Common Names in English:
, or mostly acaulescent
herbs, sometimes an undershrub. Leaves usually all radical
, sometimes cauline. Flowers hermaphrodite, dimorphic
, polygamous, usually in many-flowered cylindrical spikes, rarely capitate. Calyx lobes
or 2 large and 2 small. Corolla tube
cylindrical, sometimes contracted
at the throat
, usually equalling the calyx, sometimes exserted, lobes 4, equal, patent
. Stamens 4, inserted
at or above the middle
of the corolla tube, often exserted. Ovary 2-locular or 3-4-locular with false free
septa; locules with 1 to many ovules. Capsule membranous, circumscissile. Seeds usually peltate, testa thin, mucilaginous
, albumen fleshy
A cosmopolitan genus, with approximately 270 species, which is represented in Pakistan by nearly 20 species.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August. • Flower Color: green
Size: 24-36" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 830 meters (0 to 2,723 feet).
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Lamianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Phil. Publication : Anales Univ. Chile 91: 265 1895
Members of the genus Plantago
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 58 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. afra (African Plantain) · P. argyraea (Salt-Meadow Plantain) · P. aristata (Bottlebrush Indianwheat) · P. australis (Mexican Plantain) · P. australis subnuda (Mexican Plantain) · P. australis subsp. hirtella (Mexican Indianwheat) · P. bigelovii (Coast Plantain) · P. bigelovii subsp. californica (Coast Plantain) · P. californica californica (Coast Plantain) · P. canescens (Gray Pubescent Plantain) · P. cordata (Heartleaf Plantain) · P. coronopus (Buckhorn Plaintain Plantago Coronopus) · P. debilis (Weak Plantain) · P. depauperata (Goldeye Rockfish) · P. elongata (Longleaf Plantain) · P. elongata subsp. pentasperma (Prairie Plantain) · P. erecta (California Plantain) · P. eriopoda (Alkali Plantain) · P. firma (Chilean Plantain) · P. hawaiensis (Hawai'i Plantain) · P. helleri (Heller's Plantain) · P. heterophylla (Slender Plantain) · P. hookeriana (California Plantain) · P. lanceolata (Buckhorn Plantain) · P. macrocarpa (Seashore Plantain) · P. major (Broadleaf Plantain) · P. major pleiosperma (Broadleaf Plantain) · P. major var. major (Broadleaf Plantain) · P. major var. polysperma (Broadleaf Plantain) · P. major 'Atropurpurea' (Cuckoos Bread) · P. major 'Giant' (Cuckoos Bread) · P. major 'Rosularis' (Cuckoos Bread) · P. major 'Rubrifolia' (Cuckoos Bread) · P. maritima (Alkali Plantain) · P. maritima var. californica (California Goose Tongue) · P. maritima var. juncoides (Goose Tongue) · P. media (Hoary Plantain) · P. media stepposa (Hoary Plantain) · P. moorei (Moore's Plantain) · P. ovata (Desert Indianwheat) · P. pachyphylla (Maui Plantain) · P. patagonica (Indian Wheat) · P. princeps (Ale) · P. princeps var. anomala (Ale) · P. princeps var. laxiflora (Ale) · P. princeps var. longibracteata (Ale) · P. princeps var. princeps (Ale) · P. psyllium (Dark Psyllium) · P. pusilla (Dwarf Plantain) · P. rhodosperma (Redseed Indianwheat) · P. rugelii (Black-Seed Plantain) · P. rugelii var. asperula (Blackseed Plantain) · P. rugelii var. rugelii (Blackseed Plantain) · P. sparsiflora (Pineland Plantain) · P. subnuda (Tall Coastal Plantain) · P. tweedyi (Tweedy Plantain) · P. virginica (Hoary Plantain) · P. wrightiana (Wright Plantain)
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- ... A preliminary catalogue of the flora of New Jersey. Comp. by N. L. Britton. .. with the assistance of eminent botanists. New Brunswick, Office of the survey, 1881. url p. 79.
- A popular California flora, or, Manual of botany for beginners: with illustrated introductory lessons especially adapted to the Pacific coast: to which is added an analytical key to West Coast botany, containing brief descript by Volney Rattan. San Francisco: Bancroft, 1887. url p. 109.
- A popular California flora: or, manual of botany for beginners. ..: to which is added an analytical key to West Coast botany. .. / by Volney Rattan. San Francisco: Bancroft, 1888. url p. 109.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 245, p. 249.
- Botanical explorations in southern Texas during the season of 1894. [Lancaster, Pa.]The New Era Printing House, 1895. url p. 95.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 746.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 36 1909 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 522, p. 523, p. 529.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 6 1901 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 736.
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 19, p. 41.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 242.
- Flora of Pennsylvania. Edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small. Boston, Ginn & Co., 1903. url p. 289.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 1098.
- Gray's new manual of botany: a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada / Asa Gray; rearranged and extensively revised by Benjamin Lincoln Robinson and Merritt Lyndon Fernald. New York: American Book Company, c1908. url p. 744.
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url p. 143.
- Leaflets of western botany. San Fransisco:[J. T. Howell], 1932-1966. url p. 72.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 301.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 859.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 1244.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 301.
- Natural areas inventory of Carteret County, North Carolina: for the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / [Raleigh]: N.C. Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, N.C. Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, . url p. 140.
- Occasional papers - San Diego Society of Natural History. 1949 San Diego, The Society. url p. 135, p. 135.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 736.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 736.
- Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns / by E.N. Lowe. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1921. url p. 256.
- Preliminary catalog of Anthophyta and Pteridophyta, reported as growing spontaneously within one hundred miles of New York City. New York, 1888. url p. 86.
- Report on the botany of Barren and Edmonson counties. Frankfort, 1876 url .
- Small, J. K. Flora of the southeastern United States;being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolin, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana and the Indian territory and in Oklahoma and Texas east of the one-hundredth meridian /by John Kunkel Small. .. 1903 New York: The author, 1903. url p. 1098.
- Synoptical flora of North America. New York, American Book Company, 1878-1895/97 [v.2, pt. 1, 1878] url p. 392.
- The Tennessee flora; with special reference to the flora of Nashville. Phaenogams and vascular cryptogams, by August Gattinger. Nashville, Tenn.The author, 1887. url p. 74.
- The University of Missouri studies. Columbia, Mo.: The University, 1905- url p. 253.
- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 154.
- Timber and botany. comprising seven reports on the forests and botany of different parts of the state / Geological Survey of Kentucky. [S.l.]: The Survey, 1884. url p. 52.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2655451
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-32905
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13746705
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:685221-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 32905
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 201326-2
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PLHE2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 55187
- "Plantago". in Flora of Pakistan . Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 89.010 meters (292.028 feet), Standard Deviation = 104.300 based on 219 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]