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Punica granatum

(Granate Apple)

Overview

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Spiny shrub from Iran, with large edible fruits the size of a baseball.

Interesting Facts

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Albanian:

Shegë

Common Names in Arabic:

Roman, Ruman, Rumman, رمان, رُمَّان

Common Names in Armenian:

Noor, Noor (Nur), Nur, Նուր

Common Names in Assamese:

Dalim

Common Names in Azerbaijani:

Nar, Нар

Common Names in Bengali:

Dalim

Common Names in Bulgarian:

Nar, Нар

Common Names in Catalan:

Magraner

Common Names in Chinese:

Shi Liu

Common Names in Croatian:

Ipak, Nar, Šipak

Common Names in Czech:

Granátové Jablko, Granátovník, Granátovník Obecný, Granátové Jablko, Granátovník, Granátovník Obecný, Marhaník, Marhaník

Common Names in Danish:

Granatæble, Granatæble

Common Names in Dutch:

Granaatappel

Common Names in English:

Granate Apple, Pomegranate, Pomegranate Bark (Stem & Root), Pomegranate Rind (Fruit)

Common Names in Esperanto:

Granato

Common Names in Estonian:

Harilik Granaadipuu

Common Names in Finnish:

Granaattiomena

Common Names in French:

Ecorce De Grenade (écorce-Rind), Ecorce De Grenadier (écorce-Bark), Grenade, Grenade (Fruit), Grenadier, Grenadier (Tree)

Common Names in Georgian:

Broceuli, ბროწეული

Common Names in German:

Granatapfel, Granatapfelbaum, Granatapfelstrauch, Granatwurzelrinde (Rind)

Common Names in Greek:

Rodi, Rodia

Common Names in Greek, Modern:

Rodi, Rodia, Ρόδι, Ροδιά

Common Names in Gujarati:

Dadam, Dadam (Fresh Fruit), Dadamna Bee, Dadamna Bee (Dried Seeds)

Common Names in Hebrew:

Rimmon, Rimon, רימון

Common Names in Hindi:

Anaar (Anar), Anar, Anardana, Anardana (Dried Seeds), अनार

Common Names in Hungarian:

Gránátalma, Gránátalma, Közönséges Gránátalma, Pomagránát, Termesztett Gránátalma

Common Names in Icelandic:

Granatepli

Common Names in Indonesian:

Delima

Common Names in Italian:

Granato, Granato a Frutto Dolce, Melagrana, Melagrano Gentile, Melo Granato Domestico Pomogranato, Melograno, Melograno a Frutto Gentile

Common Names in Japanese:

Se-Ki-Ri-(yu)-U, Sekiryu, Za-Ku-Ro, Zakuro, ざくろ, ザクロ, セキリュウ, 石榴

Common Names in Kannada:

Dalimba, Dalimbe, ದಾಳಿಂಬೆ

Common Names in Kazakh:

Anar, Anar Ağaşı, Anar Ağašy, Анар, Анар ағашы

Common Names in Korean:

Seog Ryu (Seok Ryu), Seog-Ryu, Seongnyu, Skryunann, Songnyu, 석류

Common Names in Lao:

Kok Mak Phi La

Common Names in Laotian:

Kok Mak Phi La

Common Names in Latin:

Cortex Fructus Granati, Cortex Malicorii, Cortex Radicis Granati, Flores Balaustia, Flores Balaustinorum, Flores Granati, Malicorium, Pericarpium Granati

Common Names in Lithuanian:

Paprastasis Granatmedis

Common Names in Malay:

Buah Delima, Delima, Delima (Bali), Delima (Indonesia)

Common Names in Malayalam:

Matalam

Common Names in Maltese:

Rummiena

Common Names in Marathi:

Anardana, Dalimb, Dalimb Sal (Rind), Dalimba (Fresh Fruit), ḍāḷīmbāce Dāṇe, Dalimbache Dane, Dalimbache Dane (Dried Seeds), अनारदाना, डाळींब, डाळींबाचे दाणे

Common Names in Nepalese:

Anaar, Daariim, Daarim

Common Names in Norwegian:

Granateple

Common Names in Oriya:

Dalimba

Common Names in Persian:

Anaar, Anar, Ruman (Syria), انار

Common Names in Polish:

Granat, Granatowiec Waciwy (Tree), Granatowiec Właściwy

Common Names in Portuguese:

Portuguese, Romã (Brazil), Romã De Flor Dobrada (Brazil), Romã-De-Flor-Dobrada, Romãzeira (Tree), Romã, Romanzeiro, Romãzeira, Romeira, Romeira (Brazil), Romeira Da Granada (Brazil), Romeira-Da-Granada

Common Names in Punjabi:

Anar

Common Names in Romanian:

Rodie

Common Names in Russian:

Granat, Granatnik, Гранат, Гранатник

Common Names in Sanskrit:

Darimba, Madhubiija

Common Names in Serbian:

Mogranj

Common Names in Slovak:

Granátové Jablko, Granátové Semená (Seeds), Granátovník Púnsky, Granátové Jablko, Granátové Semená, Granátovník Púnsky

Common Names in Slovenian:

Granatno Jabolko

Common Names in Spanish:

Granada, Granado, Mangrano

Common Names in Swahili:

Komamanga, Kudhumani

Common Names in Swedish:

Granatäpple, Granatäpple

Common Names in Tagalog:

Delima, Granada

Common Names in Tamil:

Madulai, Madulam, Mandulai, Mātuḷai, மாதுளை

Common Names in Telugu:

Dadima Pandu, Danimma, Danimmapandu, Dhanimmapandu, దాడిమ పండు

Common Names in Thai:

Ma Ko, Tap Tim, Thap Thim, ทับทิม

Common Names in Turkish:

Nar, Rumman

Common Names in Ukrainian:

Granat, Ґранат

Common Names in Urdu:

Anaar

Common Names in Vietnamese:

Cây Lựu, Lựu

Description

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Family Lythraceae

Herbs, shrubs , or trees ; young stems often quadrangular . Leaves opposite, often decussate, or whorled , rarely subalternate to alternate, simple , entire; pinnately veined, secondary veins typically joined in a series of intramarginal arches; stipules vestigial or absent. Inflorescences racemes , cymes, or panicles; flowers axillary or terminal , usually 4-, 6- or 8-merous, sometimes 3- or 5-merous, bisexual , regular or irregular. Floral tube perigynous, hemi-epigynous, or epigynous , persistent in fruit, membranous to leathery, often 6-12-ribbed; sepals valvate , equal to much shorter than floral tube, membranous to thickly leathery, persistent; epicalyx alternating with sepals or absent. Petals inserted at rim of floral tube, alternating with sepals, crinkled , clawed or not, frequently caducous , rarely absent. Stamens usually biseriate and 2 × as many as sepals, sometimes uniseriate , inserted near base of floral tube or higher, or numerous , multiseriate, with at least some inserted at floral rim just below sepals (Punica, Sonneratia, and some Duabanga) ; anthers versatile [rarely basifixed ]. Ovary superior, half-inferior, or inferior, 2-6- or multi-loculed, with many ovules per locule; style simple; stigma capitate, conic-peltate, or punctiform ; placentation axile , sometimes free central at fruit maturity. Fruit partly or completely surrounded by persistent floral tube , loculicidally dehiscent or irregularly dehiscent capsules, infrequently indehiscent, leathery, or berrylike. Seeds usually numerous, without endosperm; embryo straight, cotyledons flat or convolute.

About 31 genera and 625-650 species: widespread in tropical regions , less common in temperate regions ; ten genera and 43 species (ten endemic, four introduced ) in China.

From the morphological standpoint, the Lythraceae sensu lato (including Trapaceae) have a very generalized morphology, without a single unique, defining character, i.e. , there is no morphological synapomorphy that defines the family . At the same time, the genera are distinct . The position of the ovary in Duabanga, Punica, Sonneratia, and Trapa is variable: superior to partly inferior in Sonneratia; partly inferior in Duabanga; and partly, nearly, or completely inferior in Punica and Trapa. Several other features ally these genera to the Lythraceae sensu stricto, including opposite and simple leaves, commonly held wood anatomical characters (true for the Myrtales generally), development of a persistent floral tube, valvate sepals, 4- or 6-merous flowers, introrse and versatile anthers, axile placentation , and seeds without endosperm. Of the four genera, Trapa is the most divergent, but still sufficiently similar to the Lythraceae and Onagraceae to have been considered for membership within either family, or as a closely related family (as has been done in the present Flora ) . The inclusion of Sonneratia, Duabanga, and Punica in the Lythraceae adds some additional derived features to the definition of the family, but at the same time, brings together taxa that we know, from molecular sequence data, represent a single historical lineage . That knowledge of evolutionary relationship is lost if the genera are maintained as separate families, whereas the taxonomic utility of the Flora is not affected by their inclusion in an expanded Lythraceae.

The molecular data from four genes (three chloroplast and one nuclear ) unquestionably place not only Duabanga, Punica, and Sonneratia, but also Trapa, within the Lythraceae. Punica is well supported as a member of a clade of genera that includes Capuronia Lourteig, Galpinia N. E. Brown, and Pemphis (from East Africa and Madagascar) . Duabanga and Lagerstroemia are sister genera, and Sonneratia and Trapa, as unlikely as it may seem morphologically, are also sister genera. Duabanga, Lagerstroemia, Sonneratia, and Trapa together form one of seven clades in the family.[1]

Genus Punica

Shrubs or small trees ; branches often terminating as spines. Leaves opposite or subopposite, sometimes crowded on short lateral shoots , simple , entire, estipulate. Flowers solitary, terminal or 1-5 in axillary or terminal clusters, actinomorphic , bisexual . Floral tube thick, leathery, adnate to ovary and produced above it; sepals thick, valvate , persistent . Petals showy, red [or white], strongly crumpled. Stamens numerous , covering inner surface of floral tube from rim to ovary. Ovary inferior, multiloculed; style exserted; stigma capitate. Fruit berrylike, with leathery rind , retaining a crown of sepals. Seeds many, with translucent , juicy sarcotesta ; cotyledons spirally rolled.

Two species: one endemic to the Indian Ocean island of Socotra; one of uncertain native origin , probably from C and SW Asia, now widespread in cultivation.[2]

Physical Description

Species Punica granatum

Shrubs or small trees , 2-3 m tall, glabrous . Branches and branchlets 4-angled, becoming terete with age, often terminating as indurate spines. Petiole 2-10 mm; leaf blade adaxially shiny, lanceolate, elliptic-oblanceolate, or oblong , 2-9 × 1-2 cm, base attenuate, apex obtuse or mucronate . Floral tube red-orange or pale yellow, campanulate-urceolate, 2-3 × 1-1.5 cm; sepals 5-9, erect , deltate. Petals 5-9, bright red-orange [or white], obovate , 1.5-3 × 1-2 cm, apex rounded or obtuse. Stamens numerous , included to exserted. Ovary 8-13-loculed, in 2 or 3 superposed layers, lower locules with axile placentation , upper ones with apparent parietal placentation . Fruit globose , leathery berries , variable in color, red to yellow-green or red-brown, 5-12 cm in diam., crowned by persistent sepals, irregularly dehiscent . Seeds obpyramidal within juicy sarcotestal layer, ruby-red, pink, or yellowish white. Fl. Mar-Jul. 2n = 16, 18. [source]

Habit: Tree or large shrub . • Growth Form: StoloniferousShape and Orientation: Vase

Flowers: Bloom Period: SpringFlower Color: Orange • Flower Conspicuous: Yes

Seeds: Seed per Pound: 2400 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: No

Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Porous • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No

Size/Age/Growth

Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 20.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 20 • Size: 15-20' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan

Habitat

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).[3]

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: PerennialCoppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: FallFruit/Seed Persistence: Yes

Growth

Culture: Space 15-20' apart.

Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: Medium • CaCO3 Tolerance: None • Minimum pH: 6.0 • Maximum pH: 6.9 • Fertility Requirement: Medium

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Intermediate

Moisture: Drought Tolerance: None • Minimum Precipitation: 30 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: Medium

Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -13°F. • Minimum Frost Free Days: 140 • Cold Hardiness: 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)

Taxonomy

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Similar Species

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Members of the genus Punica

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 26 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

P. granatum (Granate Apple) · P. granatum f. plena (Pomegranate) · P. granatum var. nana (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum var. Sweet (Sweet Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Ambrosia' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Ato Shibori' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'California Sunset' (California Sunset Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Emperor' (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Garnet Sash' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Hiza Kuro' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Judai Zakuro' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Kashmir' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Lone Pine' (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Nochi Shibari' (Nochi Shibari Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Omi' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Orange Master' (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Piipg-i' (Pomegranate 'piipg-I') · P. granatum 'Pink Satin' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Red Silk' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Sarasa Shibori' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Sharp Velvet' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Shirobotan' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Toyosho' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Twisted Trunk' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Wonderful' (Fruiting Pomegranate) · P. protopunica (Pomegranate Tree)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Haining Qin, Shirley A. Graham & Michael G. Gilbert "Lythraceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 274, 290, 400. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Haining Qin & Shirley A. Graham "Punica". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 274, 275, 283. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. Mean = 400.300 meters (1,313.320 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,080.570 based on 212 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-07