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Prunus serotina

(Alabama Cherry)

Overview

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Interesting Facts

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Common Names

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Common Names in English:

Alabama Cherry, Black Cherry, Black Choke, Black Chokecherry, Cabinet Cherry, Rum Cherry, Wild Black Cherry, Wild Cherry

Description

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Family Rosaceae

Trees , shrubs , or herbs, deciduous or evergreen . Stems erect , scandent , arching , prostrate , or creeping , armed or unarmed . Buds usually with several exposed scales , sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple or compound ; stipules paired , free or adnate to petiole , rarely absent, persistent or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade often serrate at margin , rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate , corymbose , racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic , bisexual , rarely unisexual and then plants dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate . Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed . Stamens usually numerous , rarely few, always in a complete ring at margin of or above disk; filaments usually free, very rarely connate ; anthers small, didymous , rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous , superposed . Styles as many as carpels, terminal , lateral , or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged , usually exalbuminous , very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy and convex abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.

Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.

Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera

Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .

The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. [1]

Genus Prunus

Trees or shrubs , deciduous. Branchlets sometimes spine-tipped. Axillary winter bud solitary, ovoid ; terminal winter bud absent. Stipules membranous, soon caducous . Leaves simple , alternate, convolute [or conduplicate ] when young; petiolate or sessile; petiole apex or base of leaf blade margin with or without nectaries; leaf blade margin variously crenate or coarsely serrate. Inflorescences apparently axillary, solitary or to 3-flowered in a fascicle; bracts small, soon caducous. Flowers opening before or at same time as leaves. Hypanthium campanulate . Sepals 5, imbricate. Petals 5, white, sometimes purple-veined, rarely greenish, inserted on rim of hypanthium, imbricate. Stamens 20-30, in 2 whorls; filaments unequal. Carpel 1; ovary superior, 1-loculed, glabrous or sometimes villous ; ovules 2, collateral , pendulous. Style terminal, elongated. Fruit a drupe, glabrous, often glaucous, usually with a longitudinal groove ; mesocarp fleshy , not splitting when ripe ; endocarp laterally compressed , smooth , rarely grooved or rugose .

About 30 species: Asia, Europe, North America; seven species (two endemic, three introduced ) in China.

Many plum species are cultivated for their edible fruit and some for their flowers.[2]

Physical Description

ID Features: Deciduous tree. Alternate leaf arrangement. Serrulate leaf margins. Ovate leaf shape. White flowers. Round, purplish-red fleshy fruit.

Habit: A dense deciduous tree with an oval crown and a slightly weeping habit.

Flowers: White flowers. 0.33" acorss. Fragrant. Blooms in May. Borne in pendulous racemes , 4" to 6" long. Showy. • Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: near white, white

Seeds: Fruit: Rounded , purplish-red drupe. 0.33" in diameter. Edible. Mature in August.

Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Simple , deciduous leaves. Serrulate margins . Ovate leaf shape. 2" to 5" long. Dark green leaf color. • Fall foliage: Yellow to ornage fall color.

Size/Age/Growth

Growth Rate: Rapid. • Size: 60' to 90' tall, 35' to 50' wide.

Landscaping

Landscape Uses: Along highways. For weeping effect. • Liabilities: Fall webworm. Foliage is poisonous. Tent caterpillars. • Care: Low maintenance . Tolerates rabbits. Young plants need extra phosphorus to encourage good root development.

Habitat

Hhardy to zone 3.

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).[3]

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: Perennial

Growth

Culture: Prefers deep, moist, fertile soil. Full sun to part shade. Salt tolernat. Drought tolerant .

Soil: Tolerates a range of pH, from 4.5 to 7.5, and soil ranging from sandy loam to some clay . Soil can be normal to moist. • Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .

Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a. (map)

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Cerasus serotina (Ehrh.) Loisel. • Padus serotina (Ehrh.) Borkh.

Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Prunus

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 860 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

P. africana (Red Stinkwood) · P. alleghaniensis (Allegheny Plum) · P. americana (American Plum) · P. amygdalus (Chokecherry) · P. amygdalus 'All in One' (Almond) · P. amygdalus 'Garden Prince' (Almond) · P. amygdalus 'Neplus' (Almond) · P. amygdalus 'Nonpareil' (Almond) · P. andersonii (Anderson's Peachbrush) · P. angustifolia (Chickasaw Plum) · P. angustifolia var. watsonii (Watsons Plum) · P. angustifolia 'Guthrie' (Chickasaw Plum) · P. armeniaca (Apricot) · P. armeniaca x domestica x domestica 'Dapple Dandy' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca x domestica x domestica 'Flavorella' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca x domestica x domestica 'Flavorich' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca x domestica x domestica 'Flavorosa' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca x domestica x domestica 'Flavor Delight' (Aprium) · P. armeniaca x domestica x domestica 'Flavor Grenade' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca x domestica x domestica 'Flavor King' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca x domestica x domestica 'Flavor Queen' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca x domestica x domestica 'Flavor Supreme' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca x domestica x domestica 'Geo Pride' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca x domestica 'Parfait' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca x domestica 'Spring Satin' (Plumcot) · P. armeniaca 'Ac Haroprime' (Apricot 'ac Haroprime') · P. armeniaca 'Autumn Glo' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Aviclo' (Apricot 'aviclo') · P. armeniaca 'Blenheim Royal' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Canadien White Blenheim' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Candide' (Apricot 'candide') · P. armeniaca 'Chinese' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Cluthafire' (Apricot 'cluthafire') · P. armeniaca 'Deatrich' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Ea3126th' (Apricot 'ea3126th') · P. armeniaca 'Ea4006' (Apricot 'ea4006') · P. armeniaca 'Earli-Autumn' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Faralia' (Apricot 'faralia') · P. armeniaca 'Farbaly' (Apricot 'farbaly') · P. armeniaca 'Farclo' (Apricot 'farclo') · P. armeniaca 'Fardao' (Apricot 'fardao') · P. armeniaca 'Farely' (Apricot 'farely') · P. armeniaca 'Farfia' (Apricot 'farfia') · P. armeniaca 'Farhial' (Apricot 'farhial') · P. armeniaca 'Flodea' (Apricot 'flodea') · P. armeniaca 'Floneca' (Apricot 'floneca') · P. armeniaca 'Flopria' (Apricot 'flopria') · P. armeniaca 'Frisson' (Apricot 'frisson') · P. armeniaca 'Fritz' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'GA 10F' (Apricot 'ga 10f') · P. armeniaca 'Goldbar' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Goldcot' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Goldrich' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Goldstrike' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Harcot' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Harglow' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Hargrand' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Harlayne' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Haroblush' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Harogem' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Harojoy' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Harostar' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Harval' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Helene' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Hunza' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Jerseycot' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Magic Cot' (Apricot 'magic Cot') · P. armeniaca 'Medaga' (Apricot 'medaga') · P. armeniaca 'Moorpark' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Patterson' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Priabel' (Apricot 'priabel') · P. armeniaca 'Primarel' (Apricot 'primarel') · P. armeniaca 'Primarina' (Apricot 'primarina') · P. armeniaca 'Primaris' (Apricot 'primaris') · P. armeniaca 'Primaya' (Apricot 'primaya') · P. armeniaca 'Puget Gold' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Ravilong' (Apricot 'ravilong') · P. armeniaca 'Ravival' (Apricot 'ravival') · P. armeniaca 'Shalhala' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Stark Sweetheart' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Suaprieight' (Apricot 'suaprieight') · P. armeniaca 'Suapriseven' (Apricot 'suapriseven') · P. armeniaca 'Tilton' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Tomcot' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Torraviun' (Apricot 'torraviun') · P. armeniaca 'Veecot' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Velvaglo' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Vertige' (Apricot 'vertige') · P. armeniaca 'Vivagold' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Westley' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Wilson Delicious' (Apricot) · P. armeniaca 'Wonder Cot' (Apricot 'wonder Cot') · P. avium (Mazzard Cherry) · P. avium (L.) L. 'Sam' (Sweet Cherry) · P. avium 'Almaden Duke' (Sweet Cherry) · P. avium 'Bing' (Sweet Cherry) · P. avium 'Black Tartarian' (Sweet Cherry) · P. avium 'Compacstella' (Sweet Cherry) · P. avium 'Craig's Crimson' (Sweet Cherry) · P. avium 'Early Burlat' (Sweet Cherry)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 29, 2008:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Ku Tsue-chih, Bruce Bartholomew "Prunus". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 401. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. Mean = 199.400 meters (654.199 feet), Standard Deviation = 387.790 based on 2,118 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-23