, rarely woody at base
, stem hollow or solid. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or basal; petiole
at base; stipules absent (except in subfam. Hydrocotyloideae) ; leaf blade
or sometimes simple
, usually much incised or divided
, or ternate-pinnately decompound
. Flowers epigynous
, small, bisexual
male), regular, in simple or compound umbels; umbellules few to many-flowered; rays often subtended by bracts forming a involucre; umbellules (sometimes called umbellets
) usually subtended by bracteoles forming an involucel
. Pedicels long, short or obsolete
(then forming a capitate umbellule) . Calyx tube
to the ovary; calyx teeth (sometimes called sepals) small or obsolete, forming a ring
around the top of the ovary. Ovary inferior, 2-celled, with one anatropous ovule
in each locule. Styles 2, usually swollen at the base forming a stylopodium
which often secretes nectar. Fruit dry, of two mericarps united
by their faces
), and usually attached to a central axis (carpophore), from which the mericarps separate at maturity; mericarps are variously flattened dorsally
, laterally or terete
; each mericarp has 5 primary ribs
, one down
the back (dorsal rib), two on the edges
near the commissure (lateral
), and two between the dorsal and lateral ribs (intermediate ribs), occasionally with four secondary ribs
alternating with the primary
, the ribs filiform
to broadly winged
, thin or corky; vittae (oil-tubes) usually present in the furrow (intervals between the ribs sometimes called the valleculae) and on the commissure face, rarely also in the pericarp, sometimes obscure
. Each mericarp 1-seeded, splitting
apart at maturity. Seed face (commissural
Between 250 and 440( 455) genera and 3300 3700 species: widely distributed in the temperate zone of both hemispheres, mainly in Eurasia and especially in C Asia; 100 genera (ten endemic) and 614 species (340 endemic) in China.
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subclass: Cornidae () - Frohne & Jensen Ex Reveal, 1994
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Ptychotis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 222.
- Hortus suburbanus Calcuttensis; A catalogue of the plants which have been cultivated in the Hon. East India Company's botanical garden, Calcutta, and in the Serampore botanical garden. By the late J. O. Voigt, printed under the superintendence of W. Griffith. Calcutta, Bishop's College Press, 1845. url p. 23.
- Spicilegium florae Maroccanae / by John Ball. London: Printed by Taylor and Francis, 1878. url p. 470.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 16 1878 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 470.
- The natural history of Pliny. London, H. G. Bohn, 1855-57. url p. 148.
- The natural history of Pliny. Tr., with copious notes and illustrations, by the late John Bostock and H. T. Riley. London, H. G. Bohn, 1855-57. url p. 148.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 16, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10506569
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15018416
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:847694-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2156851