Common Names in English:
American Pasque Flower, American Pasqueflower, Eastern Pasqueflower, May Day Flower, Pasque Flower, Pasqueflower, Prairie Crocus
, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
, often covered with long soft hairs
. Rhizome erect
. Leaves basal, rosulate; petiole
long; leaf blade
palmately or odd pinnately divided
; veins palmate. Scape with 3 bracts forming a bell-shaped
involucre; involucral bracts
and apically ± deeply divided into numerous
. Flower solitary, bisexual
. Sepals 5 or 6. Petals absent. Stamens numerous, outermost whorl staminodial except in Pulsatilla kostyczewii; anthers
yellow or purple, oblong
, narrowly ellipsoid
, or linear
, with one longitudinal
. Pistils numerous; ovule 1 per ovary. Styles long linear, pilose
, strongly elongated and plumose
. Achenes small, spindle-shaped
, pilose, with a long plumose beak formed by persistent
About 33 species: Asia, Europe, North America; 11 species (one endemic) in China.
Although Pulsatilla can easily be distinguished from Anemone by the former having a long, plumose beak on the achenes formed by the persistent style, phylogenetic studies have shown that they are probably congeneric .
Species Pulsatilla patens
Plants to 40 cm tall. Rhizome cylindric , branched distally. Leaves 5, not fully expanded at anthesis ; petiole 5.5--15 cm, with thick long pilose hairs ; leaf blade nearly kidney-shaped, rounded-ovate, or 5-angled, 2.5--7 × 4.5--11 cm, ± equally 3-foliolate, abaxially with white hairs, adaxially glabrous , base broadly cordate; lateral leaflets subsessile , unevenly 2-lobed; central leaflet subsessile or with a 1--4 mm petiolule , deeply 3-lobed, lobes entire or dissected , ultimate lobes triangular to narrowly linear and 2--3.5 mm wide. Scapes erect , elongated in fruit, with hairs; involucral bracts 3.5--4.5 cm, basally connate into a 0.8--1.2 mm tube , apical palmate lobes linear, abaxially thickly puberulent . Sepals lilac to blue-violet, rarely milk-white to yellowish (subsp. flavescens), erect, oblong-ovate, ca. 3 × 1 cm, inside glabrous, outside sparsely hairy . Anthers yellow. Infructescences ca. 5 cm in diam. Achenes ca. 5 mm, thickly puberulent. Persistent styles 2.8--4.8 cm. Fl. Jun--Jul. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April, May, June. • Flower Color: lavender, purple, violet
Size: 6-12" tall.
Grassy slopes , mountain slopes under forests ; ca. 1100 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,632 meters (0 to 11,916 feet).
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 17-Oct-2001
Members of the genus Pulsatilla
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 21 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. albana 'Lutea' (Albania Pasque-Flower) · P. bungeana (Pasque Flower) · P. grandis (Greater Pasque Flower) · P. halleri (Hallers Pasque-Flower) · P. occidentalis (Western Pasque Flower) · P. patens (American Pasque Flower) · P. patens multifida (American Pasqueflower) · P. patens patens (American Pasqueflower) · P. patens subsp. multifida (American Pasqueflower) · P. slavica (Slovak Pasque Flower) · P. subslavica (Intermediate Pasque Flower) · P. vulgaris (European Pasque Flower) · P. vulgaris Mill. 'Rubra' (Pasque Flower) · P. vulgaris 'Alba' (Pasque Flower) · P. vulgaris 'Blaue Glocke' (Pasque Flower) · P. vulgaris 'Heiler Hybrids' (Heiler Hybrids Pasque Flower) · P. vulgaris 'Papageno' (Pasqueflower) · P. vulgaris 'Perlen Glocke' (Windflower 'perlen Glocke') · P. vulgaris 'Rode Klokke' (Rode Klokke Pasqueflower) · P. vulgaris 'Rote Glocke' (Pasque Flower) · P. vulgaris 'Watermelon Pink' (Pasque Flower)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 01, 2008:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- Institute of Nature Conservation PAS, National System of Proetcted Areas
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645598
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18800
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13729723
- GRIN Nomen Number: 30367
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18799
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PUPA5
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 58798
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Wang Wencai, Bruce Bartholomew "Pulsatilla". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 329. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Pulsatilla patens". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 331. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 908.530 meters (2,980.741 feet), Standard Deviation = 817.350 based on 540 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]