Common Names in English:
, or climbers
, rarely trees
, usually aromatic
. Vascular bundles
in a monocotyledonlike manner. Tip
of stem sometimes enclosed within a stipulelike sheath
, the prophyll, sometimes adnate
, absent in Peperomia. Leaves alternate, often opposite or whorled
in Peperomia, simple
, palmately or pinnately veined. Inflorescence a pedunculate
spike, rarely grouped into an umbel, rarely a raceme
(in Zippelia), leaf-opposed or axillary
, rarely terminal
. Flowers small, bisexual
, polygamous or dioecious, nearly always sessile; bracts small, usually peltate or cupular, usually without perianth. Stamens 1-10; filaments
, longitudinally dehiscent
. Gynoecium 2-5-carpellate, connate; ovary superior, 1-locular, ovule 1, orthotropous
; stigmas 1-5, sessile or with very short styles. Fruit a small drupe or nutlet
; pericarp fleshy
, thin or dry, sometimes with sticky papillae (in Peperomia) or glochidiate
spines (in Zippelia) . Seeds with copious
and a minute embryo embedded
in small endosperm.
About eight or nine genera and 2000-3000 species: tropical and subtropical regions, mostly in North and South America, rather fewer in Asia, a few in Africa; three genera and 68 species (36 endemic, four introduced ) in China.
, or rarely herbs, erect
. Leaves alternate, pubescent. Leaf blade
conspicuously pinnately veined, lateral
veins ascending-arching, connected by fainter, ladderlike, tertiary veins. Spikes opposite leaves, ascending-arching, densely flowered, distally drooping
. Flowers sessile, borne on surface of rachis; floral
with whitish hairs
; stamens 2[-6]; stigmas [2-]3[-4]. Fruits sessile, oblong
(inversely pyramidal-3-angled in P. auritum ) ; beak
Species 1000: primarily tropics and subtropics.
This genus includes Piper nigrum Linnaeus, the source of black pepper and white pepper.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,940 meters (0 to 6,365 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Artanthe angustifolia (Lam.) Miq. • Steffensia Angustifolia
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Piper
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 44 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. aduncum (Higuillo De Hoja Menuda) · P. aduncum var. exotum (Spiked Pepper) · P. amalago (Higuillo De Limon) · P. amalago var. amalago (Spanish-Elder) · P. amalago var. ceanothifolium (Spanish-Elder) · P. amalago var. medium (Spanish-Elder) · P. angustifolium (Pepper) · P. arborescens (Lanyu Pepper) · P. attenuatum (Oval-Leaved Pepper Plant) · P. aurantiacum (Orange Pepper Tree) · P. auritum (False Kava-Kava) · P. auritum 'Hoja Santa' (Hoja Santa Pepper) · P. austrosinense (South China Pepper) · P. bambusifolium (Bamboo-Leaved Pepper Plant) · P. betel (Betel Pepper) · P. betle (Betel Leaf) · P. blattarum (Moth Pepper) · P. boehmeriifolium (False Nettle-Leaved Pepper Plant) · P. cubeba (Cubeb) · P. dilatatum (Higuillo) · P. distachyon (Montane Peperomia) · P. glabrescens (Guyanese Pepper) · P. guineense (Pepper) · P. hainanense (Hainan Pepper) · P. hispidum (Jamaican Pepper) · P. jacquemontianum (Caracas Pepper) · P. kadsura (Kadzura Pepper) · P. kadzura (Japanese Pepper) · P. longifolium (Pepper) · P. longum (Indian Long Pepper) · P. magnificum (Lacquered Pepper) · P. magnoliifolium (Spoonleaf Peperomia) · P. marginatum (Marigold Pepper) · P. methysticum (Kava) · P. nigrum (Black Pepper) · P. ornatum (Celebes Pepper) · P. pereskiifolium (Spotted Trunkfish) · P. ponapense (Pepper) · P. puberulum (Downy Pepper) · P. retrofractum (Balinese Pepper) · P. sarmentosum (Chaa-Plu) · P. seychellarum (Seychelles Pepper) · P. swartzianum (Spanish Elder) · P. wichmannii (False Kava (Vanuatu))
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A Manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants / Edinburgh: A. and C. Black, 1875. url .
- A contribution to the botany of the Isle of Pines, Cuba, based upon the specimens of plants from that island contained in the herbarium of the Carnegie Museum under date of October, 1916. By O.E. Jennings. n.p., 1917 url p. 106, p. 107.
- A contribution to the flora of Honduras, by T. G. Yuncker. 17 1938 Chicago, 1938. url p. 347.
- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 127.
- A manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants. By John Hutton Balfour. London: J. J. Griffin [etc.] 1851. url p. 503.
- A manual of scientific terms, pronouncing, etymological, and explanatory, chiefly comprising terms in botany, natural history, anatomy, medicine, and veterinary science, with an appendix of specific names. Designed for the use of by Rev. James Stormonth Edinburgh, Maclachlan and Stewart, 1885 url p. 324.
- A supplement to the Pharmacopia, and treatise on pharmacology in general: including not only the drugs and preparations used by practitioners of medicine, but also most of those employed in the chemical arts: together with a collection of the most useful medical formulæ. . by Samuel Frederic Gray. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836. url p. 32.
- A text book of materia medica, being an account of the more important crude drugs of vegetable and animal origin, designed for students of pharmacy and medicine. London, Churchill, 1920. url p. 58.
- A text-book of botany and pharmacognosy: intended for the use of students of pharmacy, as a reference book for pharmacists, and a handbook for food and drug analysts / by Henry Kraemer. Philadelphia & London: J. B. Lippincott company[c1910] url p. 249.
- An illustrated dictionary of medicine, biology and allied sciences. .. by George M. Gould. 5th ed., with additions and corrections. PhiladelphiaP. Blakiston's Son1907 url p. 1104, p. 388, p. 418.
- Annals of the Carnegie Museum. [Pittsburgh]: Published by authority of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institute, 1901- url p. 106, p. 107.
- Annual reports of the Department of Agriculture. .. Washington: G.P.O., [1894?]-1924. url p. 200.
- Applied and economic botany for students in technical and agricultural schools, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, for chemists, food analysts and for the those engaged in the morphological and physiological study of plants. New York, Wiley url p. 504, p. 506.
- Applied and economic botany, especially adapted for the use of students in technical schools, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, and also as a book of reference for chemists, food analysts and students engaged in by Henry Kraemer. .. illustrated with 424 plates, comprising about 2000 figures. Philadelphia, The author[c1914] url p. 452, p. 504.
- Botanic drugs, their materia medica, pharmacology, and therapeutics, by Thomas S. Blair. Cincinnati, O.: The Therapeutic digest publishing co., 1917. url p. 223.
- Bulletin of the Natural History Museum. London: The Natural History Museum, c1993-2002. url p. 19, p. 47.
- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 243, p. 271.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 16 1889 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 309.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 782.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 782.
- Catalogue of the collections in the museum of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain compiled by E.M. Holmes. London, The Society, 1878. url p. 293.
- Commercial botany of the nineteenth century. A record of progress in the utilisation of vegetable products in the United Kingdom, and the introduction of economic plants into the British colonies, during the present century. London [etc.]Cassell & Company, Limited, 1890. url .
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 23 1920-1926 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 154, p. 170.
- Flora of Costa Rica. .. by Paul C. Standley. .. 18 1937 Chicago, 1937. url p. 336.
- Flora of Peru / by J. Francis Macbride; B.E. Dahlgren, editor. 13 1936 Chicago, U.S.A.: Field Museum of Natural History,  url p. 161.
- Guide to the Economic Museum of the New York Botanical Garden. New York, 1921. url p. 243, p. 271, p. 81.
- History of the vegetable drugs of the Pharmacopeia of the United States / Cincinnati, O.: J. U. & C. G. Lloyd, 1911. url p. 58.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 23 1922 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 103, p. 115, p. 199, p. 240.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 4 1895 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 252.
- Origin and history of all the pharmacopeial vegetable drugs, chemicals and preparations with bibliography... Prepared under the auspices of and pub. by the American drug manufacturers' association, Washington, D.C. Cincinnati: The Caxton press, [c1921] url p. 212, p. 444.
- Pharmaceutical botany, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co.[c1914] url .
- Pharmaceutical botany, with glossary of botanical terms. Philadelphia, Blakiston url p. 311, p. 467.
- Pharmacographia: a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in Great Britain and British India / by Friedrich A. Flückiger and Daniel Hanbury. London: Macmillan, 1879. url p. 589.
- Plant names, scientific and popular, including in the case of each plant the correct botanical name in accordance with the reformed nomenclature, together with botanical and popular synonyms. .. Comp. from the most authentic sources by A. B. Lyons. Detroit, Nelson, Baker & Co., 1900. url p. 155.
- Potter's cyclopaedia of botanical drugs and preparations / by R.C. Wren. London: Potter & Clarke,  url p. 184, p.
- Potter's cyclopedia of botanical drugs and preparations / by R. C. Wren. London: Potter & Clarke, [1900-1950?]. url p. 102.
- Practical veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1917. url , p. 513.
- Science. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]1880- url p. 545.
- Scientific and applied pharmacognosy, intended for the use of students in pharmacy, as a hand book for pharmacists, and as a reference book for food and drug analysts and pharmacologists. New York, Wiley, 1920. url p. 147, p. 148, p. 149.
- Taxonomic literature: a selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types (TL2) Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, 1976-1988. url p. 467.
- The Gardeners' chronicle. 1841 London: published for the proprietors, 1841-1843. url p. vi.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. 2 1874 London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 784.
- The chemical synthesis of vital products and the interrelations between organic compounds / By Raphael Meldola. London: E. Arnold, 1904. url p. 158, p. 164, p. 328.
- The microanalysis of powdered vegetable drugs, by Albert Schneider. .. with 237 illustrations Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co.[c1921] url p. 410.
- The organic constituents of plants and vegetable substances and their chemical analysis / by G.C. Wittstein; authorized translation from the German original, enlarged with numerous additions by Baron Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: MCarron, Bird & Co., 1878. url p. 253, p. 265.
- The uses of plants: a manual of economic botany with special reference to vegetable products introduced during the last fifty years / by G. S. Boulger. London: Roper & Drowley, 1889. url p. 117, p. 206.
- The vegetable kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system / by John Lindley. London: Bradbury and Evans, 1846. url p. 518.
- The vegetable kingdom; or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, LondonBradbury & Evans1853 url p. 518.
- Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. [St. Louis: Academy of Science of St. Louis], 1860-1958. url p. 459, p. 459, p. 459.
- Trees and shrubs of Mexico / By Paul C. Standley. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1920-1926. url p. 154.
- Veterinary medicines 1911 url p. 582.
- Veterinary medicines: their actions and uses / by Finlay Dun. .. ed. by James MacQueen. New York: W.R. Jenkins, 1906. url p. 575.
- Tseng Yung-chien, Chen Pei-shan & Zhu Pei-zhi. 1982. Piperaceae. In: Tseng Yung-chien, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 20(1): 11-78.
- Tseng Yung-chien, Chen Pei-shan & Zhu Pei-zhi. 1982. Piperaceae. In: Tseng Yung-chien, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 20(1): 11-78.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 27, 2007:
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2670487
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-506519
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13755277
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:680395-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 400680
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 506519
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 680393-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PIAN6
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 56396
- Yung-chien Tseng, Nianhe Xia & Michael G. Gilbert "Piperaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 110. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Piper". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 397.750 meters (1,304.954 feet), Standard Deviation = 626.580 based on 24 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]