Common Names in English:
Plants minute to medium-sized, gregarious
to forming open tufts, light- to yellow-green, annual
to biennial. Stems short, erect
or with a few branches, central strand present, basal rhizoids few. Leaves usually larger and more crowded distally, often comose
, reduced proximally, usually contorted when dry, spreading
when wet, broadly elliptic
, usually concave
to somewhat incurved
, entire to serrate, sometimes limbate, apex acute to acuminate, rarely somewhat blunt
, costa single, percurrent
to excurrent; distal and median
usually irregular-rhombic to hexagonal or rectangular, smooth
and rather thin-walled, often lax
, weakly chlorophyllose, proximal
cells usually longer
to rectangular, sometimes weakly inflated
at proximal angles, differentiated alar cells
absent. Specialized asexual
reproduction absent. Sexual condition autoicous
, sometimes polygamous, rarely synoicous
. Perigonia terminal
on short basal branches, bud-like, paraphyses yellowish and club-shaped. Perichaetia terminal, paraphyses usually absent and filiform
when present, perichaetial leaves often somewhat enlarged. Seta terminal, solitary, short to elongate
, erect to somewhat curved
, smooth or rarely papillose
. Capsule stegocarpous
to exserted, globose
, sometimes flaring
and nearly smooth to asymmetric
when dry, usually with a neck; exothecial cells thick- to thin-walled; stomata restricted
to neck, consisting of a slit in a rounded
guard cell, superficial or immersed, annulus present or absent, revoluble
, revoluble in fragments, or not; operculum present or absent, flat, conic-rounded, to rostrate
; peristome double
, single, rudimentary
, or absent, exostome
teeth 16, erect to incurved, papillose-striolate or striate, trabeculate
surface, endostome segments 16 and opposite the exostome teeth, cilia absent, represented only by the exostome when single. Calyptra deciduous or persistent
, mitrate to cucullate
, smooth, usually long-rostrate and inflated towards the base
. Spores spherical
or sub-reniform, strongly ornamented to smooth.
Genera ca. 13, species ca. 300 (6 genera, 29 species in the flora ) : worldwide except Antarctica.
The Funariaceae is characterized by broad leaves, large, pale laminal cells, opposite peristomes, and the distinctive stomata. The majority of species are found in disturbed or open sites on bare soil. Many of the species are annuals or biennials, and some may be perennials . When sterile , only a few species have distinctive vegetative features that allow positive identification to genus or species level. Fortunately most are usually fertile and sporophytes are common, although seasonal.
Plants small, scattered
. Stems 2-10(-25) mm, erect
. Leaves crispate
to contorted when dry, erect to spreading
when moist, ovate-lanceolate, ovate
, to obovate
, sometimes concave
, 1.2-5 mm; margins
entire to serrulate
distally; apices somewhat blunt
, or acute to acuminate; costa single, subpercurrent to short-excurrent; proximal
elongate-rectangular to rectangular, distal cells rectangular to hexagonal. Sexual condition autoicous
, occasionally polygamous; perigonia at apices of short basal or lateral
branches, usually with clavate
paraphyses; perichaetia at stem apex, with a few filiform
paraphyses. Seta erect, 0.5-13(-30) mm.
, erect, immersed
to exserted, symmetric
, or campanulate
, often urceolate
when dry, mouth
, 0.8-3 mm, smooth
, neck usually wrinkled when dry; exothecial cells irregularly isodiametric, hexagonal, or oblong
, sometimes collenchymatous; a few stomates usually present in neck, superficial; annulus narrow, consisting of 1-2 rows
of small cells or revoluble
as fragments of large cells; operculum convex
to conic, apiculate
; peristome absent. Calyptra mitrate, deeply split into (2-) 3(-4) spreading lobes, long-rostrate, sometimes inflated
at the base
, usually large, smooth. Spores spherical
to sub-reniform, papillose
Species ca. 80: temperate North America, Mexico, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia.
Physcomitrium is characterized by erect, symmetrical , and often urn-like capsules that lack peristomes. Infra-species variation of both the sporophyte and gametophyte of Physcomitrium pyriforme has led to many species being described over time in North America.
Physcomitrium commonly occurs on exposed soil often associated with spring-wet sites, often on alluvial mud and river banks, from near sea level to ca. 2500 m , and the capsules mature over winter into spring .
Species Physcomitrium pyriforme
Plants light green or yellowish green. Stems 0.2-15(-25)
cm. Leaves obovate
to ovate-lanceolate, distal leaves 2-5
, sometimes nearly smooth
to rarely short-excurrent. Specialized asexual
absent. Seta (1-) 6-15(-30) mm.
Capsule exserted, 1-3
mm, globose-pyriform when young, highly variable in shape
; neck short, distinct
; exothecial cells
hexagonal; suboral cells consisting of 5-17 rows
of rectangular cells.
Spores (24-) 46-60(-90) µm, papillose
. Capsules mature
late fall-spring. [source]
Physcomitrium pyriforme is morphologically variable and widespread across the continent. Plant size, leaf characters, and shape of the capsule vary from place to place and often within populations. [source]
Wet soil in disturbed places; low to high elevations .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,701 meters (0 to 15,423 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860
- (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Family: Funariaceae () - Schwägr.
- Order: Funariales () -
- Superorder: Diplolepideae ()
- Subclass: Funariidae ()
- Class: Bryopsida () - - Mosses
- Infraphylum: Bryatae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Musci () - (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Bryophyta () - A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860 - Mosses
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Gymnostomum dilatatum Palisot De Beauvois • Gymnostomum pyriforme Hedwig • Gymnostomum splachnoideum Palisot De Beauvois • Gymnostomum tortipes Bridel • Gymnostomum turbinatum Michaux • P. drummondii E. Britton • P. kellermanii E. Britton • P. megalocarpum Kindberg • P. pygmaeum James • P. turbinatum (Michaux) E. Britton • Physcomitrium australe Britton • Physcomitrium californicum Britton • Physcomitrium californicum E. Britton • Physcomitrium conicum Mitten in J. D. Hooker • Physcomitrium drummondii Britton • Physcomitrium kellermanii Britton • Physcomitrium megalocarpum (Britton) Grout • Physcomitrium megalocarpum Kindberg • Physcomitrium microcarpum Kindberg • Physcomitrium platyphylloides Kindberg • Physcomitrium platyphyllum Kindberg in Macoun • Physcomitrium rufipes Kindberg • Physcomitrium splachoideum (Palisot De Beauvois) Bridel • Physcomitrium strangulatum Kindberg • Physcomitrium subserratum Hampe • Physcomitrium tortipes (Bridel) Bridel • Physcomitrium turbinatum C. Mï¿½ller Ex Lesquereux and T. P. James
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 19-Jul-2004
Members of the genus Physcomitrium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. collenchymatum (Physcomitrium Moss) · P. hookeri (Hooker's Physcomitrium Moss) · P. immersum (Immersed Physcomitrium Moss) · P. pygmaeum (Pygmy Physcomitrium Moss) · P. pyriforme (Physcomitrium Moss) · P. washingtoniense (Washington Physcomitrium Moss)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 27, 2008:
- Australian Antarctic Data Centre: Australian Antarctic Division Herbarium
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- European Environment Agency: EUNIS
- GBIF-Spain: Real Jardin Botanico, Madrid: MA-Musci
- GBIF-Sweden: Herbarium of Oskarshamn (OHN)
- GBIF-Sweden: Mosses (S)
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- The New York Botanical Garden: American Bryophyte Catalog
- UK National Biodiversity Network: British Bryological Society - Bryophyte data for Great Britain from the British Bryological Society held by BRC
- UK National Biodiversity Network: British Bryological Society - Bryophyte data for Great Britain held by BRC for compilation
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: MEXU/Colección de Briofitas
- University Museums of Norway (MUSIT)
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3872433
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: MOS-35109011
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 15814
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PHTU7
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 54805
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- Terry T. McIntosh "Physcomitrium". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 13, 25, 181, 195, 196, 197. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Physcomitrium pyriforme". in Flora of North America
Vol. 27 Page 196, 197, 198,
199. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 234.230 meters (768.471 feet), Standard Deviation = 412.000 based on 94,757 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]