, on rock, or often epiphytic, erect
, or occasionally pendent. Stems long- to short-creeping, branched or not, bearing scales
and few to numerous
, usually dictyostelic. Leaves monomorphic
in bud. Petiole
, as in Loxogramme ], lacking scales or sometimes scaly
, with usually 3 vascular bundles
. Blade simple
to often pinnatifid
, or pinnate, infrequently more divided
; rachis grooved
or not adaxially. Veins free
(and simple to several times forked
) to often anastomosing in complex
, areoles with or without included
. Indument on blade
absent, or petiole, rachis, costae, and sometimes blade tissue usually bearing hairs
(these often septate
and with reddish crosswalls) and/or scales. Sori borne abaxially on veins, round
, occasionally elongate
, rarely marginal
, rarely covering surface; paraphyses present or absent; sporangia with stalk
of 2 or 3 rows
; indusia absent. Spores usually transparent or yellowish (rarely greenish), all 1 kind, bilateral
, monolete [rarely trilete, as in some Loxogramme], surface most often smooth
, or granulate
, occasionally spiny
, 64 per sporangium (spores globose
and 32 per sporangium in apogamous spp.
) . Gametophytes green, aboveground, cordate or elliptic
or sometimes glandular
; archegonia and antheridia borne on lower surface, antheridia 3-celled.
Genera ca. 40, species perhaps 500 (7 genera, 25 species in the flora ) : worldwide, especially tropics and subtropics.
Genera in this family are variously circumscribed, and the New World species historically were placed in the single genus Polypodium . Many of the segregates recognized here are still placed in Polypodium in recent floristic accounts. Limits of genera in both Old World and New World are controversial and are currently under study by several workers.
on rock, occasionally terrestrial
or epiphytic. Stems creeping
, usually branched, 3--15 mm diam., sometimes whitish pruinose
concolored to bicolored
, lanceolate to ovate-acuminate, not clathrate to strongly clathrate, glabrous
entire to denticulate
. Leaves monomorphic
, closely spaced to distant
, not conspicuously narrowed at tip
, to 90 cm. Petiole
to stem, straw-colored, somewhat flattened or grooved
to nearly terete
to deltate, pinnatifid
to 1-pinnate at base
, not pectinate
, usually with fewer than 25 pairs of pinnae, not glaucous or conspicuously scaly
; rachis sparsely scaly to glabrescent
to glabrous adaxially; scales ovate-lanceolate to linear
, not peltate or clathrate. Segments linear to oblong
; margins entire to serrate; apex rounded
to attenuate. Venation
to anastomosing, if strongly anastomosing, then never with more than 1 included
areoles. Sori often confined to distal region of leaf, discrete, circular to oval
, borne at tips of single veins, in 1--3 rows
on either side of midrib
absent or of modified sporangia (sporangiasters), often bearing glandular
on bulbous head
. Spores monolete, rugose
Species ca. 100: worldwide.
Some species traditionally included in Polypodium are treated here in other genera, for example, Pleopeltis and Pecluma.
Except for the tropical species Polypodium triseriale, North American Polypodium is a complex assemblage of interactive species. The North American species have ties to European taxa (e.g. , P . vulgare sensu stricto , which probably originated by allopolyploidy between P . glycyrrhiza and P . sibiricum ) but are quite distinct from them. Morphologic comparisons and continuing biochemical and molecular studies indicate that two groups of diploid species occur within the North American P . vulgare complex. One group includes P . glycyrrhiza and P . californicum ; the second, P . amorphum, P . appalachianum, and P . sibiricum . Allopolyploid species have originated following hybridizations within a species group (i.e. , P . calirhiza from P . glycyrrhiza × californicum, P . saximontanum from P . amorphum × sibiricum, and P . virginianum from P . appalachianum × sibiricum ) as well as between members of the two groups (i.e., P . hesperium from P . amorphum × glycyrrhiza ) . These reticulate relationships are summarized in the reticulogram. We consider P . scouleri to be peripheral to the "core" diploids even though hybrids have been reported.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Family: Polypodiaceae () - Berchtold & J. Presl, 1820 - common ferns, licorice ferns
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Sw. Publication : Syn. Fil. (Swartz) 25, 222, t. 2 f. 2 1806
Members of the genus Polypodium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 37 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. amorphum (Irregular Polypody) · P. appalachianum (Appalachian Polypody) · P. attenuatum (Tapered Polypody) · P. bulbiferum (Bulblet Bladderfern) · P. californicum (California Polypody) · P. calirhiza (Nested Polypody) · P. cambricum (Welsh Polypody) · P. carthusianum (Spinulose Wood Fern) · P. dissimile (Forkvein Polypody) · P. dulce (Treetrunk Polypody) · P. exaltatum (Sword Fern) · P. falax (Crested Poly) · P. formosanum (Catepillar Fern) · P. glycyrrhiza (Licorice Fern) · P. hesperium (Western Licorice Fern) · P. hexagonopterum (Broad Beech Fern) · P. ilvense (Rusty Woodsia) · P. interjectum (Polypody) · P. lanceolatum (Lanceleaf Polypody) · P. lonchitis (Northern Holly Fern) · P. loriceum (Clambering Polypody) · P. musifolium (Polypodium) · P. pellucidum (Ae) · P. pellucidum Kaulf. var. vulcanicum Skottsb. (Dotted Polypody) · P. pellucidum var. pellucidum (Dotted Polypody) · P. pellucidum var. vulcanicum (Dotted Polypody) · P. punctatum 'Grandiceps Cobra' (Climbing Bird's Nest Fern) · P. robertianum (Limestone Oak Fern) · P. saximontanum (Rocky Mountain Polypody) · P. scouleri (Coast Polypody) · P. sibiricum (Siberian Polypody) · P. subauriculatum var. knightii (Polypodium) · P. submarginale (Brownhair Lacefern) · P. triseriale (Angle-Vein Fern) · P. virginianum (Common Polypody) · P. virginianum var. peraferens (American Wall Fern) · P. 'Green Wave' (Polypodium)
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- A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns, by J. C. Willis. CambridgeThe University Press, 1919 url p. 270.
- A manual of gardening for Bengal and Upper India. By Thomas A. C. Firminger. .. Calcutta, Thacker, Spink and co.; [etc., etc.]1874. url p. 330.
- A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) / physical features and geology by Charles W. Andrews; with descriptions of the fauna and flora by numerous contributors. London: Printed by order of the Trustees, 1900. url p. 195.
- A systematic catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns indigenous to or growing wild in Ceylon. Colombo: G. J. A. Skeen, 1885. url .
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 9 1905 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 254, p. 353, p. 354, p. 358.
- Ferns and fern culture: their native habitats, organisation, habits of growth, compost for different genera; cultivation in pots, baskets, rockwork, walls; in stove, greenhouse, dwelling-house, and outdoor ferneries; potting Manchester, Eng.; [etc., etc.]The author url .
- Flora hongkongensis: a description of the flowering plants and ferns of the island of Hongkong. By George Bentham. Published under the authority of Her Majesty's secretary of state for the colonies. London, L. Reeve, 1861. url p. 457.
- Garden ferns; or, Coloured figures and descriptions, with the needful analyses of the fructification and venation, of a selection of exotic ferns adapted for cultivation in the garden, hothouse, and conservatory. London, Lovell Reeve, 1862. url , .
- Hand-list of ferns and fern allies cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off., by Darling, 1906. url p. 111.
- Hardwicke's science-gossip: an illustrated medium of interchange and gossip for students and lovers of nature. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1866- url p. 178.
- In the Andamans and Nicobars; the narrative of a cruise in the schooner "Terrapin", with notices of the islands, their fauna, ethnology, etc., by C. Boden Kloss. .. London: J. Murray, 1903. url p. 349.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 266.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 6 1899 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 270, p. 277.
- My garden, its plan and culture together with a general description of its geology, botany, and natural history, London, Bell and Daldy, 1872. url .
- Oxford gardens, based upon Daubeny's Popular guide to the physick garden of Oxford: with notes on the gardens of the colleges and on the University park, by R. T. Günther. Oxford: Parker & son; [etc., etc.], 1912. url p. 101.
- Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Mathematical and physical sciences. Cambridge [etc.]Cambridge Philosophical Society. url p. 92.
- Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76: under the command of Captain George S. Nares, R.N., F.R.S. and Captain Frank Turle Thomson, R.N. / prepared under the superintendence of Sir C. Wyville Thomson. Edinburgh: Neill, 1880-1895. url p. 210.
- Seemann, B. Flora vitiensis: a description of the plants of the Viti or Fiji islands, with an account of their history, uses, and properties /By Berthold Seemann;. .. plates by Walter Fitch. 2 1865-1873 London: L. Reeve, 1865-73. url p. 367.
- Seemann, B. The botany of the voyage of H.M.S. Herald: under the command of Captain Henry Kellett, R.N., C.B., during the years 1845-51 /by Berthold Seemann. 1852-1857 London: Lovell Reeve, 1852-1857. url p. 425, p. 470.
- Species filicum; being descriptions of the known ferns, particularly of such as exist in the author's herbarium, or are with sufficient accuracy described in works to which he has had access; accompanied with numerous by Sir William Jackson Hooker. London, W. Pamplin, 1846-64. url p. 46, p. 48.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 124.
- The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan = Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku kiyo. Rika. Tokyo, Japan: The University, 1898-1925. url p. 638.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 15 1877 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 108, p. 142, p. 201, p. 204, p. 208, p. 32, p. 354, p. 490, p. 542, p. 554, p. 64.
- The Philippine journal of science. 11 1916 Manila. url p. 114, p. 331, p. 43.
- The Victorian naturalist. [Melbourne]Field Naturalists Club of Victoria. url p. 19.
- The botany of Bihar and Orissa: an account of all the known indigenous plants of the province and of the most important or most commonly cultivated exotic ones / with maps and introduction by H. H. Haines. London: Printed by Adlard and sold by agents for Indian Official Publications, 1921-25. url p. 1207.
- The journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta: Bishop's College Press, 1832-1936 url , p. 270, p. 358, p. 431, p. 50, p. 82.
- The useful plants of the island of Guam; with an introductory account of the physical features and natural history of the island, of the character and history of its people, and of their agriculture / by William Edwin Safford. Washington, D.C.: Govt. Print. Off., 1905. url p. 254, p. 358.
- Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. London: [The Society], 1879- url p. 419.
- [Pamphlets on agriculture in Guam] S.l.: s.n., 1905-1916 url p. 358.
- Cranfill, R. and D. M. Britton. 1983. Typification within the Polypodium virginianum complex (Polypodiaceae). Taxon 32: 557--560.
- Evans, A. M. 1971. Polypodium. In: A. M. Evans, ed. 1971. A Review of Systematic Studies of the Pteridophytes of the Southern Appalachians. Blacksburg.
- Haufler, C. H. and M. D. Windham. 1991. New species of North American Cystopteris and Polypodium, with comments on their reticulate relationships. Amer. Fern J. 81: 7--23.
- Haufler, C. H. and Wang Z. R. 1991. Chromosomal analyses and the origin of allopolyploid Polypodium virginianum. Amer. J. Bot. 78: 624--629.
- Lang, F. A. 1971. The Polypodium vulgare complex in the Pacific Northwest. Madroño 21: 235--254.
- Whitmore, S. A. and A. R. Smith. 1991. Recognition of the tetraploid, Polypodium calirhiza (Polypodiaceae), in western North America. Madroño 38: 233--248.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9109726
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15791755
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:17181930-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17181930
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 884137