Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Bai Hua Dan
Common Names in English:
Chitra, Ceylon Leadwort, Chitrak, Doctorbush, Lauhihi, Leadwort, Plumbago, White Leadwort, Wild Leadwort, Wild Plumbago
, or herbs. Stems striate
or reduced to a caudex
. Leaves simple
, alternate or basal, sessile or petiolate
usually indistinct from blade
; stipules absent; leaf blade entire or rarely pinnately lobed
, with chalk
on both surfaces. Inflorescences terminal
, unbranched or branched, spicate
, spicate-racemose, subcapitate
, capitate, or paniculate
, arranged into complanate
spikes if branched, all composed of 1--10 or more cymules
cymes; cymules or helicoid cymes usually known as spikelets
, 1--5-flowered; bracts 1 at base
of each spikelet; bractlets
1 or 2 at base of each flower. Flowers bisexual
, sessile or very shortly pedicellate
. Calyx persistent
, hypogynous, tubular
, 5-ribbed, 5-lobed. Corolla hypogynous, petals connate
but sometimes only at base, lobes
or segments 5 and twisted. Stamens opposite corolla lobes, hypogynous or inserted
at corolla base; anthers
2-locular, dehiscing longitudinally. Pistil 1. Ovary superior, 1-locular. Styles 5, free
or connate. Stigmas 5. Ovule 1, pendulous from a basal funicle. Capsules usually enclosed within calyx. Seeds 1 per capsule; embryo straight, surrounded by thin starchy endosperm.
About 25 genera and 440 species: worldwide, main diversity in C Asia and Mediterranean region; seven genera and 46 species (11 endemic) in China.
not known. Stems erect
, or climbing
. Leaves cauline, sessile or short-petiolate (petiole
usually less than 1.5 cm) ; blade
entire, apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse
. Inflorescences terminal
or panicles. Pedicels 2-bracteolate, short. Flowers sometimes heterostylous, short-pedicellate; bracts absent; calyx persistent
, 5-ribbed, tubular
, with stalked
, capitate-glandular protuberances
triangular, 1-2 mm; corolla salverform
, evenly to somewhat unevenly 5-lobed, lobes spreading
, or truncate
; stamens included
or exserted, free
from corolla; style 1 included or exserted; stigmas 5, linear
. Fruits capsules, included, brownish, long-beaked; valves
coherent at apex. x = 7.
Species 12; tropical and subtropical regions, North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa.
Several species of Plumbago are cultivated, including P. auriculata. The entire plant of that species, especially the root, contains plumbagin, a toxic naphthoquinone derivative (oil of plumbago), which may cause severe skin irritation or blistering in humans and may also be toxic to other animals (T. C. Fuller and E. McClintock 1986).
The remarkable glands on the calyces of Plumbago are often called glandular hairs , but they are not true hairs, being much more massive and multicellular structures with enlarged, capitate apices.
Species Plumbago zeylanica
Plants herbaceous. Stems prost-rate, climbing
, or erect
. Leaves petiolate
(to 1.5 cm) or sessile; blade
lance-elliptic, or spatulate
, (3-) 5-9(-15) ×
(1-) 2.5-4(-7) cm, base
attenuate, apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse
Inflorescences 3-15(-30) cm, rachises glandular
bracts lanceolate, 3-7 × 1-2 mm.
calyx 7-11(-13) mm, tube
glabrous but with stalked
; corolla white, 17-33 mm, tube 12.5-28 mm (less than 2 times
length of calyx), lobes
5-12 × 3-3.5 mm; stamens included
Capsules 7.5-8 mm. Seeds reddish brown to dark brown,
5-6 mm. [source]
Plumbago zeylanica and P. scandens, both Linnaean species , have heretofore been treated as distinct , the former name applied exclusively to Old World plants , the latter to New World specimens. John Edmondson (pers. comm. ) indicates that he believes this œcould be a classic case of New World and Old World taxonomists each doing their own thing. Plants in herbaria under these two names appear indistinguishable. [source]
Habit: Shrub , Subshrub , Vine
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. • Flower Color: light blue, near white, white
Size: 36-48" tall.
Palm groves, thickets, shady hummocks, shell mounds, rocky places in open areas; 0-50 m .
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- Subfamily: Plumbaginoideae ()
- Family: Plumbaginaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - leadwort
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Plumbaginanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Plumbago scandens Linnaeus
Publishing author : L. Publication : Species Plantarum 1753 (1 May 1753)
Members of the genus Plumbago
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. auriculata (Blue Plumbago) · P. auriculata f. alba (White Cape Leadwort) · P. auriculata 'Alba' (Cape Leadwort) · P. auriculata 'Imperial Blue' (Cape Leadwort) · P. auriculata 'Monite' (White Cape® Plumbago) · P. auriculata 'Monott' (Cape Leadwort) · P. auriculata 'Royal Cape' (Cape Leadwort) · P. indica (Chekkikotuveri) · P. scandens (Devils Herb) · P. zeylanica (Chitra)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 15, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647419
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21340
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:687109-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 28879
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21340
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 63712-3
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PLZE
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 55602
- Tse-Hsiang Pen & Rudolf V. Kamelin "Plumbaginaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 190. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Alan R. Smith "Plumbago". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Plumbago zeylanica". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]