Common Names in English:
, on rock, or often epiphytic, erect
, or occasionally pendent. Stems long- to short-creeping, branched or not, bearing scales
and few to numerous
, usually dictyostelic. Leaves monomorphic
in bud. Petiole
, as in Loxogramme ], lacking scales or sometimes scaly
, with usually 3 vascular bundles
. Blade simple
to often pinnatifid
, or pinnate, infrequently more divided
; rachis grooved
or not adaxially. Veins free
(and simple to several times forked
) to often anastomosing in complex
, areoles with or without included
. Indument on blade
absent, or petiole, rachis, costae, and sometimes blade tissue usually bearing hairs
(these often septate
and with reddish crosswalls) and/or scales. Sori borne abaxially on veins, round
, occasionally elongate
, rarely marginal
, rarely covering surface; paraphyses present or absent; sporangia with stalk
of 2 or 3 rows
; indusia absent. Spores usually transparent or yellowish (rarely greenish), all 1 kind, bilateral
, monolete [rarely trilete, as in some Loxogramme], surface most often smooth
, or granulate
, occasionally spiny
, 64 per sporangium (spores globose
and 32 per sporangium in apogamous spp.
) . Gametophytes green, aboveground, cordate or elliptic
or sometimes glandular
; archegonia and antheridia borne on lower surface, antheridia 3-celled.
Genera ca. 40, species perhaps 500 (7 genera, 25 species in the flora ) : worldwide, especially tropics and subtropics.
Genera in this family are variously circumscribed, and the New World species historically were placed in the single genus Polypodium . Many of the segregates recognized here are still placed in Polypodium in recent floristic accounts. Limits of genera in both Old World and New World are controversial and are currently under study by several workers.
on rock, occasionally terrestrial
or epiphytic. Stems creeping
, usually branched, 3--15 mm diam., sometimes whitish pruinose
concolored to bicolored
, lanceolate to ovate-acuminate, not clathrate to strongly clathrate, glabrous
entire to denticulate
. Leaves monomorphic
, closely spaced to distant
, not conspicuously narrowed at tip
, to 90 cm. Petiole
to stem, straw-colored, somewhat flattened or grooved
to nearly terete
to deltate, pinnatifid
to 1-pinnate at base
, not pectinate
, usually with fewer than 25 pairs of pinnae, not glaucous or conspicuously scaly
; rachis sparsely scaly to glabrescent
to glabrous adaxially; scales ovate-lanceolate to linear
, not peltate or clathrate. Segments linear to oblong
; margins entire to serrate; apex rounded
to attenuate. Venation
to anastomosing, if strongly anastomosing, then never with more than 1 included
areoles. Sori often confined to distal region of leaf, discrete, circular to oval
, borne at tips of single veins, in 1--3 rows
on either side of midrib
absent or of modified sporangia (sporangiasters), often bearing glandular
on bulbous head
. Spores monolete, rugose
Species ca. 100: worldwide.
Some species traditionally included in Polypodium are treated here in other genera, for example, Pleopeltis and Pecluma.
Except for the tropical species Polypodium triseriale, North American Polypodium is a complex assemblage of interactive species. The North American species have ties to European taxa (e.g. , P . vulgare sensu stricto , which probably originated by allopolyploidy between P . glycyrrhiza and P . sibiricum ) but are quite distinct from them. Morphologic comparisons and continuing biochemical and molecular studies indicate that two groups of diploid species occur within the North American P . vulgare complex. One group includes P . glycyrrhiza and P . californicum ; the second, P . amorphum, P . appalachianum, and P . sibiricum . Allopolyploid species have originated following hybridizations within a species group (i.e. , P . calirhiza from P . glycyrrhiza × californicum, P . saximontanum from P . amorphum × sibiricum, and P . virginianum from P . appalachianum × sibiricum ) as well as between members of the two groups (i.e., P . hesperium from P . amorphum × glycyrrhiza ) . These reticulate relationships are summarized in the reticulogram. We consider P . scouleri to be peripheral to the "core" diploids even though hybrids have been reported.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Berchtold & J. Presl, 1820
- common ferns, licorice ferns
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Polypody [Greek poly, many, and pous, podion, little foot, in allusion to numerous knoblike prominences of the stem]
- Specific epithet:
- Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
- Botanical name: - Polypodium attenuatum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
- Specific epithet: attenuatum - Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
- Genus: Polypodium () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Polypody [Greek poly, many, and pous, podion, little foot, in allusion to numerous knoblike prominences of the stem]
- Tribe: Polypodieae ()
- Subfamily: Polypodioideae ()
- Family: Polypodiaceae () - Berchtold & J. Presl, 1820 - common ferns, licorice ferns
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Goniophlebium attenuatum (Humb. & Bonpl. Ex Willd.) C. Presl • Polypodium Brasiliense Attenuatum • Polypodium brasiliense L. var. attenuatum (Humb. & Bonpl. Ex Willd.) J. Bommer & H. Christ • Polypodium brasiliense Poir. var. attenuatum (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Baker
Publishing author : Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Members of the genus Polypodium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 37 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. amorphum (Irregular Polypody) · P. appalachianum (Appalachian Polypody) · P. attenuatum (Tapered Polypody) · P. bulbiferum (Bulblet Bladderfern) · P. californicum (California Polypody) · P. calirhiza (Nested Polypody) · P. cambricum (Welsh Polypody) · P. carthusianum (Spinulose Wood Fern) · P. dissimile (Forkvein Polypody) · P. dulce (Treetrunk Polypody) · P. exaltatum (Sword Fern) · P. falax (Crested Poly) · P. formosanum (Catepillar Fern) · P. glycyrrhiza (Licorice Fern) · P. hesperium (Western Licorice Fern) · P. hexagonopterum (Broad Beech Fern) · P. ilvense (Rusty Woodsia) · P. interjectum (Polypody) · P. lanceolatum (Lanceleaf Polypody) · P. lonchitis (Northern Holly Fern) · P. loriceum (Clambering Polypody) · P. musifolium (Polypodium) · P. pellucidum (Ae) · P. pellucidum Kaulf. var. vulcanicum Skottsb. (Dotted Polypody) · P. pellucidum var. pellucidum (Dotted Polypody) · P. pellucidum var. vulcanicum (Dotted Polypody) · P. punctatum 'Grandiceps Cobra' (Climbing Bird's Nest Fern) · P. robertianum (Limestone Oak Fern) · P. saximontanum (Rocky Mountain Polypody) · P. scouleri (Coast Polypody) · P. sibiricum (Siberian Polypody) · P. subauriculatum var. knightii (Polypodium) · P. submarginale (Brownhair Lacefern) · P. triseriale (Angle-Vein Fern) · P. virginianum (Common Polypody) · P. virginianum var. peraferens (American Wall Fern) · P. 'Green Wave' (Polypodium)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- An enumeration of the vascular plants known from Surinam: together with their distribution and synonymy / by A. Pulle. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1906. url p. 30, p. 544.
- Companion to the Botanical magazine: being a journal, containing such interesting botanical information as does not come within the prescribed limits of the magazine; with occasional figures /by W.J. Hooker. 2 1836-1837 London: Printed by E. Conchman. .. for the proprietor, S. Curtis, 1835-1836 [i.e., 1835-1837] url p. 362.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 38 1974 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 110, p. 337.
- Ferns: British and exotic... London, Groombridge and Sons, 1856-60. url , p. 70.
- Garden ferns; or, Coloured figures and descriptions, with the needful analyses of the fructification and venation, of a selection of exotic ferns adapted for cultivation in the garden, hothouse, and conservatory. London, Lovell Reeve, 1862. url .
- Hand-list of ferns and fern allies cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off., by Darling1906 url p. 113, p. 113.
- Historia filicum an exposition of the nature, number and organography of ferns, and review of the principles upon which genera are founded, and the systems of classification of the principal authors, with a new genera With 30 lithographic plates by W.H. Fitch; by John Smith. London: Macmillan, 1875. url p. 115.
- Hooker, J. D. The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H.M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839-1843: under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross /by Joseph Dalton Hooker. 2 1855 London: Reeve Brothers, 1844-60. url p. 43.
- Illustrations of the New Zealand flora / edited by T.F. Cheeseman with the assistance of W.B. Hemsley; the plates drawn by Matilda Smith. Wellington: John Mackay, Govt. Printer, 1914. url p. 513.
- Index filicum: a synopsis, with characters, of the genera, and an enumeration of the species of ferns, with synonymes, references, &c., &c. London: W. Pamplin, 1857. url p. 317, p. 318, p. 386, p. 394.
- Lithograms of the ferns of Queensland. Brisbane, Printed at the Government Engraving and Lithographic Office, 1892. url .
- Manual of the New Zealand flora. By T. F. Cheeseman. .. Wellington, N. Z., J. Mackay, Govt. Printer, 1906. url p. 1012.
- Phytologia memoirs. Plainfield, N.J.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, 1980- url p. 26.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url p. 494.
- Second systematic census of Australian plants, with chronologic, literary and geographic annotations; by Baron Ferdinand von Mueller. Pt. I. --Vasculares. Melbourne: Printed for the Victorian Government by McCarron. Bird & Co., 1889. url p. 233.
- Seemann, B. The botany of the voyage of H.M.S. Herald: under the command of Captain Henry Kellett, R.N., C.B., during the years 1845-51 /by Berthold Seemann. 1852-1857 London: Lovell Reeve, 1852-1857. url p. 230.
- Smith, J. Historia filicum: an exposition of the nature, number and organography of ferns, and review of the principles upon which genera are founded, and the systems of classification of the principal authors, with a new general arrangement; characters of the genera; remarks on their relationship to one another; their species; reference to authors; geographical distribution; etc., etc. /With 30 lithographic plates by W. H. Fitch, illustrating the characters of the tribes. 1875 London: Macmillan, 1875. url p. 115.
- Species filicum; being descriptions of the known ferns, particularly of such as exist in the author's herbarium, or are with sufficient accuracy described in works to which he has had access; accompanied with numerous by Sir William Jackson Hooker. London, W. Pamplin, 1846-64. url p. 21, p. 219.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 210.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url p. 429.
- The Quarterly journal of the Geological Society of London. London [etc.] url p. 81.
- The Queensland flora: Queensland, Printed by H. J. Diddams & co., 1899-1902. url .
- Cranfill, R. and D. M. Britton. 1983. Typification within the Polypodium virginianum complex (Polypodiaceae). Taxon 32: 557--560.
- Evans, A. M. 1971. Polypodium. In: A. M. Evans, ed. 1971. A Review of Systematic Studies of the Pteridophytes of the Southern Appalachians. Blacksburg.
- Haufler, C. H. and M. D. Windham. 1991. New species of North American Cystopteris and Polypodium, with comments on their reticulate relationships. Amer. Fern J. 81: 7--23.
- Haufler, C. H. and Wang Z. R. 1991. Chromosomal analyses and the origin of allopolyploid Polypodium virginianum. Amer. J. Bot. 78: 624--629.
- Lang, F. A. 1971. The Polypodium vulgare complex in the Pacific Northwest. Madroño 21: 235--254.
- Whitmore, S. A. and A. R. Smith. 1991. Recognition of the tetraploid, Polypodium calirhiza (Polypodiaceae), in western North America. Madroño 38: 233--248.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 27, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2668778
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-504517
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13714015
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:75811-3
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 504517
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17183420
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: POAT2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 57581