Plants minute to medium-sized, gregarious
to forming open tufts, light- to yellow-green, annual
to biennial. Stems short, erect
or with a few branches, central strand present, basal rhizoids few. Leaves usually larger and more crowded distally, often comose
, reduced proximally, usually contorted when dry, spreading
when wet, broadly elliptic
, usually concave
to somewhat incurved
, entire to serrate, sometimes limbate, apex acute to acuminate, rarely somewhat blunt
, costa single, percurrent
to excurrent; distal and median
usually irregular-rhombic to hexagonal or rectangular, smooth
and rather thin-walled, often lax
, weakly chlorophyllose, proximal
cells usually longer
to rectangular, sometimes weakly inflated
at proximal angles, differentiated alar cells
absent. Specialized asexual
reproduction absent. Sexual condition autoicous
, sometimes polygamous, rarely synoicous
. Perigonia terminal
on short basal branches, bud-like, paraphyses yellowish and club-shaped. Perichaetia terminal, paraphyses usually absent and filiform
when present, perichaetial leaves often somewhat enlarged. Seta terminal, solitary, short to elongate
, erect to somewhat curved
, smooth or rarely papillose
. Capsule stegocarpous
to exserted, globose
, sometimes flaring
and nearly smooth to asymmetric
when dry, usually with a neck; exothecial cells thick- to thin-walled; stomata restricted
to neck, consisting of a slit in a rounded
guard cell, superficial or immersed, annulus present or absent, revoluble
, revoluble in fragments, or not; operculum present or absent, flat, conic-rounded, to rostrate
; peristome double
, single, rudimentary
, or absent, exostome
teeth 16, erect to incurved, papillose-striolate or striate, trabeculate
surface, endostome segments 16 and opposite the exostome teeth, cilia absent, represented only by the exostome when single. Calyptra deciduous or persistent
, mitrate to cucullate
, smooth, usually long-rostrate and inflated towards the base
. Spores spherical
or sub-reniform, strongly ornamented to smooth.
Genera ca. 13, species ca. 300 (6 genera, 29 species in the flora ) : worldwide except Antarctica.
The Funariaceae is characterized by broad leaves, large, pale laminal cells, opposite peristomes, and the distinctive stomata. The majority of species are found in disturbed or open sites on bare soil. Many of the species are annuals or biennials, and some may be perennials . When sterile , only a few species have distinctive vegetative features that allow positive identification to genus or species level. Fortunately most are usually fertile and sporophytes are common, although seasonal.
Plants small, scattered
. Stems 2-10(-25) mm, erect
. Leaves crispate
to contorted when dry, erect to spreading
when moist, ovate-lanceolate, ovate
, to obovate
, sometimes concave
, 1.2-5 mm; margins
entire to serrulate
distally; apices somewhat blunt
, or acute to acuminate; costa single, subpercurrent to short-excurrent; proximal
elongate-rectangular to rectangular, distal cells rectangular to hexagonal. Sexual condition autoicous
, occasionally polygamous; perigonia at apices of short basal or lateral
branches, usually with clavate
paraphyses; perichaetia at stem apex, with a few filiform
paraphyses. Seta erect, 0.5-13(-30) mm.
, erect, immersed
to exserted, symmetric
, or campanulate
, often urceolate
when dry, mouth
, 0.8-3 mm, smooth
, neck usually wrinkled when dry; exothecial cells irregularly isodiametric, hexagonal, or oblong
, sometimes collenchymatous; a few stomates usually present in neck, superficial; annulus narrow, consisting of 1-2 rows
of small cells or revoluble
as fragments of large cells; operculum convex
to conic, apiculate
; peristome absent. Calyptra mitrate, deeply split into (2-) 3(-4) spreading lobes, long-rostrate, sometimes inflated
at the base
, usually large, smooth. Spores spherical
to sub-reniform, papillose
Species ca. 80: temperate North America, Mexico, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia.
Physcomitrium is characterized by erect, symmetrical , and often urn-like capsules that lack peristomes. Infra-species variation of both the sporophyte and gametophyte of Physcomitrium pyriforme has led to many species being described over time in North America.
Physcomitrium commonly occurs on exposed soil often associated with spring-wet sites, often on alluvial mud and river banks, from near sea level to ca. 2500 m , and the capsules mature over winter into spring .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860
- (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Family: Funariaceae () - Schwägr.
- Order: Funariales () -
- Superorder: Diplolepideae ()
- Subclass: Funariidae ()
- Class: Bryopsida () - - Mosses
- Infraphylum: Bryatae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Musci () - (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Bryophyta () - A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860 - Mosses
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 19-Jul-2004
Members of the genus Physcomitrium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. collenchymatum (Physcomitrium Moss) · P. hookeri (Hooker's Physcomitrium Moss) · P. immersum (Immersed Physcomitrium Moss) · P. pygmaeum (Pygmy Physcomitrium Moss) · P. pyriforme (Physcomitrium Moss) · P. washingtoniense (Washington Physcomitrium Moss)
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- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 34 1898-1900 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 449.
- Crum, H. A. and L. E. Anderson. 1955. Taxonomic studies in the Funariaceae. Bryologist 58: 1-15.
- Fife, A. J. 1985. A generic revision of the Funariaceae (Bryophyta: Musci). Part 1. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 58: 149-196.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- MOST: Moss TROPICOS Database. Release date: July 19, 2004
- Moss TROPICOS: the World Checklist of Mosses
- Moss TROPICOS DatabaseJul 1, 2004.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3929584
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: MOS-35108955
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 525365