Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Creeping Buttercup, Popcorn Plant
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Portuguese:
, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
, from tuberous
, caudices, rhizomes, stolons, or bulbous stem bases
. Leaves basal, cauline, or both, simple
, variously lobed
, or compound
, all petiolate
or distal leaves sessile; cauline leaves alternate (rarely a distal pair opposite in Ranunculus sect. Flammula ) . Leaf blade
, or toothed
. Inflorescences terminal
, 2-50-flowered cymes to 25 cm or solitary flowers; bracts present or absent, small or large and leaflike, not forming involucre. Flowers bisexual
, radially symmetric
; sepals sometimes persistent
in fruit, 3-5(-6), green or sometimes purple, yellow, or white, plane
(base saccate in R . ficaria ), oblong
, or lanceolate, 1-15 mm; petals 0-22(-150), distinct
, yellow, rarely white, red, or green, plane, linear to orbiculate, 1-26 mm; nectary
present, usually covered by scale; stamens (5-) 10-many; filaments
; staminodes absent between stamens and pistils; pistils 4-250, simple; ovule 1 per ovary; style present or absent. Fruits achenes, rarely utricles, aggregate, sessile, discoid
, or cylindric
, sides sometimes veined; beak
present or absent, terminal, straight or curved
, 0-4.5 mm.
= 7, 8.
Species about 300: worldwide except lowland tropics.
Most Ranunculus species are poisonous to stock; when abundant, they may be troublesome to ranchers. A few species with acrid juice were formerly used as vesicatories. The genus is badly in need of biosystematic work. Apomixis and interspecific hybridization occur in several Old World groups of buttercups; some of the taxonomic complexity of the New World species probably results from these processes.
Considerable disagreement exists among authors on the proper generic and infrageneric classification of Ranunculus . Most of the subgenera accepted here have been treated as separate genera at one time or another. All recent studies have been based on local or continental floras , however, and classifications proposed for one region may not work for the plants of other regions. Like most North American workers, I have followed the generic and infrageneric classification of L. D. Benson (1948), who gave by far the most thorough and best documented study of the problem. The genus and its subdivisions should be studied on a worldwide basis.
Species Ranunculus repens
or almost glabrous
not bulbous. Roots
in outline, 3-foliolate, 1-8.5 ×
1.5-10 cm, leaflets
, or parted and again lobed, ultimate
or sometimes narrowly oblong
, apex obtuse
to acuminate. Flowers: receptacle hispid or
rarely glabrous; sepals spreading
from base, 4-7(-10)
× 1.5-3(-4) mm, hispid or sometimes glabrous; petals 5(-150),
yellow, 6-18 × 5-12 mm.
of achenes globose
5-10 × 5-8 mm; achenes 2.6-3.2 × 2-2.8 mm, glabrous,
margin forming narrow rib
0.1-0.2 mm wide; beak
to lance-filiform, curved
, 0.8-1.2 mm. 2 n = 14, 32. [source]
Ranunculus repens is widely naturalized in many parts of the world. Plants with sparse pubescence have been called R. repens var. glabratus. Horticultural forms with the outer stamens transformed into numerous extra petals occasionally become established and have been called R. repens var. pleniflorus. These variants have no taxonomic significance. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, March, April, May, June, July, August. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 6-12" tall.
Meadows, borders of marshes, lawns, roadsides; 0-2500 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,500 meters (0 to 8,202 feet).
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Dumortier, 1829
- Family: Ranunculaceae () - Adans., 1763, nom. cons. - boutons d'or, buttercups
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
R. repens var. glabratus de Candolle • R. repens var. linearilobus de Candolle • R. repens var. pleniflorus Fernald • R. repens var. villosus Lamotte • Ranunculus repens var. degeneratus Schur • Ranunculus repens var. erectus Dc. • Ranunculus repens var. erectus de Candolle • Ranunculus repens var. glabratus Dc. • Ranunculus repens var. linearilobus Dc. • Ranunculus repens var. pleniflorus Fern. • Ranunculus repens var. typicus G. Beck • Ranunculus repens var. villosus Lamotte
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Ranunculus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 202 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
R. abortivus (Early Woodbuttercup) · R. abortivus var. abortivus (Littleleaf Buttercup) · R. acer (Cmmon Buttercup) · R. aconitifolius 'Flore Pleno' (Fair Maids of France) · R. acriformis (Sharpleaf Buttercup) · R. acriformis var. acriformis (Sharpleaf Buttercup) · R. acriformis var. montanensis (Mountain Sharp Buttercup) · R. acris (Common Buttercup) · R. acris var. acris (Meadow Buttercup) · R. acris var. b (Meadow Buttercup) · R. acris var. frigidus (Meadow Buttercup) · R. adoneus (Alpine Buttercup) · R. adoneus var. adoneus (Alpine Buttercup) · R. adoneus var. alpinus (Alpine Buttercup) · R. aestivalis (Autumn Buttercup) · R. alismaefolius alismaefolius (Water-Plantain Buttercup) · R. alismifolius (Dwarf Buttercup) · R. alismifolius var. alismellus (Plantainleaf Buttercup) · R. alismifolius var. alismifolius (Plantainleaf Buttercup) · R. alismifolius var. davisii (Davis' Buttercup) · R. alismifolius var. montanus (Waterplantain Buttercup) · R. allegheniensis (Allegheny Mountain Buttercup) · R. allenii (Allen Buttercup) · R. ambigens (Waterplantain Spearwort) · R. andersonii (Anderson's Buttercup) · R. andersonii var. andersonii (Anderson's Buttercup) · R. andersonii var. tenellus (Anderson's Buttercup) · R. aquatilis (Water Buttercup) · R. aquatilis var. aquatilis (White Water-Crowfoot) · R. arizonicus (Arizona Buttercup) · R. arvensis (Corn Buttercup) · R. asiaticus (Persian Buttercup) · R. auricomus (Goldilocks) · R. auricomus var. auricomus (Greenland Buttercup) · R. auricomus var. glabratus (Greenland Buttercup) · R. austrooreganus (Southern Oregon Buttercup) · R. baudotii (Brackish Water-Crowfoot) · R. bonariensis (Carter's Buttercup) · R. bonariensis var. trisepalus (Carter's Buttercup) · R. bulbosus (Blister Flower) · R. bulbosus bulbosus (St. Anthony's Turnip) · R. calandrinioides (High Alpine Buttercup) · R. californicus (California Buttercup) · R. californicus var. californicus (California Buttercup) · R. canus (Sacramento Valley Buttercup) · R. canus var. canus (Sacramento Valley Buttercup) · R. cardiophyllus (Heart-Leaf Buttercup) · R. coloradensis (Colorado Buttercup) · R. cordiger (Wingleaf Buttercup) · R. cortusifolius (Ranunculus Cortusifolius) · R. cymbalaria (Alkali Buttercup) · R. cymbalaria var. cymbalaria (Alkali Buttercup) · R. eastwoodianus (Eastwood's Buttercup) · R. eschscholtzii (Eschscholtz's Buttercup) · R. eschscholtzii var. eschscholitzii (Eschscholtz's Buttercup) · R. eschscholtzii var. hultenianus (Hulten's Buttercup) · R. eschscholtzii var. oxynotus (Eschscholtz's Buttercup) · R. eschscholtzii var. trisectus (Threesection Buttercup) · R. eximius (Tundra Buttercup) · R. fascicularis (Early Buttercup) · R. ficaria (Celandine) · R. ficaria ficaria var. ficaria (Lesser Celandine) · R. ficaria var. aurantiacus (Lesser Celendine) · R. ficaria var. bulbifera (Fig Buttercup) · R. ficaria var. ficaria (Fig Buttercup) · R. ficaria 'Brambling' (Lesser Celendine) · R. ficaria 'Brazen Hussy' (Lesser Celendine) · R. ficaria 'Coppernob' (Lesser Celendine) · R. ficaria 'Double Mud' (Lesser Celendine) · R. ficaria 'Flore Pleno' (Double Lesser Celendine) · R. ficaria 'Ragamuffin' (Lesser Celendine) · R. ficaria 'Salmon's White' (Salmon's White Lesser Celendine) · R. ficaria 'Tortoiseshell' (Lesser Celendine) · R. flabellaris (Greater Yellow Water Buttercup) · R. flammula (Greater Creeping Spearwort) · R. flammula var. angustifolius (Greater Creeping Spearwort) · R. flammula var. filiformis (Greater Creeping Spearwort) · R. flammula var. flammula (Greater Creeping Spearwort) · R. flammula var. varians (Lesser Spearwort) · R. fluitans (River Water-Crowfoot) · R. glaberrimus (Sagebrush Buttercup) · R. glaberrimus var. ellipticus (Elliptical Buttercup) · R. glaberrimus var. glaberrimus (Sagebrush Buttercup) · R. glacialis (Glacier Buttercup) · R. glacialis chamissonis var. chamissonis (Glacier Buttercup) · R. glacialis var. chamissonis (Glacier Buttercup) · R. glacialis var. chamissonus (Glacier Buttercup) · R. glacialis var. glacialis (Glacier Buttercup) · R. gmelini (Lesser Yellow Water Buttercup) · R. gmelinii (Buttercup) · R. gmelinii var. gmelinii (Gmelin's Buttercup) · R. gmelini gmelini (Lesser Yellow Water Buttercup) · R. gormanii (Gorman's Buttercup) · R. harveyi (Harvey Buttercup) · R. hawaiensis (Buttercup) · R. hebecarpus (Delicate Buttercup) · R. hederaceus (Ivy Buttercup) · R. heimburgerae (Heimburger's Buttercup) · R. hexasepalus (Queen Charlotte Island Buttercup) · R. hispidus (Bristly Buttercup)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- GBIF-Spain, Departamento de Biolog. Veg. II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid: MAF
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Joint Nature Conservation Committee - Vegetation surveys of coastal shingle in Great Britain
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645468
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18642
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4395043
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:713678-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 30841
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18642
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: RAREV
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 59649
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Alan T. Whittemore "Ranunculus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ranunculus repens". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 175.480 meters (575.722 feet), Standard Deviation = 195.250 based on 20,000 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]