Spiny shrub from Iran, with large edible fruits the size of a baseball.
- Punica granatum is grown for its showy flowers and edible fruit (pomegranate). It was probably introduced to China from C Asia or Europe during the Han dynasty (207 BCE to 220 CE ). [source]
- This unique fruit is pleasantly acidic, juicy, and refreshing. The dried seeds, an important spice in Indian cuisine, are used to flavor chutneys, lentils, stuffing, and breads, while the juice is used to make delicious jellies.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Albanian:
Common Names in Arabic:
Roman, Ruman, Rumman, رمان, رُمَّان
Common Names in Armenian:
Noor, Noor (Nur), Nur, Նուր
Common Names in Assamese:
Common Names in Azerbaijani:
Common Names in Bengali:
Common Names in Bulgarian:
Common Names in Catalan:
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in Croatian:
Ipak, Nar, Šipak
Common Names in Czech:
Granátové Jablko, Granátovník, Granátovník Obecný, Granátové Jablko, Granátovník, Granátovník Obecný, Marhaník, Marhaník
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Granate Apple, Pomegranate, Pomegranate Bark (Stem & Root), Pomegranate Rind (Fruit)
Common Names in Esperanto:
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Ecorce De Grenade (écorce-Rind), Ecorce De Grenadier (écorce-Bark), Grenade, Grenade (Fruit), Grenadier, Grenadier (Tree)
Common Names in Georgian:
Common Names in German:
Granatapfel, Granatapfelbaum, Granatapfelstrauch, Granatwurzelrinde (Rind)
Common Names in Greek:
Common Names in Greek, Modern:
Rodi, Rodia, Ρόδι, Ροδιά
Common Names in Gujarati:
Dadam, Dadam (Fresh Fruit), Dadamna Bee, Dadamna Bee (Dried Seeds)
Common Names in Hebrew:
Rimmon, Rimon, רימון
Common Names in Hindi:
Anaar (Anar), Anar, Anardana, Anardana (Dried Seeds), अनार
Common Names in Hungarian:
Gránátalma, Gránátalma, Közönséges Gránátalma, Pomagránát, Termesztett Gránátalma
Common Names in Icelandic:
Common Names in Indonesian:
Common Names in Italian:
Granato, Granato a Frutto Dolce, Melagrana, Melagrano Gentile, Melo Granato Domestico Pomogranato, Melograno, Melograno a Frutto Gentile
Common Names in Japanese:
Se-Ki-Ri-(yu)-U, Sekiryu, Za-Ku-Ro, Zakuro, ざくろ, ザクロ, セキリュウ, 石榴
Common Names in Kannada:
Dalimba, Dalimbe, ದಾಳಿಂಬೆ
Common Names in Kazakh:
Anar, Anar Ağaşı, Anar Ağašy, Анар, Анар ағашы
Common Names in Korean:
Seog Ryu (Seok Ryu), Seog-Ryu, Seongnyu, Skryunann, Songnyu, 석류
Common Names in Lao:
Kok Mak Phi La
Common Names in Laotian:
Kok Mak Phi La
Common Names in Latin:
Cortex Fructus Granati, Cortex Malicorii, Cortex Radicis Granati, Flores Balaustia, Flores Balaustinorum, Flores Granati, Malicorium, Pericarpium Granati
Common Names in Lithuanian:
Common Names in Malay:
Buah Delima, Delima, Delima (Bali), Delima (Indonesia)
Common Names in Malayalam:
Common Names in Maltese:
Common Names in Marathi:
Anardana, Dalimb, Dalimb Sal (Rind), Dalimba (Fresh Fruit), ḍāḷīmbāce Dāṇe, Dalimbache Dane, Dalimbache Dane (Dried Seeds), अनारदाना, डाळींब, डाळींबाचे दाणे
Common Names in Nepalese:
Anaar, Daariim, Daarim
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Oriya:
Common Names in Persian:
Anaar, Anar, Ruman (Syria), انار
Common Names in Polish:
Granat, Granatowiec Waciwy (Tree), Granatowiec Właściwy
Common Names in Portuguese:
Portuguese, Romã (Brazil), Romã De Flor Dobrada (Brazil), Romã-De-Flor-Dobrada, Romãzeira (Tree), Romã, Romanzeiro, Romãzeira, Romeira, Romeira (Brazil), Romeira Da Granada (Brazil), Romeira-Da-Granada
Common Names in Punjabi:
Common Names in Romanian:
Common Names in Russian:
Granat, Granatnik, Гранат, Гранатник
Common Names in Sanskrit:
Common Names in Serbian:
Common Names in Slovak:
Granátové Jablko, Granátové Semená (Seeds), Granátovník Púnsky, Granátové Jablko, Granátové Semená, Granátovník Púnsky
Common Names in Slovenian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Granada, Granado, Mangrano
Common Names in Swahili:
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Tagalog:
Common Names in Tamil:
Madulai, Madulam, Mandulai, Mātuḷai, மாதுளை
Common Names in Telugu:
Dadima Pandu, Danimma, Danimmapandu, Dhanimmapandu, దాడిమ పండు
Common Names in Thai:
Ma Ko, Tap Tim, Thap Thim, ทับทิม
Common Names in Turkish:
Common Names in Ukrainian:
Common Names in Urdu:
Common Names in Vietnamese:
Cây Lựu, Lựu
, or trees
; young stems often quadrangular
. Leaves opposite, often decussate, or whorled
, rarely subalternate to alternate, simple
, entire; pinnately veined, secondary veins typically joined in a series of intramarginal
arches; stipules vestigial or absent. Inflorescences racemes
, cymes, or panicles; flowers axillary
, usually 4-, 6- or 8-merous, sometimes 3- or 5-merous, bisexual
, regular or irregular. Floral tube
perigynous, hemi-epigynous, or epigynous
in fruit, membranous to leathery, often 6-12-ribbed; sepals valvate
, equal to much shorter than floral tube, membranous to thickly leathery, persistent; epicalyx
alternating with sepals or absent. Petals inserted
of floral tube, alternating with sepals, crinkled
, clawed or not, frequently caducous
, rarely absent. Stamens usually biseriate
and 2 Ã— as many as sepals, sometimes uniseriate
, inserted near base
of floral tube or higher, or numerous
, multiseriate, with at least some inserted at floral
rim just below sepals (Punica, Sonneratia, and some Duabanga) ; anthers
versatile [rarely basifixed
]. Ovary superior, half-inferior, or inferior, 2-6- or multi-loculed, with many ovules per locule; style simple; stigma capitate, conic-peltate, or punctiform
; placentation axile
, sometimes free
central at fruit maturity. Fruit partly or completely surrounded by persistent floral tube
, loculicidally dehiscent
or irregularly dehiscent capsules, infrequently indehiscent, leathery, or berrylike. Seeds usually numerous, without endosperm; embryo straight, cotyledons flat or convolute.
About 31 genera and 625-650 species: widespread in tropical regions , less common in temperate regions ; ten genera and 43 species (ten endemic, four introduced ) in China.
From the morphological standpoint, the Lythraceae sensu lato (including Trapaceae) have a very generalized morphology, without a single unique, defining character, i.e. , there is no morphological synapomorphy that defines the family . At the same time, the genera are distinct . The position of the ovary in Duabanga, Punica, Sonneratia, and Trapa is variable: superior to partly inferior in Sonneratia; partly inferior in Duabanga; and partly, nearly, or completely inferior in Punica and Trapa. Several other features ally these genera to the Lythraceae sensu stricto, including opposite and simple leaves, commonly held wood anatomical characters (true for the Myrtales generally), development of a persistent floral tube, valvate sepals, 4- or 6-merous flowers, introrse and versatile anthers, axile placentation , and seeds without endosperm. Of the four genera, Trapa is the most divergent, but still sufficiently similar to the Lythraceae and Onagraceae to have been considered for membership within either family, or as a closely related family (as has been done in the present Flora ) . The inclusion of Sonneratia, Duabanga, and Punica in the Lythraceae adds some additional derived features to the definition of the family, but at the same time, brings together taxa that we know, from molecular sequence data, represent a single historical lineage . That knowledge of evolutionary relationship is lost if the genera are maintained as separate families, whereas the taxonomic utility of the Flora is not affected by their inclusion in an expanded Lythraceae.
The molecular data from four genes (three chloroplast and one nuclear ) unquestionably place not only Duabanga, Punica, and Sonneratia, but also Trapa, within the Lythraceae. Punica is well supported as a member of a clade of genera that includes Capuronia Lourteig, Galpinia N. E. Brown, and Pemphis (from East Africa and Madagascar) . Duabanga and Lagerstroemia are sister genera, and Sonneratia and Trapa, as unlikely as it may seem morphologically, are also sister genera. Duabanga, Lagerstroemia, Sonneratia, and Trapa together form one of seven clades in the family.
or small trees
; branches often terminating as spines. Leaves opposite or subopposite, sometimes crowded on short lateral
, entire, estipulate. Flowers solitary, terminal
or 1-5 in axillary
or terminal clusters, actinomorphic
. Floral tube
thick, leathery, adnate
to ovary and produced
above it; sepals thick, valvate
. Petals showy, red [or white], strongly crumpled. Stamens numerous
, covering inner surface of floral tube from rim
to ovary. Ovary inferior, multiloculed; style exserted; stigma capitate. Fruit berrylike, with leathery rind
, retaining a crown of sepals. Seeds many, with translucent
, juicy sarcotesta
; cotyledons spirally rolled.
Two species: one endemic to the Indian Ocean island of Socotra; one of uncertain native origin , probably from C and SW Asia, now widespread in cultivation.
Species Punica granatum
Shrubs or small trees , 2-3 m tall, glabrous . Branches and branchlets 4-angled, becoming terete with age, often terminating as indurate spines. Petiole 2-10 mm; leaf blade adaxially shiny, lanceolate, elliptic-oblanceolate, or oblong , 2-9 × 1-2 cm, base attenuate, apex obtuse or mucronate . Floral tube red-orange or pale yellow, campanulate-urceolate, 2-3 × 1-1.5 cm; sepals 5-9, erect , deltate. Petals 5-9, bright red-orange [or white], obovate , 1.5-3 × 1-2 cm, apex rounded or obtuse. Stamens numerous , included to exserted. Ovary 8-13-loculed, in 2 or 3 superposed layers, lower locules with axile placentation , upper ones with apparent parietal placentation . Fruit globose , leathery berries , variable in color, red to yellow-green or red-brown, 5-12 cm in diam., crowned by persistent sepals, irregularly dehiscent . Seeds obpyramidal within juicy sarcotestal layer, ruby-red, pink, or yellowish white. Fl. Mar-Jul. 2n = 16, 18. [source]
Habit: Tree or large shrub . • Growth Form: Stoloniferous • Shape and Orientation: Vase
Flowers: Bloom Period: Spring • Flower Color: Orange • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 2400 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Porous • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 20.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 20 • Size: 15-20' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Space 15-20' apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: Medium • CaCO3 Tolerance: None • Minimum pH: 6.0 • Maximum pH: 6.9 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Intermediate
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: None • Minimum Precipitation: 30 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -13°F. • Minimum Frost Free Days: 140 • Cold Hardiness: 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Reichenbach, 1828
- Family: Lythraceae () - Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805 - loosestrife
- Suborder: Lythrineae ()
- Order: Myrtales () - Reichenbach, 1828
- Superorder: Myrtanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Punica
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 26 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. granatum (Granate Apple) · P. granatum f. plena (Pomegranate) · P. granatum var. nana (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum var. Sweet (Sweet Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Ambrosia' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Ato Shibori' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'California Sunset' (California Sunset Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Emperor' (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Garnet Sash' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Hiza Kuro' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Judai Zakuro' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Kashmir' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Lone Pine' (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Nochi Shibari' (Nochi Shibari Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Omi' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Orange Master' (Dwarf Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Piipg-i' (Pomegranate 'piipg-I') · P. granatum 'Pink Satin' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Red Silk' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Sarasa Shibori' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Sharp Velvet' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Shirobotan' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Toyosho' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Twisted Trunk' (Pomegranate) · P. granatum 'Wonderful' (Fruiting Pomegranate) · P. protopunica (Pomegranate Tree)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- GBIF-Spain, BDBCV BioBlitz in Penyagolosa
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Hortus Botanicus Sollerensis Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Almería, HUAL
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), EURISCO
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Vienna, Institute for Botany - Herbarium WU, Herbarium WU
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3874764
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-27278
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:554129-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 30372
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 27278
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 554129-1
- IUCN ID: 238111
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PUGR2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 58814
- Haining Qin, Shirley A. Graham & Michael G. Gilbert "Lythraceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 274, 290, 400. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Haining Qin & Shirley A. Graham "Punica". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 274, 275, 283. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 400.300 meters (1,313.320 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,080.570 based on 212 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]