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Pimpinella monoica

Description

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Family Apiaceae

Herbs, annual or perennial , rarely woody at base . Caulescent or acaulescent , stem hollow or solid. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or basal; petiole usually sheathing at base; stipules absent (except in subfam. Hydrocotyloideae) ; leaf blade compound or sometimes simple , usually much incised or divided , pinnatifid to pinnatisect , or ternate-pinnately decompound . Flowers epigynous , small, bisexual or staminate (unisexual male), regular, in simple or compound umbels; umbellules few to many-flowered; rays often subtended by bracts forming a involucre; umbellules (sometimes called umbellets ) usually subtended by bracteoles forming an involucel . Pedicels long, short or obsolete (then forming a capitate umbellule) . Calyx tube wholly adnate to the ovary; calyx teeth (sometimes called sepals) small or obsolete, forming a ring around the top of the ovary. Ovary inferior, 2-celled, with one anatropous ovule in each locule. Styles 2, usually swollen at the base forming a stylopodium which often secretes nectar. Fruit dry, of two mericarps united by their faces (commissure ), and usually attached to a central axis (carpophore), from which the mericarps separate at maturity; mericarps are variously flattened dorsally , laterally or terete ; each mericarp has 5 primary ribs , one down the back (dorsal rib), two on the edges near the commissure (lateral ribs ), and two between the dorsal and lateral ribs (intermediate ribs), occasionally with four secondary ribs alternating with the primary , the ribs filiform to broadly winged , thin or corky; vittae (oil-tubes) usually present in the furrow (intervals between the ribs sometimes called the valleculae) and on the commissure face, rarely also in the pericarp, sometimes obscure . Each mericarp 1-seeded, splitting apart at maturity. Seed face (commissural albumen) plane , concave to sulcate .

Between 250 and 440( 455) genera and 3300 3700 species: widely distributed in the temperate zone of both hemispheres, mainly in Eurasia and especially in C Asia; 100 genera (ten endemic) and 614 species (340 endemic) in China.[1]

Genus Pimpinella

Herbs, perennial , rarely biennial or annual . Root fibrous or a taproot . Stems erect , branching, base without fibrous remnant sheaths . Basal leaves petiolate , sheathing at base; blade 13-ternate, 14-pinnate or ternate-13-pinnate, sometimes simple . Cauline leaves often heteromorphic. Inflorescence branching, umbels terminal and lateral ; bracts and bracteoles present or absent, usually linear , apex entire; rays few to numerous . Calyx teeth usually obsolete , sometimes conspicuous , lanceolate, minute. Petals white, rarely purple, glabrous or hairy abaxially. Stylopodium conic or low-conic, rarely depressed ; styles short or long, spreading or reflexed (best observed in young or mature fruit). Fruit cordate-ovoid or oblong-ovoid, slightly laterally compressed , constricted at the commissure , glabrous or variously hairy; ribs 5, filiform , sometimes obscured by the indumentum; vittae 13(4) in each furrow, 24(8) on commissure. Seed face plane , rarely slightly concave . Carpophore 2-fid or 2-parted.

About 150 species: disjunct between Africa, Asia, and Europe; 44 species (28 endemic, one introduced ) in China.

This large, widespread, and taxonomically complex genus is generally characterized by the small, rather featureless fruits. In China, Pimpinella can be divided into two groups: those species with hairy, puberulent , or distinctly roughened fruits and obsolete calyx teeth; and those with smooth , glabrous fruits and obsolete or conspicuous calyx teeth. Plants falling within the former group should be also be compared with Trachyspermum. Several groups of allied species can be recognized within Chinese Pimpinella where species boundaries are indistinct; the P. candolleana complex is a typical example. As these groups are often widespread across Asia, full resolution of the nomenclatural and taxonomic problems can only be achieved with a broad revision across many countries.[2]

Taxonomy

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Similar Species

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Members of the genus Pimpinella

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 8 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

P. anisum (Anise) · P. idae (Adas Tyis Kama) · P. major (Hollowstem Burnet Saxifrage) · P. major 'Rosea' (Greater Burnet Saxifrage) · P. saxifraga (Solidstem Burnet Saxifrage) · P. saxifraga nigra (Solidstem Burnet Saxifrage) · P. saxifraga saxifraga (Solidstem Burnet Saxifrage) · P. saxifraga subsp. nigra (Solidstem Burnet Saxifrage)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Menglan She, Fading Pu, Zehui Pan, Mark Watson, John F. M. Cannon, Ingrid Holmes-Smith, Eugene V. Kljuykov, Loy R. Phillippe & Michael G. Pimenov "Apiaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Pu Fa-ting, Mark F. Watson "Pimpinella". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 93. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
Last Revised: 2015-02-03