, rarely woody at base
, stem hollow or solid. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or basal; petiole
at base; stipules absent (except in subfam. Hydrocotyloideae) ; leaf blade
or sometimes simple
, usually much incised or divided
, or ternate-pinnately decompound
. Flowers epigynous
, small, bisexual
male), regular, in simple or compound umbels; umbellules few to many-flowered; rays often subtended by bracts forming a involucre; umbellules (sometimes called umbellets
) usually subtended by bracteoles forming an involucel
. Pedicels long, short or obsolete
(then forming a capitate umbellule) . Calyx tube
to the ovary; calyx teeth (sometimes called sepals) small or obsolete, forming a ring
around the top of the ovary. Ovary inferior, 2-celled, with one anatropous ovule
in each locule. Styles 2, usually swollen at the base forming a stylopodium
which often secretes nectar. Fruit dry, of two mericarps united
by their faces
), and usually attached to a central axis (carpophore), from which the mericarps separate at maturity; mericarps are variously flattened dorsally
, laterally or terete
; each mericarp has 5 primary ribs
, one down
the back (dorsal rib), two on the edges
near the commissure (lateral
), and two between the dorsal and lateral ribs (intermediate ribs), occasionally with four secondary ribs
alternating with the primary
, the ribs filiform
to broadly winged
, thin or corky; vittae (oil-tubes) usually present in the furrow (intervals between the ribs sometimes called the valleculae) and on the commissure face, rarely also in the pericarp, sometimes obscure
. Each mericarp 1-seeded, splitting
apart at maturity. Seed face (commissural
Between 250 and 440( 455) genera and 3300 3700 species: widely distributed in the temperate zone of both hemispheres, mainly in Eurasia and especially in C Asia; 100 genera (ten endemic) and 614 species (340 endemic) in China.
, rarely biennial or annual
or a taproot
. Stems erect
, branching, base
without fibrous remnant sheaths
. Basal leaves
at base; blade
13-ternate, 14-pinnate or ternate-13-pinnate, sometimes simple
. Cauline leaves often heteromorphic. Inflorescence branching, umbels terminal
; bracts and bracteoles present or absent, usually linear
, apex entire; rays few to numerous
. Calyx teeth usually obsolete
, sometimes conspicuous
, lanceolate, minute. Petals white, rarely purple, glabrous
conic or low-conic, rarely depressed
; styles short or long, spreading
(best observed in young or mature
fruit). Fruit cordate-ovoid or oblong-ovoid, slightly laterally compressed
at the commissure
, glabrous or variously hairy; ribs
, sometimes obscured by the indumentum; vittae 13(4) in each furrow, 24(8) on commissure. Seed face
, rarely slightly concave
. Carpophore 2-fid or 2-parted.
About 150 species: disjunct between Africa, Asia, and Europe; 44 species (28 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
This large, widespread, and taxonomically complex genus is generally characterized by the small, rather featureless fruits. In China, Pimpinella can be divided into two groups: those species with hairy, puberulent , or distinctly roughened fruits and obsolete calyx teeth; and those with smooth , glabrous fruits and obsolete or conspicuous calyx teeth. Plants falling within the former group should be also be compared with Trachyspermum. Several groups of allied species can be recognized within Chinese Pimpinella where species boundaries are indistinct; the P. candolleana complex is a typical example. As these groups are often widespread across Asia, full resolution of the nomenclatural and taxonomic problems can only be achieved with a broad revision across many countries.
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Frohne & Jensen Ex Reveal, 1994
- Superorder: Aralianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Cornidae () - Frohne & Jensen Ex Reveal, 1994
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Pimpinella
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 8 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. anisum (Anise) · P. idae (Adas Tyis Kama) · P. major (Hollowstem Burnet Saxifrage) · P. major 'Rosea' (Greater Burnet Saxifrage) · P. saxifraga (Solidstem Burnet Saxifrage) · P. saxifraga nigra (Solidstem Burnet Saxifrage) · P. saxifraga saxifraga (Solidstem Burnet Saxifrage) · P. saxifraga subsp. nigra (Solidstem Burnet Saxifrage)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Flora of the Presidency of Madras / by J.S. Gamble. London: West, Newman and Adlard, 1915- url p. 560.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 408, p. 643.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. 2 1879 London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 687, p. 687, p. 688, p. 688.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- The flora of the presidency of Bombay / By Theodore Cooke. London: Taylor and Francis, 1903-08. url , .
- The flowering plants of Western India. London, W. H. Allen url p. 135.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Menglan She, Fading Pu, Zehui Pan, Mark Watson, John F. M. Cannon, Ingrid Holmes-Smith, Eugene V. Kljuykov, Loy R. Phillippe & Michael G. Pimenov "Apiaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Pu Fa-ting, Mark F. Watson "Pimpinella". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 93. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]