or rarely shrubs
or deciduous, monoecious. Branchlets
: long branchlets with clearly spirally arranged
, sometimes scalelike leaves; short branchlets often reduced to slow growing lateral
spurs bearing dense clusters
of leaves at apex. Leaves solitary or in bundles of (1 or) 2-5(-8) when basally subtended by a leaf sheath
; leaf blade linear
or needlelike, not decurrent. Cones unisexual
. Pollen cones solitary or clustered, with numerous
spirally arranged microsporophylls
; microsporophyll with 2 microsporangia; pollen usually 2-saccate (nonsaccate in Cedrus, Larix, Pseudotsuga, and most species of Tsuga) . Seed cones erect
or pendulous, maturing in 1st, 2nd, or occasionally 3rd year, dehiscent
or occasionally indehiscent, with many spirally arranged ovulate
and bracts; ovulate scales usually smaller than bracts at pollination, with 2 upright ovules adaxially, free
or only basally adnate
with bracts, maturing into seed scales. Seed scales appressed
, woody or leathery, variable in shape
and size, with 2 seeds adaxially, persistent
or deciduous after cone maturity. Bracts free or adnate basally with seed scales, well developed or rudimentary
, exserted or included
. Seeds terminally winged
(except in some species of Pinus) . Cotyledons 2-18. Germination hypogeal or epigeal. 2n = 24* (almost always) .
Ten or eleven genera and ca. 235 species: N hemisphere; ten genera (two endemic) and 108 species (43 endemic, 24 introduced ) in China.
Species of the Pinaceae are among the most valuable and commercially important plants in the world. Most species are trees, and are often excellent sources of lumber, wood products, and resins; many are cultivated for afforestation and as ornamentals .
deciduous; crown sparse, open. Bark
silver-gray to gray-brown on young trees, becoming reddish brown to brown, smooth
to thickened and furrowed
with age. Branches whorled
; short (spur) shoots
2 years or more old, each bearing leaves (needles
), and often pollen cone, or seed cone; lateral
long shoots (sylleptic branches) sometimes produced
by current-year growth increments
; leaf scars
many. Buds rounded
. Leaves in tufts of 10--60 on short (spur) shoots or borne singly on 1st-year long shoots, deciduous, ± flattened, with abaxial
keel, sessile, base
absent, apex pointed
or rounded; resin canals 2. Pollen cones solitary, ovoid-cylindric, yellowish. Seed cones maturing in 1 season
, persisting several years, erect
, usually terminal
on short shoots and thus appearing stalked
, sometimes sessile on 1-year-old long shoots; scales
, circular to oblong-obovate, thin, lacking apophysis and umbo; bracts included
or exserted. Seeds winged
; cotyledons 4--6. x
Species 10: boreal and cold north temperate areas, North America, Eurasia .
Species of Larix are present in most boreal regions; they often form only a minor component of the vegetation. Some are important for their hard, heavy, and decay-resistant wood . Only a few have received any horticultural attention; some cultivars exist for the most commonly cultivated Old World larches, L. decidua Miller and L. kaempferi (Lambert) CarriÃ¨re, but almost none for the North American species.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Burnett
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Abies microcarpa (Lamb.) Lindl. • Abies pendula (Aiton) Lindl. & Gordon • Larix alaskensis W. F. Wight • Larix americana Michx. • Larix europaea var. pendula (Aiton) Forbes • Larix intermedia Lodd. Ex J. Forbes • Larix laricina f. lutea (Jaurès) Ouden & Boom • Larix laricina f. parvistrobus (Jaurès) Ouden & Boom • Larix laricina var. alaskensis (W. F. Wight) Raup • Larix laricina var. lutea Jaurès • Larix laricina var. parvistrobus Jaurès • Larix microcarpa (Lamb.) Forbes • Larix pendula (Aiton) Salisb. • Larix tenuifolia Salisb. • Pinus laricina Du Roi • Pinus larix var. americana Pall. • Pinus larix var. pendula (Aiton) Endl.
Name Status: Accepted Name . Latest taxonomic scrutiny: Farjon A., 11-Jan-2006.
Members of the genus Larix
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 21 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
L. decidua (Common Larch) · L. decidua var. decidua (European Larch) · L. decidua 'Corley' (European Larch) · L. decidua 'Julian's Weeper' (European Larch) · L. decidua 'Pendula' (European Larch) · L. decidua 'Varied Directions' (European Larch) · L. decidua 'Whorled Peace' (European Larch) · L. gmelinii f. hsinganica (Dahurian Larch) · L. kaempferi (Japanese Larch) · L. kaempferi var. pendula (Japanese Larch) · L. kaempferi 'Blue Rabbit' (Japanese Larch) · L. kaempferi 'Blue Sparkler' (Japanese Larch) · L. kaempferi 'Herynek Wb' (Larch) · L. laricina (Alaskan Larch) · L. laricina f. parvistrobus (Eastern Larch) · L. laricina 'Girard Dwarf' (Alaskan Larch) · L. lyallii (Subalpine Larch) · L. occidentalis (Hackmatack) · L. russica (Siberian Larch) · L. sibirica (Siberian Larch) · L. × eurolepis (Dunkeld Hybrid Larch)
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- A handbook of Coniferae, including Ginkgoaceæ, by W. Dallimore and A. Bruce Jackson. With drawings by Miss G. Lister. New York, Longmans, Green, 1923. url p. 277, p. 465.
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- An historical and descriptive account of British America comprehending Canada Upper and Lower, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, the Bermudas and the fur countries, their history. .. to which is added a full detail of the princ Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd;1839. url .
- Arboretum et fruticetum Britannicum; or, The trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, mana London, Henry G. Bohn, 1854. url p. 2400.
- Biologia centrali-americana; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. London, Pub. for the editors by R. H. Porter and Dulau & co., 1879-88. url .
- Botanical appendix to Captain Franklin's narrative of a journey to the shores of the Polar Sea by John Richardson. [London?: s.n.], 1823 url .
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- Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University / compiled under the direction of Charles Sprague Sargent by Ethelyn Maria Tucker. Cambridge: Printed at the Cosmos Press, 1914-1933. url p. 409.
- Fauna boreali-americana, or, The zoology of the northern parts of British America: containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late northern land expeditions, under command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N. / by John Richardson, surgeon and naturalist to the expeditions; assisted by William Swainson and the Reverend William Kirby. London: J. Murray [etc.], 1829-1837. url p. 248.
- Florula bostoniensis. A collection of plants of Boston and its vicinity, with their generic and specific characters, principal synonyms, descriptions, places of growth, and time of flowering, and occasional remarks. By Jacob Bigelow. .. Boston, Cummings, Hilliard, & co., 1824. url p. 360.
- Hand-list of Coniferae, grown in the Royal Botanic Gardens. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off. by Darling1903 url p. 93.
- Hand-list of Coniferae: grown in the Royal botanic gardens. London: Printed for H. M. Stationery off. by Darling & son, Ltd., 1903. url p. 93.
- Hardy coniferous trees: being a concise description of each species and variety, with the most recently approved nomenclature, lists of synonyms, and best methods of cultivation / by A. D. Webster. London: Hutchinson, 1896. url p. 67.
- Hooker, W. J. Botanical miscellany. 1 1830 London: J. Murray, 1830-1833. url p. 180, p. 180, p. 188, p. 188.
- Horticultural register, and gardener's magazine. Boston, G. D. Barrett [etc.] url p. 284.
- Hortus lignosus londinensis: or, A catalogue of all the ligneous plants, indigenous and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, cultivated in the gardens and grounds in the neighbourhood of London: with all their synonymes, scientific and By J. C. Loudon. London, The author, 1838. url p. 124.
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- Practical forestry. A treatise on the propagation, planting and cultivation, with a description, and the botanical and popular names of all the indigenous trees of the United States. New YorkOrange Judd Co.1884 url p. 291.
- Practical hints on planting ornamental trees, with particular reference to coniferae... by Standish and Noble. London, Bradbury and Evans, 1852. url p. 53.
- Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico) / by Charles S. Sargent. Washington [D.C.]: G.P.O., 1884. url p. 601.
- The American gardener's magazine and register of useful discoveries and improvements in horticulture and rural affairs. Boston: Printed for Russell, Shattuck & Williams, & Hovey & Co., 1835- url p. 449.
- The American journal of science and arts. New-Haven: S. Converse, url p. 29, p. 311.
- The American journal of science. 41 1841 New Haven, Kline Geology Laboratory, Yale University. url p. 29, p. 311.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 1262.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 18 1881 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 524.
- The New England farmer. Boston: Thomas W. Shepard, 1822-1835. url p. 131.
- The book of evergreens, a practical treatise on the coniferae, or cone-bearing plants. New YorkO. Judd url p. 247.
- The book of evergreens. A practical treatise on the Coniferæ, or cone-bearing plants. By Josiah Hoopes. New York: Orange Judd & company, [c1868] url p. 247, p. 247.
- The new American orchardist; Boston, Otis, Broaders, and company, 1844. url p. 380.
- The new American orchardist; or, An account of the most valuable varieties of fruit, of all climates, adapted to cultivation in the United States; with their history, modes of culture, management, uses, &c. With an appendix on ve By William Kenrick. Boston, Otis, Broaders, & co., 1844. url p. 380.
- The pinetum: being a synopsis of all the coniferous plants at present known, with descriptions, history and synonyms, and a comprehensive systematic index. LondonH.G. Bohn [etc.]1880 url p. 175, p. 175.
- The silva of North America: a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent. .. illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon. .. 14 1902 Boston, New York: Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1891-1902. url p. 137, p. 144, p. 7.
- The trees of Great Britain & Ireland / by Henry John Elwes and Augustine Henry. Edinburgh: Priv. print., 1906-13. url p. 380, p. 392.
- Trees and shrubs: an abridgment of the Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum: containing the hardy trees and schrubs of Britain, native and foreign, scientifically and popularly described: with their propagation, cultu London: F. Warne & Co.; 1875. url .
- Trees and shrubs; an abridgment of the Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum: containing the hardy trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture LondonF. Warne1875 url p. 1056.
- Veitch's manual of the coniferae: containing a general review of the order, a synopsis of the species cultivated in Great Britain, their botanical history, economic properties, place and use in arboriculture, etc. Chelsea: J. Veitch, 1900. url p. 389, p. 389.
- Cheng Wan-chün, Fu Li-kuo, Law Yu-wu, Fu Shu-hsia, Wang Wen-tsai, Chu Cheng-de, Chao Chi-son & Chen Chia-jui. 1978. Pinaceae. In: Cheng Wan-chün & Fu Li-kuo, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 7: 32-281.
- Arno, S.F. and J.R. Habeck. 1972. Ecology of alpine larch (Larix lyallii Parl.) in the Pacific Northwest. Ecol. Monogr. 42: 417--450.
- Bakowsky, O.A. 1989. Phenotypic Variation in Larix lyallii and Relationships in the Larch Genus. M.Sc.F. thesis. Lakehead University.
- Carlson,C. 1965. Interspecific Hybridization of Larix occidentalis and Larix lyallii. M.Sc.F. thesis. University of Montana.
- Dickinson, T.A., W.H. Parker, and R.E. Strauss. 1987. Another approach to leaf shape comparisons. Taxon 36: 1--20.
- Knudsen, G.M. 1968. Chemotaxonomic Investigation of Hybridization between Larix occidentalis and Larix lyallii. M.Sc.F. thesis. University of Montana.
- Owens, J.N. and S.Simpson. 1986. Pollen from conifers native to British Columbia. Canad. J. Forest Res. 16: 955--967.
- Parker, W.H. and T.A. Dickinson. 1990. Range-wide morphological and anatomical variation in Larix laricina. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 832--840.
- Powell, G. R. 1987. Syllepsis in Larix laricina: Analysis of tree leaders with and without sylleptic long shoots. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17: 490--498.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8793841
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 314967-2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3907512
- Liguo Fu, Nan Li, Thomas S. Elias & Robert R. Mill "Pinaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 11. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- William H. Parker "Larix". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]