Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Danish:
New Zealandhamp, New Zealandhoer
Common Names in Dutch:
Nieuw-Zeelands Vlas, Nieuw-Zeelandse Hennep, Nieuwzeelands Vlas
Common Names in English:
New Zealand Flax, Flax, Flax Lily, Harakeke, Harakeke (Maori), Harakeke Lily, Harareke, Harareke (Maori), Korari, Korari (Maori), Lowland flax, New Zealand Hemp, New Zealand-Flax, New Zealand-Hemp, Phormium, St Helena Hemp, Swamp Flax
Common Names in French:
Chanvre De La Nouvelle Zélande, Lin De La Nouvelle Zélande, Phormium
Common Names in Georgian:
Common Names in German:
Neuseelaendischer Flachs, Neuseelaendischer Hanf, Neuseeländer Flachs
Common Names in Italian:
Canapa Della Nuova Zelanda, Clamidia, Lino Della Nuova Zelanda
Common Names in Japanese:
Maoran, Niusai Ran, Nyuujiiran Doasa, Nyuusairan Forumiumu, マオラン
Common Names in Maori:
Haraeke, Harakeke, Huruhuruhika, Kauhangaroa, Korari, Maomao, Oue, Paritaniwha, Pikoko, Potango, Rongotainui, Tamure, Taneawai, Tihore, Tika, Titoonewai, Whararahi
Common Names in Norwegian Nynorsk:
Common Names in Polish:
Tęgosz, Tęgosz mocny
Common Names in Portuguese:
Atadeira, Cânhamo Da Nova Zelândia, Fôrmio (Brazil), Linho Da Nova Zelândia, Marradeira, Phormium
Common Names in Russian:
Novozelandskii Len, Новозеландский лён
Common Names in Spanish:
Cáñamo De Nueva Zelanda, Lino De Nueva Zelanda, Lirio De Espada
Common Names in Spanish, Castilian:
A family of flowering plants that includes daylilies and New Zealand flax. The genus Hemerocallis was assigned its own family name in 1982 by Dahlgren and Clifford. (See pp. 36-39, "Biosystematics ," by Barr Daylily Journal, vol. 42, no. 2, fall 1987. Not all authorities agree, and some place the genus in the family Asparagales. In the family, pedicels are articulated, septal nectaries infralocular, and the ovary superior. Other details: Habit various; flavonols, napthoquinones, saponins +; roots often swollen; mucilage cells 0; raphides 0; cuticular wax rodlets parallel; leaves (spirally) 2-ranked, conduplicate to flat-conduplicate, keeled , the keel unifacial , sheath closed ; inflorescence various, (bracteoles lateral ); pedicel usu. articulated; (flowers monosymmetric , median tepal of outer whorl adaxial - Hemerocallis), T tube short (1/2 way - Hemerocallis; 0), filaments often ornamented, (anthers centrifixed), pollen usu. trichotomosulcate, infra-locular septal nectaries +, 1-many tenuinucellate ovules/carpel, nucellar cap +, chalazal nucellus well developed; endosperm usu. helobial, stigma dry (wet); fruit also a berry (nut, schizocarp); seeds ovoid , (with strophiole/aril); endosperm hemicellulosic, embryo also short; n = 4 [Agrostocrinum], 8, 9, 11, 12, chromosomes 0.8-10 µm long; (cotyledon not photosynthetic - Dianella), epicotyl long or not (hypocotyl 0; collar +), primary root well developed, branched or not.
Habit: Subshrub , Forb/herb
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: red
Size: 6-8' tall.
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 47.40 meters (155.51 feet).
Culture: Space 4-6' apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967 - Monocots
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. Publication : Char. Gen. Pl. 24 1775 [29 Nov 1775]
Members of the genus Phormium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 55 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. colensoi (Long-Leaved New Zealand Flax) · P. cookianum (Mountain Flax) · P. cookianum 'Cream Delight' (Cream Delight New Zealand Flax) · P. cookianum 'Flamingo' (Flamingo New Zealand Flax) · P. cookianum 'P. Flamingo' (Mountain Flax) · P. cookianum 'Tricolor' (Mountain Flax) · P. Dark Avocado = 'Westado' (Flax Lily [dark Avocado]) · P. tenax (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax var. Purpurea (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Amazing Red' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Atropurpureum' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Atropurpureum Compactum' (Bronze New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Bronze Baby' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Chocolate' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Flamingo' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Gold Spike' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Hilo Princess' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Jack Spratt' (Jack Spratt New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Joker' (New Zealand Flax 'joker') · P. tenax 'Maori Maiden' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Maori Sunrise' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Morticia' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Platt's Black' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Sundowner' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Tom Thumb' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Variegata' (Variegated Flax) · P. tenax 'Veitchianum' (New Zealand Flax) · P. tenax 'Yellow Wave' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Apricot Queen' (Apricot Queen New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Black Rage' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Chocomint' (Flax Lily 'chocomint') · P. 'Dark Delight' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Dazzler' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Duet' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Dusky Chief' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Dwarf Burgundy' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Evening Glow' (Evening Glow New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Gold Sword' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Guardsman' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Jester' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Maori Chief' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Maori Queen' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Moonraker' (Flax Lily 'moonraker') · P. 'Pink Stripe' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Platt's Black' (Platt's Black New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Rainbow Chief' (Rainbow Chief New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Rainbow Maiden' (Rainbow Maiden New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Rainbow Warrior' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Red Fingers' (Flax Lily 'red Fingers') · P. 'Red Heart' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Sea Jade' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Sundowner' (Sundowner New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Surfer' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Wings of Gold' (New Zealand Flax) · P. 'Yellow Wave' (Yellow Wave Flax Lily)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- GBIF-Spain: Universidad de Extremadura, UNEX
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales: NSW herbarium collection
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS: USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3876664
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-284248
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:539927-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 28069
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 504346
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 539926-1
- MoBot NameID: 18404219
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PHTE8
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 54231