Common Names in English:
or ± pubescent
unicellular upcurved hairs
. Leaves usually alternate, exstipulate
. Sepals 5, usually persistent
. Petals 3, ± united
below. Stamens usually 8, ± united into a staminal
to the petals. Ovary 2-locular, ovule one in each loculus. Capsule 2-seeded, loculicidal, compressed
. Seeds ± pilose
, strophiole usually 3-lobed.
A large and difficult genus of about 600 species, distributed throughout the world except New Zealand, Polynesia and arctic zone; represented in West Pakistan by 8-10 species, unevenly distributed throughout the country, greater concentration of species being found in the Punjab and Kashmir.
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. • Flower Color: lavender, pink, violet
Size: 12-18" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Geranianae () - (Dumortier, 1829) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Asterophyllum galium Schimp. & Spenn. • Galium verum euverum Hyl. • Galium verum var. typicum Rouy • Galypola Incarnata • Galypola incarnata (L.) Nieuwl. • Galypola incarnata Nieuwl. • Rubia vera (L.) Baill.
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 2: 701 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Polygala
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 97 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. acanthoclada (Desert Polygala) · P. alba (White Milkwort) · P. ambigua (Whorled Milkwort) · P. apopetala (Polygala) · P. balduinii (Baldwin's Milkwort) · P. balduinii var. balduinii (Baldwin's Milkwort) · P. balduinii var. carteri (Carter's Milkwort) · P. barbeyana (Blue Milkwort) · P. boykinii (Boykin's Milkwort) · P. boykinii var. boykinii (Boykin's Milkwort) · P. boykinii var. sparsifolia (Boykin's Milkwort) · P. brevifolia (Littleleaf Milkwort) · P. calcarea (Chalk Milkwort) · P. californica (California Milkwort) · P. chamaebuxus (Shrubby Milkwort) · P. chapmanii (Chapman's Milkwort) · P. cornuta (Sierra Milkwort) · P. cornuta Kellogg var. cornuta Kellogg (Sierra Milkwort) · P. cornuta var. cornuta (Sierra Milkwort) · P. cornuta var. fishiae (Sierra Milkwort) · P. cowellii (Violet Tree) · P. crenata (Scalloped Milkwort) · P. crotalarioides (Polygala) · P. crucianelloides (Caribbean Milkwort) · P. cruciata (Cross-Leaved Milkwort) · P. cruciata L. var. aquilonia Fern. & Schub. (Drumheads) · P. cruciata var. aquilonia (Drumheads) · P. cruciata var. cruciata (Drumheads) · P. curtissii (Curtiss' Milkwort) · P. cymosa (Tall Pinebarren Milkwort) · P. dalmaisiana (Sweet Pea-Shrub) · P. fruticosa (Sweet Pea Shrub) · P. glandulosa (Glandular Milkwort) · P. glochidiata (Tropical Milkwort) · P. grandiflora (Showy Milkwort) · P. grandiflora var. angustifolia (Showy Milkwort) · P. grandiflora var. grandiflora (Showy Milkwort) · P. hecatantha (West Indian Milkwort) · P. hemipterocarpa (Winged Milkwort) · P. heterorhyncha (Beaked Spiny Polygala) · P. hookeri (Hooker's Milkwort) · P. incarnata (Procession Flower) · P. intermontana (Intermountain Milkwort) · P. leptocaulis (Swamp Milkwort) · P. leptostachys (Georgia Milkwort) · P. lewtonii (Lewton's Milkwort) · P. lindheimeri (Shrubby Milkwort) · P. lindheimeri var. lindheimeri (Shrubby Milkwort) · P. lindheimeri var. parvifolia (Shrubby Milkwort) · P. longicaulis (Longstem Milkwort) · P. lutea (Bog-Bachelor Button) · P. macradenia (Glandleaf Milkwort) · P. maravillasensis (Maravillas Milkwort) · P. mariana (Maryland Milkwort) · P. myrtifolia (Polygala) · P. myrtifolia var. grandiflora (Sweet Pea Bush) · P. nana (Bachelor Button) · P. nitida (Shining Milkwort) · P. nitida var. goliadensis (Shining Milkwort) · P. nitida var. tamaulipana (Shining Milkwort) · P. nudata (Smallflower Milkwort) · P. nuttallii (Nuttall's Milkwort) · P. obscura (Velvetseed Milkwort) · P. ovatifolia (Eggleaf Milkwort) · P. palmeri (Palmer's Milkwort) · P. paniculata (Orosne) · P. penaea (Crevajosa) · P. penaea portoricensis (Flowering Wintergreen) · P. penaea subsp. portoricensis (Crevajosa) · P. piliophora (Huachuca Mountain Milkwort) · P. polygama (Bitter Milkwort) · P. polygama var. polygama (Racemed Milkwort) · P. ramosa (Baldwins Milkwort Low Pinebarren Milkwort) · P. rectipilis (New Mexico Milkwort) · P. rimulicola (Steyermark's Milkwort) · P. rimulicola var. mescalerorum (Mescalero Milkwort) · P. rimulicola var. rimulicola (Steyermark's Milkwort) · P. rugelii (Yellow Milkwort) · P. rusbyi (Ruby Polygala) · P. sanguinea (Blood Milkwort) · P. scoparioides (Broom Milkwort) · P. senega (Seneca Snakeroot) · P. senega var. senega (Seneca Snakeroot) · P. serpyllifolia (Heath Milkwort) · P. setacea (Coastalplain Milkwort) · P. smallii (Smalls Milkwort) · P. sparsifolia (Boykin's Milkwort) · P. subspinosa (Spiny Milkwort) · P. tenuiloba (Slenderlobe Milkwort) · P. triphylla (Polygala) · P. verticillata (Whorled Milkwort) · P. verticillata var. isocycla (Whorled Milkwort) · P. verticillata var. verticillata (Whorled Milkwort) · P. violacea (Violet Milkwort) · P. virgata (Purple Broom) · P. vulgaris (Common Milkwort) · P. watsonii (Watson's Milkwort)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2652667
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-29341
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13744468
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:691621-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 29341
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 283485-2
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GAIN
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 40317
- "Polygala". in Flora of Pakistan . Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 126.600 meters (415.354 feet), Standard Deviation = 136.620 based on 485 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]