Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Ji Ding Zi
Common Names in English:
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, deciduous or evergreen
. Winter buds
imbricate, few. Leaves alternate, simple
or leathery, venation
serrate, rarely entire, shortly petiolate
; stipules present, usually subulate
. Inflorescences terminal
, rarely shortly paniculate
, many flowered, sometimes flowers 2- or 3-clustered or solitary. Hypanthium cupular or campanulate
to ovary or free
near apex. Sepals 5, persistent
, short. Petals 5, contorted or imbricate in bud, base
clawed. Stamens usually ca.
20. Carpels 2-5, rarely 1; ovary semi-inferior, (1 or) 2-5-loculed, in fruit free apically or to 1/3 length
; styles(1 or) 2-5, free or ± connate
, short, dilated
apically; stigmas truncate
; ovules 2 per locule, erect
. Fruit a pome, globose
, or ellipsoid
, somewhat fleshy
, (1- or) 2-5-loculed, free from calyx only near apex or to 1/3 length, with persistent, incurved
sepals; carpel crustaceous or membranous, each locule 1- or 2-seeded; seeds erect, testa leathery; cotyledons plano-convex
About 60 species: E, S, and SE Asia, also in Mexico; 43 species (32 endemic) in China.
Wu Zhengyi (editor's note ) believes that Pourthiaea is morphologically distinct from Photinia and should be treated as a separate genus.
Many species of Photinia are ornamental trees and shrubs with large lustrous leaves and attractive white flowers in the spring followed by red fruits in the autumn. The wood is hard and heavy, suitable for making furniture and other small articles.
Species Photinia villosa
Shrubs or trees , deciduous, 2-5 m tall. Branchlets dark brown to reddish brown when young, grayish brown when old, initially white villous , glabrous when old, with scattered oblong or elliptic lenticels ; buds ovoid , 2-4 mm, apex acute to shortly acuminate; scales brown, glabrous. Petiole 2-6 mm, villous; leaf blade obovate , oblong-obovate, or elliptic, 3-8 × 2-4 cm, herbaceous, veins 5-7 pairs, both surfaces initially white villous, glabrescent or subglabrous adaxially and villous only along veins abaxially, base cuneate, margin densely sharply serrate apically, apex caudate . Inflorescences terminal , corymbose , rarely umbellate , 2-5 × 3-6 cm, (5-) 10-20- or more flowered; rachis and pedicels villous, with dense, oblong or elliptic small lenticels in fruit; bracts caducous , subulate or linear , 2-4 mm. Pedicel 1.5-2.5 cm. Flowers 7-12 mm. Hypanthium cupular, 2-3 mm, abaxially white villous or glabrous. Sepals triangular-ovate, 2-3 mm, apex obtuse . Petals white, suborbicular , 4-5 mm in diam., adaxially pilose near base, shortly clawed. Stamens 20, shorter than petals. Ovary densely white villous apically; styles 3, free from middle , glabrous. Fruit red or yellowish red, ellipsoid or ovoid, 8-10(-16) × 6-8(-11) mm, slightly pilose ; sepals erect . Fl. Apr-May, fr. Aug-Sep. [source]
ID Features: Sessile, ovoid buds. No terminal buds. Alternate leaf arrangement. Simple, deciduous leaves. Gland-tipped serrations on leaf margins. White flowers. 2-ranked leaf scars.
Seeds: Fruit: Red pomes. Oval , 0.3" long. Matures in October. Persist. Attracts wildlife.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate arranged leaves. Simple , deciduous leaves. 1.5" to 3" long. Pale gold new growth. Sharply serrated leaf margins . Gland-tipped serrations . Dark green leaf color. • Fall foliage: Bronzy red fall color. Showy.
Growth Rate: Moderate. • Size: 10' to 15' tall with an equal spread .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,158 meters (0 to 3,799 feet).
Culture: Transplant from B&B. Prefers well-drained, acidic soil. Full sun . Rarely needs pruning.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun to partial shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Photinia villosa var. typica C. K. Schneid. • Pourthiaea brunnea (H. Lév.) Nakai • Pourthiaea cotoneaster Decne. • Pourthiaea laevis var. albescens (H. Lév.) Nakai • Pourthiaea villosa var. brunnea (H. Lév.) Nakai • Pourthiaea villosa var. typica (C. K. Schneid.) Nakai • Pyrus brunnea H. Lév. (1912) • Pyrus spectabilis var. albescens H. Lév. • Sorbus Terminalis • Sorbus villosa Zabel • Stranvaesia digyna Siebold & Zucc.
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Photinia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 19 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. beauverdiana (Photinia) · P. davidiana (Chinese Photinia) · P. davidiana 'Palette' (Chinese Photinia) · P. floribunda (Purple Chokeberry) · P. fraseri (Fraser's Photinia) · P. glabra (Japanese Photinia) · P. melanocarpa (Black Chokeberry) · P. melanocarpa var. Elata (Black Chokeberry) · P. melanocarpa 'Morton' (Black Chokeberry) · P. pyriflora (Red Chokeberry) · P. pyrifolia (Black Witch) · P. serratifolia (Chinese Hawthorn) · P. serrulata 'Aculeata' (Chinese Hawthorn) · P. villosa (Oriental Photinia) · P. x fraseri (Fraser Photinia) · P. × fraseri 'Cassini' (Pink Marble Photinia) · P. x fraseri 'Pink Marble' (Pink Marble Photinia) · P. x fraseri 'Pointe Du Raz' (Fraser Photinia) · P. x fraseri 'Red Robin' (Fraser Photinia)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 06, 2007:
- GBIF-Spain, Aranzadi Zientzi Elkartea
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Taiwan Biodiversity Data for GBIF
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2668624
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-9124
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13688807
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:727462-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 28086
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 504347
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PHVI81
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 55911
- Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Lu Ling-ti, Stephen A. Spongberg "Photinia". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 121. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Photinia". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 134. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 405.210 meters (1,329.429 feet), Standard Deviation = 415.140 based on 14 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]