.0 • Fertility Requirement: Low
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High • Minimum Precipitation: 16 • Maximum Precipitation: 55 • Moisture Use: Low
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -13°F. • Minimum Frost Free Days: 170 • Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Ait. Publication : Hortus Kew. (W. Aiton) 1: 367 1789
Notice that the middle leaflet does not have the long, reddish petiole (stem) that Poison Ivy has.
Members of the genus Rhus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 46 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
R. aromatica (Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica var. arenaria (Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica var. aromatica (Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica var. serotina (Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica 'Gro-low' (Gro-Low Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica 'Grow-Low' (Fragrant Sumac) · R. aromatica 'Konza' (Konza Fragrant Sumac) · R. ashei (Ash's Sumac) · R. chinensis (Chinese Sumac) · R. copallina (Dwarf Sumac) · R. copallina copallina (Mountain Sumach) · R. copallina leucantha (Southern Sumac) · R. copallinum (Flameleaf Sumac) · R. copallinum var. copallinum (Flameleaf Sumac) · R. copallinum var. latifolia (Winged Sumac) · R. copallinum var. leucantha (Winged Sumac) · R. coriaria (Elm-Leaved Sumac) · R. crenata (Dune Crowberry) · R. glabra (Smooth Sumac) · R. glabra 'Laciniata' (Cutleaf Staghorn Sumac) · R. glauca (Gray-Green Taaibos) · R. hirta (Staghorn Sumac) · R. integrifolia (Lemonade Berry) · R. kearneyi (Desert Sumac) · R. lancea (African Sumac) · R. lanceolata (Prairie Sumac) · R. lentii (Pink Flowering Sumac) · R. michauxii (False Poison Sumac) · R. microphylla (Littleleaf Sumac) · R. ovata (Chapparal Sumac) · R. pendulina (River Karee) · R. pulvinata (Pulvinate Sumac) · R. sandwicensis (Neleau) · R. trichocarpa (Japanese Sumac) · R. trilobata (Aromatic Sumac) · R. trilobata var. anisophylla (Smoothleaf Skunkbush) · R. trilobata var. pilosissima (Fragrant Sumacpubescent Skunkbush Sumac) · R. trilobata var. quinata (Grand Canyon Skunkbush) · R. trilobata var. racemulosa (Summer Skunkbush) · R. trilobata var. simplicifolia (Single-Leaf Skunkbush) · R. trilobata var. trilobata (Ill-Scented Sumac) · R. typhina 'Tiger Eyes' (Staghorn Sumac) · R. virens (Evergreen Sumac) · R. virens choriophylla var. choriophylla (Evergreen Sumac) · R. virens var. choriophylla (Evergreen Sumac) · R. virens var. virens (Evergreen Sumac)
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- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed October 13, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- Light, Kris. East Tennessee Wildflowers
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2652270
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-28779
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:70405-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 101780
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 28779
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 70405-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: RHTRS2 RHT
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 11781
- Yashin J. Nasir "Rhus". in Flora of Pakistan Page 4.. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 511.380 meters (1,677.756 feet), Standard Deviation = 522.580 based on 996 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]