- Used medicinally. [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Arabic:
Common Names in Bengali:
Common Names in Chinese:
Ba Xi Hu Jiao (As P Jaborandii), Bi Ba Gen (Medicinal Name), Bi Bo, Ye Pu Lan Hu Jiao (As P Jaborandii)
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Indian Long Pepper, Jaborandi Pepper, Long Pepper
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Bengalischer Pfeffer, Jaborandi-Pfeffer, Langer Pfeffer, Stangenpfeffer
Common Names in Gujarati:
Common Names in Hindi:
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Kannada:
Hippali, Lippali, Thippili
Common Names in Malayalam:
Magadhi, Pippali, Thippili, Tippili
Common Names in Marathi:
Common Names in Nepalese:
Gaj Pipla, Saano Pipla
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Tamil:
Kandan Lippilli, Pippili, Sirumulam, Thippili, Tippili
Common Names in Telugu:
Common Names in Turkish:
Common Names in Urdu:
, or climbers
, rarely trees
, usually aromatic
. Vascular bundles
in a monocotyledonlike manner. Tip
of stem sometimes enclosed within a stipulelike sheath
, the prophyll, sometimes adnate
, absent in Peperomia. Leaves alternate, often opposite or whorled
in Peperomia, simple
, palmately or pinnately veined. Inflorescence a pedunculate
spike, rarely grouped into an umbel, rarely a raceme
(in Zippelia), leaf-opposed or axillary
, rarely terminal
. Flowers small, bisexual
, polygamous or dioecious, nearly always sessile; bracts small, usually peltate or cupular, usually without perianth. Stamens 1-10; filaments
, longitudinally dehiscent
. Gynoecium 2-5-carpellate, connate; ovary superior, 1-locular, ovule 1, orthotropous
; stigmas 1-5, sessile or with very short styles. Fruit a small drupe or nutlet
; pericarp fleshy
, thin or dry, sometimes with sticky papillae (in Peperomia) or glochidiate
spines (in Zippelia) . Seeds with copious
and a minute embryo embedded
in small endosperm.
About eight or nine genera and 2000-3000 species: tropical and subtropical regions, mostly in North and South America, rather fewer in Asia, a few in Africa; three genera and 68 species (36 endemic, four introduced ) in China.
, or rarely herbs, erect
. Leaves alternate, pubescent. Leaf blade
conspicuously pinnately veined, lateral
veins ascending-arching, connected by fainter, ladderlike, tertiary veins. Spikes opposite leaves, ascending-arching, densely flowered, distally drooping
. Flowers sessile, borne on surface of rachis; floral
with whitish hairs
; stamens 2[-6]; stigmas [2-]3[-4]. Fruits sessile, oblong
(inversely pyramidal-3-angled in P. auritum ) ; beak
Species 1000: primarily tropics and subtropics.
This genus includes Piper nigrum Linnaeus, the source of black pepper and white pepper.
Species Piper longum
Climbers to several m long, dioecious; many parts very finely powdery pubescent when young. Stems often flexuous . Petiole 0-9 cm, leaves toward base of stem long petiolate , those at apex of stem sometimes nearly sessile and clasping , very finely powdery pubescent; prophyll ca. 1/3 as long as petiole; leaf blades toward base of stem ovate to ± reniform , those at apex of stem ovate to ovate-oblong, 6-12 × 3-12 cm, papery , densely glandular , base cordate, basal lobes rounded and equal, slightly incurved , leaf blades toward apex of stem sometimes with basal lobes overlapping, slightly unequal, apex acute to acuminate; veins 7, apical pair partly closely parallel to midvein , reaching leaf apex, others basal; reticulate veins lax. Spikes leaf-opposed, recurved. Male spikes 4-5 cm × ca. 3 mm; peduncle 2-3 cm; bracts suborbicular , sometimes slightly cuneate, ca. 1.5 mm wide, peltate, glabrous , stalk short. Stamens 2; filaments very short; anthers ellipsoid . Female spikes (1-) 1.5-2.5 cm × 2.5-4 mm, 2-3 cm in fruit; peduncle and rachis as in male spikes; bracts 0.9-1 mm in diam. Ovary ovoid , partly connate to rachis; stigmas 3, ovoid, apex acute. Drupe globose , ca. 2 mm in diam., apex umbonate , partly connate to rachis. Fl. Jul-Oct. [source]
Forests ; circa 600 m .
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of -19 meters (-61 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Chavica roxburghii Miquel.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Piper
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 44 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. aduncum (Higuillo De Hoja Menuda) · P. aduncum var. exotum (Spiked Pepper) · P. amalago (Higuillo De Limon) · P. amalago var. amalago (Spanish-Elder) · P. amalago var. ceanothifolium (Spanish-Elder) · P. amalago var. medium (Spanish-Elder) · P. angustifolium (Pepper) · P. arborescens (Lanyu Pepper) · P. attenuatum (Oval-Leaved Pepper Plant) · P. aurantiacum (Orange Pepper Tree) · P. auritum (False Kava-Kava) · P. auritum 'Hoja Santa' (Hoja Santa Pepper) · P. austrosinense (South China Pepper) · P. bambusifolium (Bamboo-Leaved Pepper Plant) · P. betel (Betel Pepper) · P. betle (Betel Leaf) · P. blattarum (Moth Pepper) · P. boehmeriifolium (False Nettle-Leaved Pepper Plant) · P. cubeba (Cubeb) · P. dilatatum (Higuillo) · P. distachyon (Montane Peperomia) · P. glabrescens (Guyanese Pepper) · P. guineense (Pepper) · P. hainanense (Hainan Pepper) · P. hispidum (Jamaican Pepper) · P. jacquemontianum (Caracas Pepper) · P. kadsura (Kadzura Pepper) · P. kadzura (Japanese Pepper) · P. longifolium (Pepper) · P. longum (Indian Long Pepper) · P. magnificum (Lacquered Pepper) · P. magnoliifolium (Spoonleaf Peperomia) · P. marginatum (Marigold Pepper) · P. methysticum (Kava) · P. nigrum (Black Pepper) · P. ornatum (Celebes Pepper) · P. pereskiifolium (Spotted Trunkfish) · P. ponapense (Pepper) · P. puberulum (Downy Pepper) · P. retrofractum (Balinese Pepper) · P. sarmentosum (Chaa-Plu) · P. seychellarum (Seychelles Pepper) · P. swartzianum (Spanish Elder) · P. wichmannii (False Kava (Vanuatu))
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2670492
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-506524
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13757270
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:682031-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 400109
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 506524
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PILO4
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 54245
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- "Piper longum". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 119. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 47.340 based on 3 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]