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Punica granatum

(Granate Apple)

Overview

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Spiny shrub from Iran, with large edible fruits the size of a baseball.

Interesting Facts

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Albanian:

Shegë

Common Names in Arabic:

Roman, Ruman, Rumman, رمان, رُمَّان

Common Names in Armenian:

Noor, Noor (Nur), Nur, Նուր

Common Names in Assamese:

Dalim

Common Names in Azerbaijani:

Nar, Нар

Common Names in Bengali:

Dalim

Common Names in Bulgarian:

Nar, Нар

Common Names in Catalan:

Magraner

Common Names in Chinese:

Shi Liu

Common Names in Croatian:

Ipak, Nar, Šipak

Common Names in Czech:

Granátové Jablko, Granátovník, Granátovník Obecný, Granátové Jablko, Granátovník, Granátovník Obecný, Marhaník, Marhaník

Common Names in Danish:

Granatæble, Granatæble

Common Names in Dutch:

Granaatappel

Common Names in English:

Granate Apple, Pomegranate, Pomegranate Bark (Stem & Root), Pomegranate Rind (Fruit)

Common Names in Esperanto:

Granato

Common Names in Estonian:

Harilik Granaadipuu

Common Names in Finnish:

Granaattiomena

Common Names in French:

Ecorce De Grenade (écorce-Rind), Ecorce De Grenadier (écorce-Bark), Grenade, Grenade (Fruit), Grenadier, Grenadier (Tree)

Common Names in Georgian:

Broceuli, ბროწეული

Common Names in German:

Granatapfel, Granatapfelbaum, Granatapfelstrauch, Granatwurzelrinde (Rind)

Common Names in Greek:

Rodi, Rodia

Common Names in Greek, Modern:

Rodi, Rodia, Ρόδι, Ροδιά

Common Names in Gujarati:

Dadam, Dadam (Fresh Fruit), Dadamna Bee, Dadamna Bee (Dried Seeds)

Common Names in Hebrew:

Rimmon, Rimon, רימון

Common Names in Hindi:

Anaar (Anar), Anar, Anardana, Anardana (Dried Seeds), अनार

Common Names in Hungarian:

Gránátalma, Gránátalma, Közönséges Gránátalma, Pomagránát, Termesztett Gránátalma

Common Names in Icelandic:

Granatepli

Common Names in Indonesian:

Delima

Common Names in Italian:

Granato, Granato a Frutto Dolce, Melagrana, Melagrano Gentile, Melo Granato Domestico Pomogranato, Melograno, Melograno a Frutto Gentile

Common Names in Japanese:

Se-Ki-Ri-(yu)-U, Sekiryu, Za-Ku-Ro, Zakuro, ざくろ, ザクロ, セキリュウ, 石榴

Common Names in Kannada:

Dalimba, Dalimbe, ದಾಳಿಂಬೆ

Common Names in Kazakh:

Anar, Anar Ağaşı, Anar Ağašy, Анар, Анар ағашы

Common Names in Korean:

Seog Ryu (Seok Ryu), Seog-Ryu, Seongnyu, Skryunann, Songnyu, 석류

Common Names in Lao:

Kok Mak Phi La

Common Names in Laotian:

Kok Mak Phi La

Common Names in Latin:

Cortex Fructus Granati, Cortex Malicorii, Cortex Radicis Granati, Flores Balaustia, Flores Balaustinorum, Flores Granati, Malicorium, Pericarpium Granati

Common Names in Lithuanian:

Paprastasis Granatmedis

Common Names in Malay:

Buah Delima, Delima, Delima (Bali), Delima (Indonesia)

Common Names in Malayalam:

Matalam

Common Names in Maltese:

Rummiena

Common Names in Marathi:

Anardana, Dalimb, Dalimb Sal (Rind), Dalimba (Fresh Fruit), ḍāḷīmbāce Dāṇe, Dalimbache Dane, Dalimbache Dane (Dried Seeds), अनारदाना, डाळींब, डाळींबाचे दाणे

Common Names in Nepalese:

Anaar, Daariim, Daarim

Common Names in Norwegian:

Granateple

Common Names in Oriya:

Dalimba

Common Names in Persian:

Anaar, Anar, Ruman (Syria), انار

Common Names in Polish:

Granat, Granatowiec Waciwy (Tree), Granatowiec Właściwy

Common Names in Portuguese:

Portuguese, Romã (Brazil), Romã De Flor Dobrada (Brazil), Romã-De-Flor-Dobrada, Romãzeira (Tree), Romã, Romanzeiro, Romãzeira, Romeira, Romeira (Brazil), Romeira Da Granada (Brazil), Romeira-Da-Granada

Common Names in Punjabi:

Anar

Common Names in Romanian:

Rodie

Common Names in Russian:

Granat, Granatnik, Гранат, Гранатник

Common Names in Sanskrit:

Darimba, Madhubiija

Common Names in Serbian:

Mogranj

Common Names in Slovak:

Granátové Jablko, Granátové Semená (Seeds), Granátovník Púnsky, Granátové Jablko, Granátové Semená, Granátovník Púnsky

Common Names in Slovenian:

Granatno Jabolko

Common Names in Spanish:

Granada, Granado, Mangrano

Common Names in Swahili:

Komamanga, Kudhumani

Common Names in Swedish:

Granatäpple, Granatäpple

Common Names in Tagalog:

Delima, Granada

Common Names in Tamil:

Madulai, Madulam, Mandulai, Mātuḷai, மாதுளை

Common Names in Telugu:

Dadima Pandu, Danimma, Danimmapandu, Dhanimmapandu, దాడిమ పండు

Common Names in Thai:

Ma Ko, Tap Tim, Thap Thim, ทับทิม

Common Names in Turkish:

Nar, Rumman

Common Names in Ukrainian:

Granat, Ґранат

Common Names in Urdu:

Anaar

Common Names in Vietnamese:

Cây Lựu, Lựu

Description

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Genus Punica

Shrubs or small trees ; branches often terminating as spines. Leaves opposite or subopposite, sometimes crowded on short lateral shoots , simple , entire, estipulate. Flowers solitary, terminal or 1-5 in axillary or terminal clusters, actinomorphic , bisexual . Floral tube thick, leathery, adnate to ovary and produced above it; sepals thick, valvate , persistent . Petals showy, red [or white], strongly crumpled. Stamens numerous , covering inner surface of floral tube from rim to ovary. Ovary inferior, multiloculed; style exserted; stigma capitate. Fruit berrylike, with leathery rind , retaining a crown of sepals. Seeds many, with translucent , juicy sarcotesta ; cotyledons spirally rolled.

Two species: one endemic to the Indian Ocean island of Socotra; one of uncertain native origin , probably from C and SW Asia, now widespread in cultivation.[1]

Physical Description

Species Punica granatum

Shrubs or small trees , 2-3 m tall, glabrous . Branches and branchlets 4-angled, becoming terete with age, often terminating as indurate spines. Petiole 2-10 mm; leaf blade adaxially shiny, lanceolate, elliptic-oblanceolate, or oblong , 2-9 × 1-2 cm, base attenuate, apex obtuse or mucronate . Floral tube red-orange or pale yellow, campanulate-urceolate, 2-3 × 1-1.5 cm; sepals 5-9, erect , deltate. Petals 5-9, bright red-orange [or white], obovate , 1.5-3 × 1-2 cm, apex rounded or obtuse. Stamens numerous , included to exserted. Ovary 8-13-loculed, in 2 or 3 superposed layers, lower locules with axile placentation , upper ones with apparent parietal placentation . Fruit globose , leathery berries , variable in color, red to yellow-green or red-brown, 5-12 cm in diam., crowned by persistent sepals, irregularly dehiscent . Seeds obpyramidal within juicy sarcotestal layer, ruby-red, pink, or yellowish white. Fl. Mar-Jul. 2n = 16, 18. [source]

Habit: Tree or large shrub . • Growth Form: StoloniferousShape and Orientation: Vase

Flowers: Bloom Period: SpringFlower Color: Orange • Flower Conspicuous: Yes

Seeds: Seed per Pound: 2400 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: No

Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Porous • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No

Size/Age/Growth

Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 20.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 20 • Size: 15-20' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan

Habitat

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).[2]

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: PerennialCoppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: FallFruit/Seed Persistence: Yes

Growth

Culture: Space 15-20' apart.

Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: Medium • CaCO3 Tolerance: None • Minimum pH: 6.0 • Maximum pH: 6.9 • Fertility Requirement: Medium

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Intermediate

Moisture: Drought Tolerance: None • Minimum Precipitation: 30 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: Medium

Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -13°F. • Minimum Frost Free Days: 140 • Cold Hardiness: 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)

Taxonomy

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Similar Species

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Members of the genus Punica

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 26 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

P. granatum (Granate Apple) · P. granatum f. plena (Pomegranate) · P. granatum var. nana (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum var. Sweet (Sweet Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Ambrosia' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Ato Shibori' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'California Sunset' (California Sunset Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Emperor' (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Garnet Sash' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Hiza Kuro' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Judai Zakuro' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Kashmir' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Lone Pine' (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Nochi Shibari' (Nochi Shibari Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Omi' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Orange Master' (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Piipg-i' (Pomegranate 'piipg-I') · P. granatum 'Pink Satin' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Red Silk' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Sarasa Shibori' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Sharp Velvet' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Shirobotan' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Toyosho' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Twisted Trunk' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Wonderful' (Fruiting Pomegranate) · P. protopunica (Pomegranate Tree)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Haining Qin & Shirley A. Graham "Punica". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 274, 275, 283. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Mean = 400.300 meters (1,313.320 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,080.570 based on 212 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-10-16