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Piper retrofractum

(Balinese Pepper)


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Interesting Facts

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Amharic:

The-Me-Ze, Timiz, ጥምዝ

Common Names in Assamese:


Common Names in Bengali:


Common Names in Chinese:

Bi Ba, Jia Bi Bo, Zhao Wa Chang Guo Hu Jiao, 假荜拔

Common Names in Czech:

Pepř Dlouhý

Common Names in Dutch:

Javaanse Lange Peper, Langwerpige Peper

Common Names in English:

Balinese Pepper, Balinese Pepper*, Bengal Pepper, Jaborandi Pepper, Javanese Long Pepper, Long Pepper

Common Names in Estonian:

Pikk Pipar

Common Names in French:

Poivre Long, Poivre Long De Java

Common Names in German:

Balinesischer Pfeffer*, Bengalischer Pfeffer, Jaborandi-Pfeffer, Langer Pfeffer, Stangenpfeffer

Common Names in Greek, Modern:

Makropiperi, Μακροπιπέρι

Common Names in Gujarati:


Common Names in Hindi:

Chab, Chavi, Pipal, Pipar, Pipli

Common Names in Hungarian:

Bali (Szigeti) Bors*, Bali Bors, Bengáli Bors

Common Names in Indonesian:

Cabé Bali, Cabe jawa, Cabe Jawa*, Lada Panjang

Common Names in Japanese:

I-N-Do-Na-Ga-Ko-Si-(yo)-U, Indonaga-Kosho, インドナガコショウ, ヒハツモドキ

Common Names in Kannada:

Gajahippali, Hippali, ಗಜಹಿಪ್ಪಲಿ, ಹಿಪ್ಪಲಿ

Common Names in Khmer:

Morech Ansai

Common Names in Korean:

Pil-Bal, Pilbal, 필발

Common Names in Lao:

I Lo, Sa Li Pi

Common Names in Lithuanian:

Indonezinis Pipiras*

Common Names in Malay:

Bakek*, Cabé Jawa (Indonesia), Cabé Panjang (Indonesia), Chabai Jawa*, Kedawak*, Lada Panjang, Lada Sulah

Common Names in Malayalam:


Common Names in Marathi:

Pimpali, पिंपळी

Common Names in Oriya:


Common Names in Polish:

Pieprz Długi

Common Names in Punjabi:

Darfilfil, Magha

Common Names in Russian:

Dlinnyj Perec, Dlinnyj Perets, Длинный перец

Common Names in Sanskrit:

Chanchala, Kana, Magandhi, Pippali, Ushana

Common Names in Sinhalese:


Common Names in Slovak:

Dlhé Korenie, Piepor Dlhý

Common Names in Slovenian:

Podolgovati Poper

Common Names in Swedish:


Common Names in Tagalog:


Common Names in Tamil:

Tippali, Vanapippili, திப்பலி, வனபிப்பிலி

Common Names in Telugu:

Pippallu, పిప్పళ్ళు

Common Names in Thai:

Dee Plee, Dipli, Dipli-Chuak*, Dok Dipli, Phrik-Hang, ดอกดีปลี, ดีปลี

Common Names in Turkish:

Dar Fulful†, Dari Fülfül†, Uzun Biber

Common Names in Ukrainian:

Perec' Dovgij, Perets Dovhyj, Перець довгий

Common Names in Urdu:



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Family Piperaceae

Herbs, shrubs , or climbers , rarely trees , usually aromatic . Vascular bundles ± scattered in transverse section in a monocotyledonlike manner. Tip of stem sometimes enclosed within a stipulelike sheath , the prophyll, sometimes adnate to petiole , absent in Peperomia. Leaves alternate, often opposite or whorled in Peperomia, simple , base often asymmetric , palmately or pinnately veined. Inflorescence a pedunculate spike, rarely grouped into an umbel, rarely a raceme (in Zippelia), leaf-opposed or axillary , rarely terminal . Flowers small, bisexual , hermaphroditic , polygamous or dioecious, nearly always sessile; bracts small, usually peltate or cupular, usually without perianth. Stamens 1-10; filaments usually free ; anthers 2-locular, distinct or connate , longitudinally dehiscent . Gynoecium 2-5-carpellate, connate; ovary superior, 1-locular, ovule 1, orthotropous ; stigmas 1-5, sessile or with very short styles. Fruit a small drupe or nutlet ; pericarp fleshy , thin or dry, sometimes with sticky papillae (in Peperomia) or glochidiate spines (in Zippelia) . Seeds with copious starchy perisperm and a minute embryo embedded in small endosperm.

About eight or nine genera and 2000-3000 species: tropical and subtropical regions, mostly in North and South America, rather fewer in Asia, a few in Africa; three genera and 68 species (36 endemic, four introduced ) in China.[1]

Genus Piper

Small trees , shrubs , subshrubs , or rarely herbs, erect or reclining , glabrous or pubescent . Leaves alternate, pubescent. Leaf blade conspicuously pinnately veined, lateral veins ascending-arching, connected by fainter, ladderlike, tertiary veins. Spikes opposite leaves, ascending-arching, densely flowered, distally drooping . Flowers sessile, borne on surface of rachis; floral bracts fringed with whitish hairs ; stamens 2[-6]; stigmas [2-]3[-4]. Fruits sessile, oblong (inversely pyramidal-3-angled in P. auritum ) ; beak minute.

Species 1000: primarily tropics and subtropics.

This genus includes Piper nigrum Linnaeus, the source of black pepper and white pepper.[2]

Physical Description

Species Piper retrofractum

Climbers glabrous except for rachis and stigmas, dioecious. Stems brownish when dry, ca. 2 mm thick, terete , striated. Petiole 5-11 mm, sheathed at base only; leaf blade narrowly elliptic , ovate-oblong, or elliptic, 8.5-16 × 3.2-7.5 cm, papery , glaucous when dry, densely glandular , base with both sides rounded or 1 side slightly tapered and short, tapered and short side sometimes concave to semicordate, ± symmetric to oblique , bilateral difference 0-5 mm, apex shortly acuminate to acute; veins 9-11, rarely more, pinnate, usually 4 or 5 on each side of midvein . Spikes leaf-opposed. Male spikes 5-6.5 cm; peduncle slightly longer than petioles; bracts orbicular , 1-1.2 mm wide, peltate, sessile. Stamens 2 or 3; filaments nearly absent; anthers broadly ellipsoid . Female spikes 3-4 cm × ca. 7 mm; peduncle and bracts as in male spikes. Ovary immersed in rachis; stigmas 3, ovate-acute, recurved. Unripe drupe partly connate to rachis, apex rounded. Fl. May-Jul. [source]

Widely cultivated and of uncertain origin . There is a single record of this species (or a closely related one), apparently growing wild in Yunnan. The collection , C. W. Wang 75415, differs from the usual cultivated plant by the longer infructescence. [source]


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Chavica officinarum Miquel • P. officinarum (Miquel) C. De Candolle. • Piper chaba Hunter • Piper officinarum< /i> (Miq.) C. Dc.


Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Piper

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 47 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

P. aduncum (Higuillo De Hoja Menuda) · P. aduncum var. exotum (Spiked Pepper) · P. amalago (Higuillo De Limon) · P. amalago var. amalago (Spanish-Elder) · P. amalago var. ceanothifolium (Spanish-Elder) · P. amalago var. medium (Spanish-Elder) · P. angustifolium (Pepper) · P. arborescens (Lanyu Pepper) · P. attenuatum (Oval-Leaved Pepper Plant) · P. aurantiacum (Orange Pepper Tree) · P. auritum (False Kava-Kava) · P. auritum 'Hoja Santa' (Hoja Santa Pepper) · P. austrosinense (South China Pepper) · P. bambusifolium (Bamboo-Leaved Pepper Plant) · P. betel (Betel Pepper) · P. betle (Betel Leaf) · P. blattarum (Moth Pepper) · P. boehmeriifolium (False Nettle-Leaved Pepper Plant) · P. borbonense (Voatsiperifery) · P. cubeba (Cubeb) · P. dilatatum (Higuillo) · P. distachyon (Montane Peperomia) · P. glabrescens (Guyanese Pepper) · P. guineense (Pepper) · P. hainanense (Hainan Pepper) · P. hispidum (Jamaican Pepper) · P. jacquemontianum (Caracas Pepper) · P. kadsura (Japanese Pepper) · P. kadzura (Japanese Pepper) · P. lolot (Lolot) · P. longifolium (Pepper) · P. longum (Indian Long Pepper) · P. magnificum (Lacquered Pepper) · P. magnoliifolium (Spoonleaf Peperomia) · P. marginatum (Marigold Pepper) · P. methysticum (Kava) · P. nigrum (Black Pepper) · P. novae-hollandiae (Giant Pepper Vine) · P. ornatum (Celebes Pepper) · P. pereskiifolium (Spotted Trunkfish) · P. ponapense (Pepper) · P. puberulum (Downy Pepper) · P. retrofractum (Balinese Pepper) · P. sarmentosum (Chaa-Plu) · P. seychellarum (Seychelles Pepper) · P. swartzianum (Spanish Elder) · P. wichmannii (False Kava (Vanuatu))

More Info

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Further Reading

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  1. Yung-chien Tseng, Nianhe Xia & Michael G. Gilbert "Piperaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 110. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at [back]
  2. "Piper". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at [back]
Last Revised: 2014-11-21