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Common Names in English:
Common Names in French:
Polypode De Sibérie
, on rock, or often epiphytic, erect
, or occasionally pendent. Stems long- to short-creeping, branched or not, bearing scales
and few to numerous
, usually dictyostelic. Leaves monomorphic
in bud. Petiole
, as in Loxogramme ], lacking scales or sometimes scaly
, with usually 3 vascular bundles
. Blade simple
to often pinnatifid
, or pinnate, infrequently more divided
; rachis grooved
or not adaxially. Veins free
(and simple to several times forked
) to often anastomosing in complex
, areoles with or without included
. Indument on blade
absent, or petiole, rachis, costae, and sometimes blade tissue usually bearing hairs
(these often septate
and with reddish crosswalls) and/or scales. Sori borne abaxially on veins, round
, occasionally elongate
, rarely marginal
, rarely covering surface; paraphyses present or absent; sporangia with stalk
of 2 or 3 rows
; indusia absent. Spores usually transparent or yellowish (rarely greenish), all 1 kind, bilateral
, monolete [rarely trilete, as in some Loxogramme], surface most often smooth
, or granulate
, occasionally spiny
, 64 per sporangium (spores globose
and 32 per sporangium in apogamous spp.
) . Gametophytes green, aboveground, cordate or elliptic
or sometimes glandular
; archegonia and antheridia borne on lower surface, antheridia 3-celled.
Genera ca. 40, species perhaps 500 (7 genera, 25 species in the flora ) : worldwide, especially tropics and subtropics.
Genera in this family are variously circumscribed, and the New World species historically were placed in the single genus Polypodium . Many of the segregates recognized here are still placed in Polypodium in recent floristic accounts. Limits of genera in both Old World and New World are controversial and are currently under study by several workers.
on rock, occasionally terrestrial
or epiphytic. Stems creeping
, usually branched, 3--15 mm diam., sometimes whitish pruinose
concolored to bicolored
, lanceolate to ovate-acuminate, not clathrate to strongly clathrate, glabrous
entire to denticulate
. Leaves monomorphic
, closely spaced to distant
, not conspicuously narrowed at tip
, to 90 cm. Petiole
to stem, straw-colored, somewhat flattened or grooved
to nearly terete
to deltate, pinnatifid
to 1-pinnate at base
, not pectinate
, usually with fewer than 25 pairs of pinnae, not glaucous or conspicuously scaly
; rachis sparsely scaly to glabrescent
to glabrous adaxially; scales ovate-lanceolate to linear
, not peltate or clathrate. Segments linear to oblong
; margins entire to serrate; apex rounded
to attenuate. Venation
to anastomosing, if strongly anastomosing, then never with more than 1 included
areoles. Sori often confined to distal region of leaf, discrete, circular to oval
, borne at tips of single veins, in 1--3 rows
on either side of midrib
absent or of modified sporangia (sporangiasters), often bearing glandular
on bulbous head
. Spores monolete, rugose
Species ca. 100: worldwide.
Some species traditionally included in Polypodium are treated here in other genera, for example, Pleopeltis and Pecluma.
Except for the tropical species Polypodium triseriale, North American Polypodium is a complex assemblage of interactive species. The North American species have ties to European taxa (e.g. , P . vulgare sensu stricto , which probably originated by allopolyploidy between P . glycyrrhiza and P . sibiricum ) but are quite distinct from them. Morphologic comparisons and continuing biochemical and molecular studies indicate that two groups of diploid species occur within the North American P . vulgare complex. One group includes P . glycyrrhiza and P . californicum ; the second, P . amorphum, P . appalachianum, and P . sibiricum . Allopolyploid species have originated following hybridizations within a species group (i.e. , P . calirhiza from P . glycyrrhiza × californicum, P . saximontanum from P . amorphum × sibiricum, and P . virginianum from P . appalachianum × sibiricum ) as well as between members of the two groups (i.e., P . hesperium from P . amorphum × glycyrrhiza ) . These reticulate relationships are summarized in the reticulogram. We consider P . scouleri to be peripheral to the "core" diploids even though hybrids have been reported.
Species Polypodium sibiricum
Stems often whitish pruinose
, slender, to 6 mm diam., acrid-tasting;
concolored to weakly bicolored
, uniformly dark brown, often
lighter near base
, lanceolate, contorted distally, margins
Leaves to 25 cm. Petiole
slender, to 1 mm diam. Blade
, usually widest at or near middle
, to 4 cm wide, somewhat
leathery; rachis sparsely scaly
adaxially; scales lanceolate-ovate, usually more than 6 cells
, less than 7 mm wide; margins entire to crenulate
to broadly acute; midrib
glabrous adaxially. Venation
. Sori midway between margin and midrib to nearly marginal
than 3 mm diam., circular when immature
. Sporangiasters present,
less than 40 per sorus, heads
normally without glandular
less than 52 µm, tuberculate
, surface projections
more than 3 µm tall. 2 n = 74. Sporulating summer--early fall
This boreal diploid has traditionally been identified as Polypodium virginianum (T. M. C. Taylor 1970; F. A. Lang 1971), but recent investigations indicate that it is conspecific with the eastern Eurasian species P. sibiricum (C. H. Haufler and M. D. Windham 1991). The sporangiasters of P. sibiricum normally lack glands , but some collections have sporangiasters with a few glandular hairs. Although such collections could be misidentified, the spores of P. sibiricum are less than 52 µm and clearly distinguish it from P. virginianum, P. amorphum, and P. saximontanum. Hybridization occurs between P. sibiricum and P. virginianum where these species overlap in Canada, forming triploid individuals with misshapen spores (C. H. Haufler and Wang Z. R. 1991). [source]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Family: Polypodiaceae () - Berchtold & J. Presl, 1820 - common ferns, licorice ferns
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Polypodium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 37 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. amorphum (Irregular Polypody) · P. appalachianum (Appalachian Polypody) · P. attenuatum (Tapered Polypody) · P. bulbiferum (Bulblet Bladderfern) · P. californicum (California Polypody) · P. calirhiza (Nested Polypody) · P. cambricum (Welsh Polypody) · P. carthusianum (Spinulose Wood Fern) · P. dissimile (Forkvein Polypody) · P. dulce (Treetrunk Polypody) · P. exaltatum (Sword Fern) · P. falax (Crested Poly) · P. formosanum (Catepillar Fern) · P. glycyrrhiza (Licorice Fern) · P. hesperium (Western Licorice Fern) · P. hexagonopterum (Broad Beech Fern) · P. ilvense (Rusty Woodsia) · P. interjectum (Polypody) · P. lanceolatum (Lanceleaf Polypody) · P. lonchitis (Northern Holly Fern) · P. loriceum (Clambering Polypody) · P. musifolium (Polypodium) · P. pellucidum (Ae) · P. pellucidum Kaulf. var. vulcanicum Skottsb. (Dotted Polypody) · P. pellucidum var. pellucidum (Dotted Polypody) · P. pellucidum var. vulcanicum (Dotted Polypody) · P. punctatum 'Grandiceps Cobra' (Climbing Bird's Nest Fern) · P. robertianum (Limestone Oak Fern) · P. saximontanum (Rocky Mountain Polypody) · P. scouleri (Coast Polypody) · P. sibiricum (Siberian Polypody) · P. subauriculatum var. knightii (Polypodium) · P. submarginale (Brownhair Lacefern) · P. triseriale (Angle-Vein Fern) · P. virginianum (Common Polypody) · P. virginianum var. peraferens (American Wall Fern) · P. 'Green Wave' (Polypodium)
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- FNA Editorial Committee. 1993&ndash;. Flora of North America. (F NAmer)
- Cranfill, R. and D. M. Britton. 1983. Typification within the Polypodium virginianum complex (Polypodiaceae). Taxon 32: 557--560.
- Evans, A. M. 1971. Polypodium. In: A. M. Evans, ed. 1971. A Review of Systematic Studies of the Pteridophytes of the Southern Appalachians. Blacksburg.
- Haufler, C. H. and M. D. Windham. 1991. New species of North American Cystopteris and Polypodium, with comments on their reticulate relationships. Amer. Fern J. 81: 7--23.
- Haufler, C. H. and Wang Z. R. 1991. Chromosomal analyses and the origin of allopolyploid Polypodium virginianum. Amer. J. Bot. 78: 624--629.
- Lang, F. A. 1971. The Polypodium vulgare complex in the Pacific Northwest. Madroño 21: 235--254.
- Whitmore, S. A. and A. R. Smith. 1991. Recognition of the tetraploid, Polypodium calirhiza (Polypodiaceae), in western North America. Madroño 38: 233--248.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 28, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 2 providers.
- "Polypodium sibiricum". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 30, 2008)
- USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- University of Alaska Museum of the North: University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium (ALA)
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2668782
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-504521
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:17450630-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 403333
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 504521
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPPOL02170
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: POSI5
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 57613
- Alan R. Smith "Polypodiaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Christopher H. Haufler, Michael D. Windham, Frank A. Lang, S. A. Whitmore "Polypodium". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Polypodium sibiricum". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]