Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Water Oak, Possum Oak
Common Names in French:
or rarely shrubs
, monoecious, evergreen
or deciduous. Stipules usually early deciduous. Leaves alternate, sometimes false-whorled in Cyclobalanopsis. Inflorescences unisexual
or androgynous with female cupules at the base
of an otherwise male inflorescence. Male inflorescences a pendulous head
or pendulous catkin, sometimes branched; flowers in dense cymules
. Male flower: sepals 4-6(-9), scalelike, connate
; petals absent; filaments
or versatile, opening by longitudinal
slits; with or without a rudimentary
pistil. Female inflorescences of 1-7 or more flowers subtended individually or collectively by a cupule formed from numerous
fused bracts, arranged individually or in small groups along an axis or at base of an androgynous inflorescence or on a separate axis. Female flower: perianth 1-7 or more; pistil 1; ovary inferior, 3-6(-9) -loculed; style and carpels as many as locules; placentation axile
; ovules 2 per locule. Fruit a nut. Seed usually solitary by abortion
(but may be more than 1 in Castanea, Castanopsis, Fagus, and Formanodendron), without endosperm; embryo large.
Seven to 12 genera (depending on interpretation) and 900-1000 species: worldwide except for tropical and S Africa; seven genera and 294 species (163 endemic, at least three introduced ) in China.
Many species are important timber trees. Nuts of Fagus, Castanea, and of most Castanopsis species are edible, and oil is extracted from nuts of Fagus. Nuts of most species of this family contain copious amounts of water soluble tannin. Members of the Fagaceae are the main element of both broad-leaved evergreen and mixed mesophytic forests from 500-3200 m. 
or winter-deciduous, sometimes rhizomatous
buds spheric to ovoid
, all scales
imbricate. Leaves: stipules deciduous and inconspicuous (except in Quercus sadleriana ) . Leaf blade
or unlobed, thin or leathery, margins
, or awned-toothed, secondary veins either unbranched, ± parallel, extending to margin, or branching and anastomosing before reaching margin. Inflorescences unisexual
, in axils of leaves or bud scales, usually clustered at base
of new growth; staminate
inflorescences usually stiff, with terminal cupule and sometimes 1-several sessile, lateral
cupules. Staminate flowers
: sepals connate
; stamens (2-) 6(-12), surrounding tuft of silky
(apparently a reduced pistillode
) . Pistillate flower 1 per cupule; sepals connate; carpels and styles 3(-6) . Fruits: maturation
or biennial; cup
variously shaped (saucer- to cup- or bowl- to goblet-shaped), without indication
, covering base of nut (rarely whole nut), scaly
, scales imbricate or reduced to tubercles
, not or weakly reflexed
, never hooked
; nut 1 per cup, round
, not winged
Species ca. 400: North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America (Colombia only), Eurasia , n Africa.
Quercus is without doubt one of the most important woody genera of the Northern Hemisphere. Historically, oaks have been an important source of fuel, fodder , and building materials throughout their range . Other products include tannins and dyes, and oak bark and leaves were often used for tanning leather . Acorns were historically an important food for indigenous people in North America, Central America, Europe, and Asia. In some areas, acorn consumption is still important, but in general, because of the intense preparation necessary to remove tannins and strong flavor of acorn products, they have fallen out of use as human food in developed areas. They do remain, however, an important mast for wildlife and domesticated animals in many rural areas.
Among the most important diagnostic characters within Quercus, and particularly the white oak group ( Quercus sect. Quercus), are features of the foliar trichomes . Often these can be seen with a 10× or 15× hand lens ; higher magnifications are sometimes required and are useful particularly when characters for a species or complex are first studied and mastered for later use in the field . Although these microscopic characters may seem intimidating, the alternative characters of leaf shape and dentition, so often used in the field, are unreliable in many cases. The large number of misidentified specimens in herbaria that can be easily identified properly with the use of trichome characters illustrates this point . Additionally, many specimens are encountered, both in field and herbarium , that lack fruit or have only immature fruit. Very few species require mature fruit for proper diagnosis ; most can be adequately identified with a representative selection of mature sun leaves attached, if possible, to twigs with mature buds. The combination of leaf vestiture, form of the margin (entire, lobed, toothed, spinose ), twig vestiture , and bud form and vestiture constitute the majority of diagnostic features minimally required at species level.
Staminate floral and inflorescence characters have not been used to any significant extent in the taxonomy of Quercus . Immature, flowering material is often difficult to identify with certainty, and floral features such as number and form of sepals, number of stamens, and pubescence of flowers or floral rachises seem to vary independently of species affinity within many groups. Because of these problems, descriptions of staminate features are excluded in this treatment as unreliable and of little diagnostic value. When collecting flowering oaks, make a point of gathering fallen fruit and mature leaves carefully from the ground , if available, and revisit such populations again when mature material is available to verify identifications.
The character of acorn maturation in the first year (annual maturation) or second year (biennial maturation) after pollination is commonly used to differentiate major groups within Quercus . All of the North American white oaks have annual maturation; all of the Protobalanus group have biennial maturation; and the vast majority of red oaks have biennial maturation, with one eastern North American and a few western species with annual maturation. In the field, this character can be observed throughout the growing season by examining a sample of twigs from the same tree. If developing fruits exhibit a single size class and are found only on the current year's growth, maturation is annual; if the developing fruits exhibit two size classes with small pistillate flowers on new growth and larger developing fruit on the previous year's twigs, maturation is biennial. In Quercus sect. Protobalanus, biennial maturation may be mistaken for annual maturation because all of the species are fully evergreen, and often the twigs bearing fruit do not produce new growth in the second year after pollination. In such cases, careful examination of a broad sample of twigs from within one tree and throughout a population will verify biennial maturation. Herbarium specimens are sometimes inadequate for this determination.
Hybridization among species of Quercus has been widely documented and even more widely suspected. An astounding number of hybrid combinations have been reported in the literature, and many of these have been given species names , either before or after their hybrid status was known (E. J. Palmer 1948) . Hybrids are known to occur in the wild only between members of the same section, and attempts at artificial crosses between species from different sections or subgenera within Quercus have failed with very few exceptions (W. P. Cottam et al. 1982) .
Hybridization in most cases results in solitary unusual trees or scattered clusters of intermediate individuals (J. W. Hardin 1975) . In some cases, however, populations of fairly broad distribution and extreme variability, often with a majority of intermediate types, may occur. Such instances occur in both the red oak and white oak groups, and to a lesser extent in the Protobalanus group.
When dealing with a suspected hybrid, therefore, one should first consider the possibility of intraspecific variation or environmental plasticity, and then seek parentage among sympatric members of the same section. Because of the almost infinite number of possible hybrid combinations, and the myriad names applied to them, only those that appear to be prominent either locally or in widespread areas are dealt with here. The interested reader is referred to various discussions of oak hybridization in the literature (e.g. , E. J. Palmer 1948; J. W. Hardin 1975) .
Species Quercus nigra
, deciduous or tardily deciduous, to 30 m.
irregular, shallow, inner bark pinkish. Twigs
1.5-2.5 mm diam., glabrous
buds reddish brown, ovoid
throughout, occasionally densely pubescent
2/3. Leaves: petiole
2-9 mm, glabrous. Leaf blade
or merely obovate
, widest near apex, 30-120(-160)
× 15-60(-70) mm, base
attenuate or cuneate, rarely rounded
entire with 1 apical awn or with 2-3 shallow lobes
(leaves on juvenile or 2d-flush growth may be deeply lobed
more awns), apex obtuse
or rounded; surfaces abaxially glabrous
except for minute or conspicuous
tufts of tomentum
rarely raised, adaxially glabrous with secondary veins somewhat impressed
Acorns biennial; cup
, 2.5-5.5 mm high × 10-18
mm wide, covering 1/4 nut or less, outer surface puberulent, inner
surface sparsely to uniformly pubescent, scale tips
acute; nut broadly ovoid, 9.5-14 × 9.5-14.5 mm, often faintly
diam. 6-11.5 mm.
Trees with 3-lobed leaves with attenuate bases have been recognized as Quercus nigra var. tridentifera Sargent. [source]
Quercus nigra reportedly hybridizes with Q. falcata (= Q. × garlandensis E. J. Palmer), Q. incana, Q. laevis (= Q. × walteriana Ashe), Q. marilandica (= Q. × sterilis Trelease), Q. phellos (= Q. × capesii W. Wolf), Q. shumardii (= Q. × neopalmeri Sudworth), and Q. velutina ( Q. × demarei Ashe). In addition, D. M. Hunt (1989) cited evidence of hybridization also with Q. arkansana, Q. georgiana, Q. hemisphaerica, Q. laurifolia, Q. myrtifolia, Q. palustris, Q. rubra, and Q. texana. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April. • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Size: over 40' tall.
Mesic alluvial and lowland sites, also barrens , dunes, hammocks , and low ridges to steep slopes ; 0-450 m. Typically on mesic alluvial and lowland sites, Quercus nigra also occurs on a wide variety of soil types and in a diversity of habitats .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Culture: Space 30-40' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- (Engler, 1892) Takhtajan, 1997
- Engler, 1892
- Family: Fagaceae () - Dumortier, 1829 - Beech Family
- Order: Fagales () - Engler, 1892
- Superorder: Faganae () - (Engler, 1892) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Q. nigra var. tridentifera Sargent • Q. uliginosa Wangenheim • Quercus agnostifolia K. Koch • Quercus aquatica (Lam.) Walter • Quercus aquatica var. attenuata Aiton • Quercus aquatica var. cuneata Aiton • Quercus aquatica var. dentata A. Dc. • Quercus aquatica var. elongata Aiton • Quercus aquatica var. hybrida Chapm. • Quercus aquatica var. indivisa Aiton • Quercus aquatica var. nana (Willd.) Nutt. • Quercus aquatica var. stipitata A. Dc. • Quercus bumeliifolia Riddell • Quercus dentata Bartram • Quercus ferruginea F.Michx. var. hybrida Dippel • Quercus genabii K. Koch • Quercus hemisphaerica var. nana (Willd.) Sarg. • Quercus ludoviciana var. microcarpa (Dippel) Rehder • Quercus marylandica Du Roi • Quercus microcarya Small • Quercus nana Willdenow • Quercus nigra f. microcarya (Small) Trel. • Quercus nigra f. plenocarpa Trel. • Quercus nigra f. saxicola Trel. • Quercus nigra var. aquatica Lam. • Quercus nigra var. heterophylla Aiton • Quercus nigra var. microcarya (Small) Trel. • Quercus nigra var. plenocarpa Trel. • Quercus nigra var. saxicola Trel. • Quercus nigra var. tridentata A. Dc. • Quercus nigra var. tridentifera Sarg. • Quercus noviorleani Petz. and G. Kirchn. • Quercus phellos var. microcarpa Dippel • Quercus quinqueloba Engelm. • Quercus uliginosa Wangenh.
Publishing author : Rugel ex A.DC. Publication : Prodr. (DC.) 16(2.1): 60 1864 [late Dec 1864]
Members of the genus Quercus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 400 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
Q. acerifolia (Maple-Leaved Oak) · Q. acuta (Japanese Evergreen Oak) · Q. acutissima (Sawtooth Oak) · Q. acutissima acutissima (Sawtooth Oak) · Q. acutissima 'Gobbler' (Sawtooth Oak) · Q. agrifolia (California Live Oak) · Q. ajoensis (Ajo Mountain Scrub Oak) · Q. alba (Eastern White Oak) · Q. alba 'Brush Creek' (Oak) · Q. alba 'Gatton Grave' (Oak) · Q. alba 'Linclon' (Oak) · Q. aliena (Oriental White Oak) · Q. alnifolia (Golden Oak) · Q. alvordiana (Alvord Oak) · Q. arizonica (Arizona White Oak) · Q. arkansana (Arkansas Oak) · Q. ashei (Ash's Oak) · Q. atlantica (Atlantic Oak) · Q. austrina (Bastard White Oak) · Q. beadlei (Beadle's Oak) · Q. beaumontiana (Beaumont's Oak) · Q. bebbiana (Bebb's Oak) · Q. beckyae (Becky's Oak) · Q. benderi (Bender Oak) · Q. berberidifolia (Scrub Oak) · Q. bernardiensis (Bernard's Oak) · Q. bicolor (Swamp White Oak) · Q. bimundorum (Oak) · Q. blufftonensis (Bluffton's Oak) · Q. boyntonii (Boynton Sand Post Oak) · Q. brantii (Brant's Oak) · Q. brenesii (Roble) · Q. brittonii (Britton's Oak) · Q. buckleyi (Texas Red Oak) · Q. burnetensis (Burnet's Oak) · Q. bushii (Bush's Oak) · Q. byarsii (Byars' Oak) · Q. caduca (Oak) · Q. caesariensis (Caesar Oak) · Q. capesii (Cape Oak) · Q. carmenensis (Mexican Oak) · Q. castaneaefolia (Slender Maori Wrasse) · Q. castaneifolia (Chestnut-Leaved Oak) · Q. cedrosensis (Cedros Island Oak) · Q. cerrioides (Roble Pubescente) · Q. cerris (European Turkey Oak) · Q. chapmanii (Chapman Oak) · Q. chihuahuensis (Chihuahuan Oak) · Q. chrysolepis (Canyon Live Oak) · Q. chrysolepis Liebm. var. chrysolepis Liebm. (Canyon Live Oak) · Q. chrysolepis Liebm. var. nana (Jeps.) Jeps. (Canyon Live Oak) · Q. coccifera (Kermes Shrub Oak) · Q. coccinea (Scarlet Oak) · Q. coccinea var. coccinea Muenchh. (Scarlet Oak) · Q. coccinea var. tuberculata Sarg. (Scarlet Oak) · Q. cocksii (Cocks' Oak) · Q. columnaris (Column Oak) · Q. comptoniae (Compton's Oak) · Q. cornelius-mulleri (Muller Oak) · Q. costaricensis (Roble Negro) · Q. cravenensis (Oak) · Q. deamii (Deam's Oak) · Q. demareei (Oak) · Q. dentata (Daimyo Oak) · Q. dentata dentata (Daimyo Oak) · Q. dentata 'Pinnatifida' (Japanese Emperor Oak) · Q. depressipes (Davis Mountain Oak) · Q. discreta (Discreet Oak) · Q. diversiloba (Manylobed Oak) · Q. dolicholepis (Oak) · Q. douglasii (Blue Oak) · Q. dumosa (Coastal Sage Scrub Oak) · Q. dumosa Nutt. var. dumosa Nutt. (Coastal Sage Scrub Oak) · Q. dumosa Nutt. var. elegantula Jeps. (Coastal Sage Scrub Oak) · Q. dumosa turbinella (Coastal Sage Scrub Oak) · Q. durandii var. sinuata (Bastard White Oak) · Q. durata (Leather Oak) · Q. durata var. gabrielensis (San Gabriel Mountains Leather Oak) · Q. egglestonii (Eggleston's Oak) · Q. ellipsoidalis (Hill's Oak) · Q. emoryi (Blackjack Oak) · Q. engelmannii (Engelmann Oak) · Q. eplingii (Epling's Oak) · Q. exacta (Oak) · Q. faginea (Oak) · Q. falcata (Southern Red Oak) · Q. faxonii (Faxon's Oak) · Q. fernaldii (Fernald's Oak) · Q. fernowii (Fernow's Oak) · Q. filialis (Oak) · Q. floribunda (Mohroo) · Q. fontana (Fontana Oak) · Q. frainetto (Hungarian Oak) · Q. frainetto 'Forest Green' (Italian Oak) · Q. franchetii (Oak) · Q. fusiformis (Escarpment Live Oak) · Q. gambelii (Gambel Oak) · Q. gambelii Nutt. var. bonina Welsh (Gambel Oak) · Q. ganderi (Gander Oak) · Q. garlandensis (Garland Oak)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A catalogue of the Coccidæ of the world. [By] Mrs. Maria E. Fernald, A.M. Amherst, Mass., Carpenter & Morehouse, 1903. url p. 65.
- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 95.
- A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns, by J. C. Willis. CambridgeThe University Press, 1919 url p. 83.
- A disease of Taxodium known as peckiness, St. Louis, Mo., 1899. url p. 29.
- A floristic study of the attached algae of Lake Mize, Florida / by Helen Davis Brown. 1972. url p. 26.
- A general introduction to forestry in the United States, with special reference to recent forest conservation policies, by Nelson Courtlandt Brown. New York, Chapman & Hall, limited, 1935. url p. 289.
- A key to the spring flora of Manhattan. Manhattan, Kans., Mercury Pub. House, 1894. url p. 13.
- A manual of dangerous insects likely to be introduced in the United States through importations. Ed. by W. Dwight Pierce, entomologist, southern field crop insect investigations. Washington: Govt. print. off., 1918. url p. 152.
- A provisional host-index of the fungi of the United States, by W. G. Farlow and A. B. Seymour. Cambridge, 1888-91. url p. 121.
- A survey of natural areas in Brunswick County, North Carolina: for The North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url , , .
- A text-book of plant diseases caused by cryptogamic parasites, by George Massee. .. London: Duckworth and co.;1907. url p. 235, p. 470.
- A working plan for forest lands in Berkeley County, South Carolina. By Charles S. Chapman. Washington, Gov't print. off., 1905. url p. 45.
- American forest trees, by Henry H. Gibson; ed. by Hu Maxwell. Chicago, Hardwood record, 1913. url , p. 14, p. 259, p. 259, p. 289, p. 289, p. 295, p. 295, p. 319, p. 319, p. 320, p. 320.
- American forest trees; edited by Hu Maxwell. ChicagoHardwood Record1913 url p. 259, p. 319, p. 320.
- American forestry. Washington, D.C.: American Forestry Association, 1910-1923. url p. 474, p. 684.
- American forests. Washington [etc.]American Forestry Association [etc.] url p. 474, p. 663, p. 684.
- An illustrated catalogue of American insect galls. By Millet Taylor Thompson. Pub. and distributed by Rhode Island Hospital Trust Company, executor, in accordance with the provisions of the will of S. Millet Thompson. Ed. by E. P. Felt. Nassau, N. Y.1915. url p. 35, p. 39, p. 59.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 619, p. 620, p. 621, p. 622.
- Animal and plant life in Oklahoma, Norman, 1917. url , .
- Annals of the Entomological Society of America. [College Park, Md., etc.]: Entomological Society of America. url p. 328, p. 330, p. 332.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 274, p. 275.
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url p. 165.
- Annual report / Florida State Geological Survey. Tallahassee, Fla.: Capital Pub. Co., state printer, url p. 106, p. 115, p. 133, p. 196, p. 204, p. 212, p. 219, p. 234, p. 258, p. 272, p. 283, p. 292, p. 302, p. 305, p. 312, p. 322, p. 331, p. 402, p. 431, p. 90.
- Annual report / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, c1904-1920. url p. 60, p. 72.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 1908 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 161, p. 164, p. 169, p. 210, p. 242, p. 50.
- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 407.
- Annual report of the Ohio State Academy of Science. Columbus: The Academy, 1893-1930. url p. 141.
- Annual report of the Regents / Albany: J.B. Lyon, State Printer, 1890-1903. url p. 101.
- Annual report of the State Botanist of the State of New York. Albany: Troy Press, 1889-1897. url .
- Annual report of the State Horticultural Society of Missouri. Jefferson City, Mo.: The Society, 1894- url p. 365.
- Annual report of the Trustees of the State Museum of Natural History for the year. .. Albany, N.Y.: The Trustees, 1886-1889. url p. 325.
- Aquatic and wetland plants of southwestern United States, by Donovan S. Correll and Helen B. Correll. [Washington]Environmental Protection Agency; [For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.]1972. url p. 787.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 62 2004 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 124, p. 127, p. 17, p. 19, p. 20, p. 21, p. 25, p. 27, p. 28, p. 29, p. 5.
- Beeton's Dictionary of everyday gardening. .. to which is added a monthly calendar of garden work throughout the year. London, Ward, Lock, 1909. url p. 334.
- Biltmore Nursery, Biltmorse, N.C. [North Carolina?: The Nursery?], c1912 url p. 37.
- Biology and migratory behavior of Agraulis vanillae (L.) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) / by Richard Terrance Arbogast. 1965. url p. 29.
- Birds of Arkansas. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1911. url .
- Botanica neglecta. William Young, jr. (of Philadelphia) "botaniste de Pensylvanie" and his long-forgotten book; being a facsimile reprint of his "Catalogue d'arbres arbustes et plantes herbacees d'Amerique" pub. in Pari With prefatory account of the author and critical notes by the ed., Samuel N. Rhoads. Philadelphia: Priv. print, 1916. url p. 19.
- Botanical abstracts. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. url p. 136, p. 182.
- Botany for academies and colleges: consisting of plant development and structure from seaweed to clematis, Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott company, 1889. url .
- Botany for secondary schools; a guide to the knowledge of the vegetation of the neighborhood, by L. H. Bailey. New York, Macmillan, 1920. url p. 308, p. 309.
- Botany, an elementary text for schools. New YorkMacmillan1900 url p. 276.
- Botany, developmental and descriptive. Philadelphia, Lea, 1922. url p. 161.
- Botany: an elementary text for schools / by L. H. Bailey. New York: Macmillan, 1901, c1900. url p. 276, p. 277.
- Botany; an elementary text for schools, by L. H. Beiley. New York, Macmillan Co., 1909 [c1907] url p. 276, p. 277.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 7 1907 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 122, p. 51, p. 67, p. 8, p. 81, p. 820, p. 938.
- Bulletin - State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut. [Hartford]State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, 1904- url p. 420, p. 430.
- Bulletin / Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College. [S.l.: s.n.], 1888- url p. 65.
- Bulletin / Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1971. url p. 261.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology. Washington: G.P.O., 1904-1916. url p. 10, p. 71.
- Bulletin of the Charleston Museum. [Charleston, S.C.: the Museum], 1907-1922. url p. 40, p. 59, p. 67.
- Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. [Washington, D.C.?]: Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1913-1923. url p. 15, p. 34, p. 43.
- Bulletin: report of Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Auburn, Ala. Auburn, Ala.: The Station, [1888-1903] url , p. 172, p. 180.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url p. 39, p. 40, p. 48.
- Catalog of hymenoptera in America north of Mexico / prepared cooperatively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein. .. [et al.]. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979- url p. 1101, p. 1102, p. 1106, p. 926, p. 942, p. 989.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 250.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 250.
- Catalogue of the flora of Minnesota: including its phænogamous and vascular cryptogamous plants, indigenous, naturalized, and adventive / by Warren Upham. Minneapolis: Johnson, Smith & Harrison, 1884. url p. 181.
- Catalogue of the trees and shrubs in the arboretum and botanic garden at the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada by Wm. Saunders and W.T. Macoun. Ottawa: Govt. Print. Bureau, 1899. url .
- Cellulose: an outline of the chemistry of the structural elements of plants, with reference to their natural history and industrial uses. By Cross & Bevan (C. F. Cross, E. J. Bevan, and C. Beadle). New impression with a supplement. London, Longmans, Green, and co., 1918. url p. 183.
- Check list of the forest trees of the United States: their names and ranges / by George B. Sudworth. Washington, D.C.: Dept. of Agriculture, Forestry Division, 1898. url p. 122, p. 140, p. 58.
- Chestnut blight. 1906-1960. url , .
- College botany, structure, physiology and economics of plants. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1920. url p. 257.
- College botany; structure, physiology and economics of plants, London, J. B. Lippincott Company[c1920] url .
- Common edible and useful plants of the West / Edited by Vinson Brown. Major illustrators: Emily Reid, Charles Yocom and Barbara Johnson. Healdsburg, Calif.: Naturegraph Co., 1962. url p. 13.
- Common forest trees of North Carolina. How to know them. A pocket manual, Chapel Hill, N. C., 1922. url .
- Comparative behavior, acoustical signals, and ecology of New World Passalidae (Coleoptera) / by Jack Clayton Schuster. 1975. url p. 19.
- Compendium of natural features information / Baltimore: The Department, 1975. url p. 177, p. 178, p. 181.
- Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia College. New York: Columbia College, 1886-1896. url p. 290.
- Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1899- url p. 357, p. 425.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 6 1901 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 109, p. 154, p. 166, p. 167, p. 177, p. 180, p. 181, p. 192, p. 198, p. 249, p. 250, p. 334, p. 341, p. 398, p. 404, p. 405, p. 472, p. 482, p. 524, p. 833, p. X.
- Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. 23 2001 Ann Arbor: University Herbarium, University of Michigan, 1939- url p. 164.
- Contributions to horticultural literature; being a selection of articles written for gardening periodicals, and papers read before various societies from 1843 to 1892. In three parts. Waltham Cross, Herts., W. Paul & Son, 1892. url p. 256.
- Contributions to the natural history of the Bermudas. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1884. url p. 108.
- Cooperative economic insect report. Hyattsville, MD. [etc.]Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs Animal and Plant Health Service. url p. 1001, p. 1123, p. 1297, p. 1298.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 1479, p. 1843.
- Dictionary of German and English forest-terms, Neudamm, J. Neumann url .
- Diseases of cultivated plants and trees / by George Massee. New York: Macmillan, [1910?] url p. 320, p. 600.
- Economic botany of Alabama. University, Ala., 1913-1928. url p. 137, p. 139, p. 156, p. 335, p. 43.
- Endothia parasitica and related species. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1917. url .
- Energy basis of a coastal region: Franklin County and Apalachicola Bay, Florida / by Walter Raymond Boynton. 1975. url .
- Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia[Entomological Rooms of the Academy of Natural Sciences] url p. 22, p. 22, p. 96, p. 96.
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url p. 183, p. 35, p. 36, p. 60, p. 61, p. 72.
- Essentials of college botany / by Charles E. Bessey and Ernest A. Bessey. New York: Henry Holt and Company, c1914. url p. 159.
- Essentials of college botany, by Charles E. Bessey. .. and Ernst A. Bessey. .. 8th ed. of The essentials of botany entirely rewritten; with 260 diagrammatic illustrations. New York, H. Holt, [c1914] url p. 159.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url , p. 553, p. 751, p. 988.
- FWS/0BS. [Washington]Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. url p. 226, p. 248, p. 41, p. 92.
- Familiar trees and their leaves / New York: D. Appleton, 1896. url , .
- Familiar trees and their leaves / described and illustrated by F. Schuyler Mathews; with illustrations in colors and over two hundred drawings by the author, and an introduction by L.H. Bailey. New York: D. Appleton, 1901. url p. 168, p. 313, p. 315.
- Familiar trees and their leaves, described and illustrated by F. Schuyler Mathews, with illus. in colors and over two hundred drawings by the author, and an introd. by L.H. Bailey. Ed. in colors. 1911 New YorkD. Appleton1911 url p. 317, p. 327, p. 329.
- Field manual of trees; including southern Canada and the northern United States to the southern boundary of Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri, westward to the limits of the prairie, by John H. Schaffner. Columbus, Ohio, R. G. Adams, 1922. url p. 101.
- First book of forestry / by Filibert Roth. Boston: Ginn, 1902. url p. 278, p. 278, p. 278.
- Flood tolerance of plant species in bottomland forests of the southeastern United States / 1992. url , p. 106, p. 107, p. 111, p. 116, p. 118, p. 119, p. 138, p. 140, p. 142, p. 143, p. 144, p. 145, p. 146, p. 149, p. 150, p. 151, p. 153, p. 154, p. 155, p. 156, p. 159, p. 160, p. 161, p. 162, p. 164, p. 165, p. 166, p. 167, p. 169, p. 170, p. 171, p. 174, p. 175, p. 177, p. 178, p. 18, p. 181, p. 182, p. 183, p. 184, p. 185, p. 189, p. 192, p. 198, p. 26, p. 27, p. 30, p. 32, p. 36, p. 77, p. 80, p. 84.
- Flora Peoriana; the vegetation in the climate of middle Illinois. Peoria, Ill., J. W. Franks & Sons, 1887. url , p. 58.
- Flora of Bermuda. .. by Nathaniel Lord Britton. .. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1918. url p. 98.
- Flora of Bermuda... by Nathaniel Lord Britton... New York, Scribner, 1918. url p. 98.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 101.
- Flora of New Mexico / by E.O. Wooton and Paul C. Standley. Washington: G.P.O., 1915. url p. 180.
- Flora of New Mexico. By E.O. Wooton and Paul C. Standley. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off.1915 url p. 180.
- Flora of Pennsylvania, Boston, Ginn & Company, 1903. url , .
- Flora of Pennsylvania. Edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small. Boston, Ginn & Co., 1903. url p. 106, p. 107.
- Flora of West Virginia, by Charles Frederick Millspaugh and Lawrence William Nuttall. 1 1896 Chicago, 1896. url p. 201, p. 79.
- Flora of Yucatan, by Paul C. Standley. 3 1930 Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1930. url p. 266.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 350, p. 350.
- Flora of the vicinity of New York; a contribution to plant geography. [New York]1915 url p. 15, p. 276.
- Florida wild flowers; an introduction to the flora of the Florida peninsula, by Mary Francis Baker, photographs by the author. New York, The Macmillan company, 1926. url p. 67.
- Forest conditions of Mississippi. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1913. url p. 143, p. 144, p. 145, p. 149, p. 160, p. 162.
- Forest leaves. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Forestry Association, 1886-1950. url , .
- Forest resources and industries of Illinois / by D.B. King and R.K. Winters. Urbana, [Ill.]: University of Illinois, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1952. url p. 95.
- Forest vegetation in Maryland / Baltimore: The Department, 1974. url p. 64.
- Forestry almanac, compiled and edited by the American tree association. Washington, D.C.[c1924] url p. 32.
- Forestry in Minnesota. St. Paul, MN: Pioneer Press Co., 1902. url p. 375.
- Forestry in Minnesota. [2d ed.] Published by the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. St. Paul, Minn.Pioneer Press Co.1902 url p. 375.
- Forestry lessons on home woodlands / by Wilbur R. Mattoon and Alvin Dille. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1920. url p. 43.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url p. 123, p. 23, p. 370, p. 391, p. 459, p. 462.
- Gardening. Chicago, the Gardening Co., 1892-1925. url p. 17.
- Gray's school and field book of botany. Consisting of "Lessons in botany, " and "Field, forest, and garden botany, " bound in one volume. New York, American book company, 1901?, c1887 url p. 179.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1992 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 1326.
- Guide to the insects of Connecticut, prepared under the direction of Wilton Everett Britton. .. Hartford, Printed for The State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1911-27. url p. 420.
- Guidebook for the identification of woods used for ties and timbers, by Arthur Koehler, expert in wood identification, Forest products laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin. Washington: Govt. print. off., 1917. url , p. 40.
- Handbook of reptiles and amphibians of Florida / by Ray E. Ashton, Jr. and Patricia Sawyer Ashton; drawings by Renaldo Kuhler. Miami, Fl.: Windward Pub., url p. 25.
- Handbook of the trees of the northern states and Canada east of the Rocky Mountains. Photo-descriptive. Lowville, N.Y., 1921 [c1907] url p. 156.
- Hardwood record. Chicago: Hardwood Co., 1902-1939. url , p. 237.
- Henderson's Handbook of plants and general horticulture / By Peter Henderson. New York, P. Henderson & Co., 1910. url p. 50.
- Heteroptera, or true bugs of eastern North America, with especial reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida, by W.S. Blatchley. .. Indianapolis, The Nature publishing company, 1926. url p. 304.
- Identification of the economic woods of the United States, including a discussion of the structural and physical properties of wood, New York, John Wiley & sons, inc.; [etc., etc.]1919. url , , p. 51, p. 87.
- Illustrated key to the wild and commonly cultivated trees of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada; based primarily upon leaf characters, New YorkHolt1912 url p. 164, p. 83.
- Inland wetlands of the United States: evaluated as potential registered natural landmarks / Richard H. Goodwin, William A. Niering. [Washington]: National Park Service: may be purchased from the Supt. of Docs., Govt. Print. Off., 1975. url p. 18, p. 457.
- Insecutor inscitiae menstruus. Washington, D.C.: [Harrison G. Dyar], 1913-1926. url p. 60, p. 61.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. London: Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London, 1902-1919. url p. 805.
- Introduction to plant geography and some related sciences. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1960. url p. 623.
- Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in North America 1823-1827, together with a particular description of thirty-three species of American oaks and eighteen species of Pinus, with appendices containing a list of the plants introduced by Douglas and an account of h London: W. Wesley & Son, 1914. url p. 42, p. 43.
- Journal of Hymenoptera research. 11 Washington, D.C.: International Society of Hymenopterists, [1992- url p. 209, p. 225, p. 48, p. 53.
- Journal of agricultural research. Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1913-1949.. url p. 427, p. 75.
- Journal of economic entomology. [College Park, Md., etc.]Entomological Society of America [etc.] url p. 516.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 8-9 1988-1989 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 44.
- Journal of forestry. Washington: Society of American Foresters, 1917- url p. 871.
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url p. 135, p. 136, p. 157, p. 179, p. 179, p. 187, p. 194, p. 49, p. 68, p. 68, p. 71, p. 72, p. 90, p. 90.
- Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science. Lexington, KY: The Academy, 1998- url p. 33, p. 34.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 24 1923 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 15, p. 219, p. 229, p. 233, p. 250, p. 4.
- Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington [etc., Washington Academy of Sciences] url p. 122.
- Leaf key to the trees of the northern states and Canada, and a botanical glossary. By Romeyn Beck Hough. Lowville, N. Y., The author, 1910. url p. 9.
- Leaf-mining insects / by James G. Needham, Stuart W. Frost, Beatrice H. Tothill. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins company, [c1928] url p. 317.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 132, p. 133.
- Loblolly, or North Carolina pine, Raleigh, Edwards & Broughton printing company, state printers and binders, 1915. url p. 13.
- Loblolly, or North Carolina pine, by W. W. Ashe. Raleigh, Edwards & Broughton Print. Co., 1915. url p. 13.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 332.
- Manual of the trees of North America (exclusive of Mexico) by Charles Sprague Sargent, with seven hundred and eighty-three illustrations from drawings by Charles Edward Faxon and Mary W. Gill. Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin company, 1922. url p. 254, p. 254, p. 259, p. 259, p. 260, p. 260, p. 266, p. 266, p. 907, p. 908.
- Meehan's monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany, and kindred subjects. Phila., PA: T. Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url , , .
- Meehans' monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany and kindred subjects / conducted by Thomas Meehan. Philadelphia: Thomas Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url p. 234.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 9 1900 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 133, p. 133, p. 152, p. 153, p. 228, p. 278.
- Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a report of the secretary of agriculture in relation to the forests, rivers and mountains of the southern Appalachian region. Washington, Gov't print. off., 1902. url p. 99.
- Native trees of Kentucky; a handbook, [Ed. of Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs] [Louisville? Ky.][c1910] url p. 45.
- Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, U. S. Govt. print. off., 1938. url , , , , , , p. 212, p. 218.
- Natural area inventory of Pamlico County, North Carolina / [Raleigh]: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, 1982. url p. 22, p. 78.
- Natural area inventory of Pender County, North Carolina / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url p. 129, p. 152, p. 156, p. 41, p. 58, p. 88.
- Natural area inventory of Washington County, North Carolina / [Raleigh]: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, 1982. url p. 143, p. 39.
- Natural areas inventory of Carteret County, North Carolina: for the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / [Raleigh]: N.C. Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, N.C. Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, . url p. 140, p. 206, p. 229, p. 234.
- Natural areas inventory, Gates County, North Carolina / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development,  url p. 133, p. 147, p. 171, p. 172, p. 173, p. 194, p. 199, p. 44, p. 98.
- Natural science. London: Macmillan & Co., [1892-1899] url p. 414.
- Natural science: a monthly review of scientific progress. London [etc.]: Macmillan and Company [etc.], [1892-1899] url p. 414.
- Naturalist's guide to the Americas, prepared by the Committee on the Preservation of Natural Conditions of the Ecological Society of America, with assistance from numerous organizations and individuals, assembled and edited by chairman, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1926. url p. 433, p. 433, p. 436, p. 436.
- New York State Museum bulletin. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1916-1944. url p. 165.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 1 1884-1888 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 193, p. 455.
- North American fauna. Washington: Fish and Wildlife Service; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U. S. Govt. Print. Off. url p. 14, p. 22, p. 388, p. 388, p. 6, p. 8, p. 9.
- North American trees (exclusive of Mexico and tropical United States) A handbook designed for field use, with plates and distribution maps. Ames, Iowa State University Press url p. 203.
- North American trees: being descriptions and illustrations of the trees growing independently of cultivation in North America, north of Mexico and the West Indies / New York: H. Holt and Co., 1908. url , .
- North American trees: guide to Charles F. Millspaugh Hall, by Samuel J. Record. Chicago, 1934. url p. 72.
- North American trees; being descriptions and illustrations of the trees growing independently of cultivation in North America, north of Mexico and the West Indies; with the assistance of John Adolph Shafer. New YorkHolt1908 url p. 299.
- Occasional papers of the Farlow Herbarium of Cryptogamic Botany. 15 1980 Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University, Farlow Herbarium of Cryptogamic Botany. url p. 117, p. 48.
- Ornamental gardening in Florida, by Charles Torrey Simpson; a treatise on the decorative plants adapted to Florida and their cultivation, with suggestions for the ornamentation of Florida homes and grounds. Little River, Fla., The author, 1916. url p. 61, p. 61.
- Our forests and the timbers they contain. New Orleans, American printing co., ltd., 1904 url p. 23.
- Our native birds of song and beauty, being a complete history of all the songbirds, flycatchers, hummingbirds, swifts, goatsuckers, woodpeckers, kingfishers, trogons, cuckoos, and parrots, of North America. 1 1893 Milwaukee, G. Brumder, 1893-96. url p. 107.
- Our native trees and how to identify them; a popular study of their habits and their peculiarities, by Harriet L. Keeler. New York: C. Scribner's sons, 1917. url p. 529.
- Pamphlets on forest protection. [1900?- url p. 15, p. 419.
- Pamphlets on forest utilization. [1900?- url , p. 20, p. 20, p. 21, p. 23, p. 41.
- Pamphlets on forestry in California. [1900?- url p. 331.
- Pamphlets on forestry in North Carolina. [1900?- url p. 105, p. 4, p. 7.
- Pamphlets on forestry in Tennessee. [1900?- url p. 47.
- Pamphlets on forestry in Texas. [1900?- url p. 19, p. 61, p. 84.
- Part I. The living flora of West Virginia, by C. F. Millspaugh. Part II. The fossil flora of West Virginia, by David White. Wheeling, Wheeling news litho. co., 1913 url p. 22.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 119, p. 141, p. 20, p. 22, p. 23, p. 303, p. 328, p. 347, p. 36, p. 373, p. 38, p. 47, p. 5, p. 52, p. 54, p. 58, p. 60, p. 62, p. 66, p. 73, p. 86, p. 88, p. 92.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 109, p. 154, p. 161, p. 162, p. 166, p. 167, p. 177, p. 181, p. 192, p. 249, p. 250, p. 472, p. 61, p. 833.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url , , , , , , , .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 109, p. 161, p. 249, p. 472, p. 833.
- Plants and their uses; an introduction to botany, by Frederick Leroy Sargent with numerous illustrations. New York, H. Holt and company, 1913. url p. 4.
- Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns / by E.N. Lowe. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1921. url p. 131, p. 34, p. 35, p. 39, p. 50, p. 52.
- Practical botany / by Joseph Y. Bergen and Otis W. Caldwell. Boston: Ginn, c1911. url p. 158.
- Practical botany by Joseph Bergen and Otis W. Caldwell. Boston: Ginn, c1911. url p. 158.
- Practical botany, Boston, Ginn and company[c1911] url .
- Practical forestry. A treatise on the propagation, planting and cultivation, with a description, and the botanical and popular names of all the indigenous trees of the United States. New YorkOrange Judd Co.1884 url p. 296.
- Preliminary study of forest conditions in Tennessee. By R. Clifford Hall. Nashville, McQuiddy printing company, 1910. url p. 47.
- Principles of American forestry / New York, J. Wiley & Sons, 1903. url .
- Principles of American forestry. By Samuel B. Green. .. New York: J. Wiley & Sons; [etc., etc.], 1913, c1903. url p. 293.
- Principles of American forestry. New YorkWiley1903 url p. 229.
- Principles of soil microbiology, by Selman A. Waksman. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1927. url p. 276.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 145, p. 148, p. 152, p. 152, p. 187, p. 192, p. 216, p. 248, p. 249, p. 249, p. 250, p. 252, p. 253, p. 254, p. 259, p. 315, p. 671, p. 849, p. 854.
- Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. Indianapolis, Ind.[s.n.] url p. 139, p. 405.
- Publication. Field Columbian Museum. Chicago.: Field Columbian Museum, 1895-1909. url p. 201, p. 79.
- Reise durch einige der mittlern und su?dlichen Vereinigten Nordamerikanischen Staaten, nach Ost-Florida und den Bahama Inseln unternommen in den jahren 1783 und 1784, von Johann David Scho?pf. .. Cincinnati, J.U. & C.G. Lloyd, 1911. url p. 16.
- Report of the Director to the Board of Trustees for the year. .. / Chicago Natural History Museum. [Chicago]: The Museum, -1963. url p. 46.
- Report on forest 1899. Trenton, N. J.State printers, 1900. url , , .
- Report on forests. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, 1900. url p. 185, p. 187, p. 190, p. 325.
- Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico) / by Charles S. Sargent. Washington [D.C.]: G.P.O., 1884. url p. 149, p. 150, p. 152, p. 153, p. 223, p. 237, p. 238, p. 584, p. 603, p. 604.
- Report upon the forestry investigations of the U.S. Department of agriculture. 1877-1898. By B. E. Fernow. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1899. url p. 363, p. 58.
- Resources of southern Alabama: a statistical guide for investors and settlers, with an exposition of some of the principles of economic geography / by Roland M. Harper. University, Ala.: Geological Survey of Alabama, . url p. 149, p. 25, p. 31, p. 43, p. 54, p. 66, p. 88.
- Select extra-tropical plants readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation with indications of their native countries and some of their uses / by Baron Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: R. S. Brain, govt. printer, 1895. url p. 444.
- Shade-trees in towns and cities: their selection, planting, and care as applied to the art of street decoration, their diseases and remedies, their municipal control and supervision / London: Chapman & Hall, c1911. url .
- Shade-trees in towns and cities; their selection, planting, and care as applied to the art of street decoration; their diseases and remedies; their control and supervision. New York, J. Wiley, 1911. url p. 60, p. 60.
- Small, J. K. Flora of the southeastern United States;being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolin, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana and the Indian territory and in Oklahoma and Texas east of the one-hundredth meridian /by John Kunkel Small. .. 1903 New York: The author, 1903. url p. 348, p. 350.
- Special papers / Ohio Academy of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio: The Academy, 1899-1929. url p. 141.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 296.
- Supplemental register of written communications published in the Transactions and Proceedings of the American philosophical society, 1881-1889. Comp. by Henry Phillips, jr., one of the secretaries of the society. Philadelphia, Press of MacCalla & co., 1889. url p. 134, p. 60.
- Taxonomy, ethology, and ecology of Phidippus (Araneae: Salticidae) in eastern North America / by Glavis Bernard Edwards, Jr. 1980. url p. 318.
- Technical publication / New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Syracuse, N.Y.: The College, 1914- url p. 28, p. 32.
- Text-book of western botany: consisting of Coulter's Manual of the botany of the Rocky mountains, to which is prefixed Gray's lessons in botany. For the use of schools and colleges between the Mississippi river and the Rocky moun Chicago: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, and Company, 1885. url p. 178.
- The American botanist: a monthly journal for the plant lover. Binghamton, N.Y.: Willard N. Clute & Co., 1901-1948. url p. 95.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 318.
- The American woods: exhibited by actual specimens and with copious explanatory text / by Romeyn B. Hough. Lowville, N.Y.: Pub., and sections prepared by the author, 1910, c1888 url p. 3, p. 63.
- The Auk. Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union, etc., 1884- url p. 133, p. 16, p. 214, p. 44, p. 485.
- The Book of gardening; a handbook of horticulture. London, C. Scribner's Sons, 1900. url .
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 135.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 273.
- The Coccidae, Urbana, Ill., Scarab company, 1921. url p. 198.
- The Coccidae, tables for the identification of the subfamilies and some of the more important genera and species, together with discussions of their anatomy and life history, by Alex. D. MacGillivray. .. Urbana, Ill., Scarab, 1921. url p. 198.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url , , p. 107, p. 1091, p. 211, p. 39, p. 445, p. 521, p. 7, p. 733, p. 991.
- The Fulgoridae or plant-hoppers of Mississippi, including those of possible occurance: a taxonomic, biological, ecological and economic study / by Herbert Lawrence Dozier. [Columbus, Ohio]The Ohio state university, 1922. url p. 11.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 455.
- The Journal of geology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1893- url p. 342.
- The Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS. Cedar Falls, Iowa: The Academy, 1988- url p. 194, p. 195.
- The Nautilus. Melbourne, Fla., etc., American Malacologists, inc., etc. url p. 63.
- The North American Pyrenomycetes. A contribution to mycologic botany, Newfield, N. J., Ellis & Everhart, 1892 [c1890] url , , .
- The Ohio journal of science. Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Academy of Science url p. 172.
- The Plant world. Baltimore [etc.]Plant World Association [etc.] url p. 187, p. 244, p. 246, p. 247.
- The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. Des moines, Iowa: The Academy, [1889-1987] url p. 111, p. 313, p. 62, p. 74.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 362, p. 769, p. 770, p. 800, p. 841.
- The Southern Appalachian forests, WashingtonGovt. Print. Off.1905 url p. 288, p. 32.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 24 1936 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 147, p. 359, p. 361, p. 362, p. 6.
- The agricultural gazette of New South Wales. Sydney, C. Potter, Govt. Printer [etc.]. url p. 530.
- The birds of eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, with introductory chapters on geographical distribution and migration, prepared under the direction of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club by Witmer Stone. Philadelphia, Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, 1894. url p. 7.
- The book of woodcraft and Indian lore, with over 500 drawings by the author, Ernest Thompson Seton. .. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & Company, 1922. url , p. 403, p. 587.
- The book of woodcraft. .. New York, The Sun dial press, inc. url , p. 403, p. 587.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url , p. 281, p. 301, p. 301, p. 321, p. 321, p. 328, p. 328, p. 331, p. 331.
- The corn field spider community: composition, structure, development and function / by Michael Joseph Plagens. 1985. url p. 12.
- The distribution of Canadian forest trees in its relation to climate and other causes a paper read before the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Montreal, Sept. 2nd, 1884 / by A.T. Drummond. Montreal: Dawson, 1885. url .
- The distribution of vegetation in the United States, as related to climatic conditions [by] Burton E. Livingston and Forrest Shreve. [Washington]Carnegie institution of Washington, 1921. url p. 39, p. 40.
- The ecology of the Apalachicola Bay system: an estuarine profile / by Robert J. Livingston (Department of Biological Science, Florida State University); prepared for National Coastal Ecosystems Team, Division of Biological Services, Research and Development, Fish an Washington, D.C.: The Service,  url p. 21.
- The elementary principles of general biology, by James Francis Abbott. .. New York: The Macmillan company, 1920, [c1914] url p. 297.
- The elements of botany for beginners and for schools / New York: American Book Co., c1887. url .
- The essentials of botany, New York, H. Holt and company[c1914] url .
- The essentials of college botany, by Charles E. Bessey and Ernest A. Bessey. New York, H. Holt[c1914] url p. 159.
- The flora of Long Island. Lancaster, Pa.New Era Print., 1899. url , .
- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 19.
- The flora of the Amboy clays / by John Strong Newberry, a posthumous work edited by Arthur Hollick. Washington, : Govt. Print. Off., 1895. url p. 81.
- The genus Conotrachelus Dejean (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in the north central United States, Urbana, The University of Illinois press, 1942. url p. 103, p. 106.
- The gypsy moth. Porthetria dispar (Linn.). A report of the work of destroying the insect in the commonwealth of Massachusetts, together with an account of its history and habits both in Massachusetts and Europe. By Edward H. Forbush. .. and Charles H. Fernald. .. Published under the direction of the State Board of Agriculture by authority of the legislature. Boston: Wright & Potter Printing Co., 1896. url p. 322, p. 322.
- The identification of important North American oak woods, based on a study of the anatomy of the secondary wood. By George B. Sudworth. .. and Clayton D. Mell. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1911. url , p. 18, p. 23, p. 41.
- The native flora of the vicinity of Cold Spring Harbor, L.I., New York. n.p., 1925 url p. 146.
- The parasitic fungi of New Jersey / by Carl A. Schwarze. New Brunswick: New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1917. url p. 213, p. 58.
- The plant life of Maryland, by Forrest Shreve [et al.] Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1910. url p. 426, p. 71.
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 407.
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 407.
- The principles of fruit-growing, London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1913. url p. 168.
- The principles of fruit-growing, by L.H. Bailey. New York: Macmillan, 1898. url p. 168.
- The principles of fruit-growing. New York, Macmillan1898 [c1897] url .
- The silva of North America a description of the tree which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico / by Charles Sprague Sargent; illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon. Boston;Houghton, Mifflin, 1902 url .
- The silva of North America: a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent. .. illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon. .. 8 1895 Boston, New York: Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1891-1902. url p. 13, p. 137, p. 142, p. 144, p. 159, p. 161, p. 165, p. 166, p. 168, p. 172, p. 176, p. 180, p. 189, p. 8, tab. CDXXVIII, p. vi.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 2881, p. 2885, p. 3507, p. 358, p. 380.
- The tree book. A popular guide to a knowledge of the trees of North America and to their uses and cultivation. By Julia Ellen Rogers. With sixteen plates in colour and one hundred and sixty in black-and-white from photographs by A. Radclyffe Dugmore. Garden City, New York, Doubleday, Page, 1912. url , p. 219.
- The tree book: A popular guide to a knowledge of the trees of North America and to their uses and cultivation / New York: Doubleday, Page, 1920. url , p. 219.
- The tree book: a popular guide to a knowledge of the trees of North America and to their uses and cultivation / Garden City: Doubleday, Page, 1914. url , , p. 219.
- The tree book; a popular guide to a knowledge of the trees of North America and to their uses and cultivation, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & Company, 1913. url , , p. 219.
- The trees at Mount Vernon / report of Charles Sprague Sargent to the Council of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union. Washington?: s.l., 1917? url p. 15.
- The trees of Great Britain & Ireland / by Henry John Elwes and Augustine Henry. Edinburgh: Priv. print., 1906-13. url , , p. 1217, p. 1218, p. 1231, p. 1233, p. 1235, p. 1236, p. 1239, p. 1985.
- The trees of North Carolina, Chapel Hill [N.C.]W. C. Coker, 1916. url .
- The trees of North Carolina, by W. C. Coker, and H. R. Totten. Chapel Hill [N.C.]W. C. Coker, 1916. url p. 47.
- The trees, shrubs and vines of Missouri. url .
- The vegetation of Shackleford Bank / by I.F. Lewis. Raleigh: Edwards & Broughton, 1917. url p. 13, p. 29.
- The woods of the United States. With an account of their structure, qualities, and uses. With geographical and other notes upon the trees which produce them. By C.S. Sargent. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1885. url p. 149, p. 154, p. 159, p. 164, p. 166, p. 170, p. 173, p. 196, p. 89.
- The woods of the United States: with an account of their structure, qualities and uses; with geographical and other notes upon the trees which produce them / by C.S. Sargent. New York: Appleton, 1885. url p. 154, p. 159, p. 164, p. 166, p. 170, p. 173, p. 89.
- Timber trees and forests of North Carolina, by Gifford Pinchot and W. W. Ashe. Winston, M. I. & J. C. Stewart, public printers, 1897. url p. 105, p. 4, p. 7.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 223, p. 224, p. 229, p. 229, p. 230, p. 231, p. 243, p. 46, p. 71, p. 80, p. 85, p. 91.
- Transactions of the American Entomological Society Philadelphia: The Society, 1890- url p. 283.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 11.
- Transactions of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society. Edinburgh: Douglas & Foulis, 1888-1926. url p. 113.
- Travels in the Confederation, 1783-1784. From the German. Translated and edited by Alfred J. Morrison. Philadelphia, W.J. Campbell, 1911. url p. 319.
- Tree guide: trees east of the Rockies / by Julia Ellen Rogers. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1916, c1914. url p. 94.
- Tree planting on streets and highways. AlbanyJ.B. Lyon Co., printers1904 url .
- Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles / by W. J. Bean. London: J. Murray, 1916. url p. 320.
- Trees and shrubs, hardy in the British isles. LondonJ. Murray1914 url p. 320.
- Trees of Indiana / Indianapolis: State Board of Forestry of Indiana, 1919. url p. 14.
- Trees of Indiana / by Chas. C. Deam Fort Wayne, Ind.: Fort Wayne Printing Co., 1921 url p. 293.
- Trees of Indiana, Fort Wayne, Ind., Fort Wayne printing company, 1911. url p. 91.
- Trees of Indiana. Fort Wayne, Ind., Fort Wayne Printing Co., 1921. url .
- Trees of Ohio and surrounding territory, including the area westward to the limits of the prairie and south to the thirty seventh parallel. Columbus, Ohio1909 url p. 141.
- Trees of the northern United States: their study, description and determination, for the use of schools and private students. New YorkAmerican Book Co. url p. 158.
- Trees, shrubs and vines of the northeastern United States. .. together with an account of the principal foreign hardy trees, shrubs and vines cultivated in our country, and found in Central Park, New York City by H.E. Parkhurst. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1903. url p. 210.
- Trees: the yearbook of agriculture 1949. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture: 1949. url p. 767, p. 796, p. 933.
- Trees: the yearbook of agriculture, 1949 / the United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1949 url p. 796, p. 933.
- Tulane studies in zoology and botany. 24 1983 New Orleans: Tulane University, [1968- url white, darwin & thien, page 101, p. 103, p. 119, fig. 2, page 85.
- Utilization of hardwoods growing on southern pine sites / Peter Koch. Washington, D.C.: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.,  url p. 3663.
- Vegetative study at the Duck Field Research Facility, Duck, North Carolina. Fort Belvoir, Va.: U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, 1976. url p. 12.
- Wayside trees series I. Being a description of the magnolias, tulip-tree, basswood, elms, cherries, birches, etc. / Springfield, Mass.: Taber-Prang Art Co., c1899. url .
- Wetlands of the United States: current status and recent trends / by Ralph W. Tiner, Jr.. .. [et al.]. Washington, D.C.: National Wetlands Inventory, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior: 1984. url p. 58.
- Winter botany, a companion volume to the author's Plant materials of decorative gardening, by William Trelease. .. Urbana, The author, 1918. url p. 32.
- Winter botany, by William Trelease. .. Urbana, The author, 1918. url p. 32, p. 33.
- Huang Chengchiu, Chang Yongtian, Hsu Yongchun & Jen Hsienwei. 1998. Fagaceae. In: Chun Woonyong & Huang Chengchiu, eds. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 22: 1-332.
- Hunt, D. M. 1989. A Systematic Review of Quercus Series Laurifoliae, Marilandicae and Nigrae. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Georgia.
- Muller, C. H. 1961. The live oaks of the series Virentes. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 65: 17-39.
- Muller, C. H. 1951. The oaks of Texas. Contr. Texas Res. Found., Bot. Stud. 1: 21-323.
- Nixon, K. C. 1993. Infrageneric classification of Quercus (Fagaceae) and typification of sectional names. Ann. Sci. Forest. 50(suppl.1): 25-34.
- Nixon, K. C. 1993b. The genus Quercus in Mexico. In: T. P. Ramamoorthy et al., eds. 1993. Biological Diversity of Mexico: Origin and Distribution. New York. Pp. 447-458.
- Palmer, E. J. 1948. Hybrid oaks of North America. J. Arnold Arbor. 29: 1-48.
- Sargent, C. S. 1918. Notes on North American trees. I. Quercus. Bot. Gaz. 65: 423-459.
- Tillson, A. H. and C. H. Muller. 1942. Anatomical and taxonomic approaches to subgeneric segregation in American Quercus. Amer. J. Bot. 29: 523-529.
- Trelease, W. 1924. The American oaks. Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20: 1-255.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 19, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 12 providers.
- "Quercus nigra". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 30, 2008)
- World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Release date: November 27, 2009
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Forest Research Institute, Department of Natural Forests, Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645928
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-174075
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:1004902-2
- GRIN Nomen Number: 400317
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19280
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 216106-2
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: QUNIH
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 59291
- Chengjiu Huang, Yongtian Zhang & Bruce Bartholomew "Fagaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 314. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Kevin C. Nixon "Quercus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Quercus nigra". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 102.890 meters (337.566 feet), Standard Deviation = 129.800 based on 713 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]