Fern from old world tropics with scattered , erect , usually lobed fronds up to three feet high, arising from black-scaly, creeping horizontal stems at the soil surface, or epiphytic on other plants . If fertile the upper leaf surfaces are marked with one or more rows of "warts" on each side of the midrib ; on the lower surface each of these "warts is filled with a cluster of spore cases (sporangia). The leaves commonly emit an odor reminiscent of vanilla and are used in lei construction.
Common Names in English:
Laua'e, Maile-Scented Fern, Wart Fern
, on rock, or often epiphytic, erect
, or occasionally pendent. Stems long- to short-creeping, branched or not, bearing scales
and few to numerous
, usually dictyostelic. Leaves monomorphic
in bud. Petiole
, as in Loxogramme ], lacking scales or sometimes scaly
, with usually 3 vascular bundles
. Blade simple
to often pinnatifid
, or pinnate, infrequently more divided
; rachis grooved
or not adaxially. Veins free
(and simple to several times forked
) to often anastomosing in complex
, areoles with or without included
. Indument on blade
absent, or petiole, rachis, costae, and sometimes blade tissue usually bearing hairs
(these often septate
and with reddish crosswalls) and/or scales. Sori borne abaxially on veins, round
, occasionally elongate
, rarely marginal
, rarely covering surface; paraphyses present or absent; sporangia with stalk
of 2 or 3 rows
; indusia absent. Spores usually transparent or yellowish (rarely greenish), all 1 kind, bilateral
, monolete [rarely trilete, as in some Loxogramme], surface most often smooth
, or granulate
, occasionally spiny
, 64 per sporangium (spores globose
and 32 per sporangium in apogamous spp.
) . Gametophytes green, aboveground, cordate or elliptic
or sometimes glandular
; archegonia and antheridia borne on lower surface, antheridia 3-celled.
Genera ca. 40, species perhaps 500 (7 genera, 25 species in the flora ) : worldwide, especially tropics and subtropics.
Genera in this family are variously circumscribed, and the New World species historically were placed in the single genus Polypodium . Many of the segregates recognized here are still placed in Polypodium in recent floristic accounts. Limits of genera in both Old World and New World are controversial and are currently under study by several workers.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Brownlie Publication
: Nova Hedwigia 55 1977
Basionym author: (Langsd. & Fisch.)
Members of the genus Phymatosorus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 2 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 16, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- Herbier de l'Université Louis Pasteur: herbier de nouvelle-caledonie
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3419649
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15791244
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:169988-3
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 169988-3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 659586