Common Names in English:
40, species ca. 1000 (13 genera, 90 sp: worldwide.
Considerable disagreement exists concerning the circumscription and proper name of this family . The taxa comprising the Pteridaceae in this treatment were assigned to the Sinopteridaceae and Pteridaceae by D. B . Lellinger (1985) and were included in five families by R. E. G. Pichi-Sermolli (1977). The broad concept followed here is similar (except for the exclusion of Ceratopteris ) to that espoused by R. M. Tryon and A. F. Tryon (1982), who applied the name Pteridaceae to the group. Until very recently, the newer name Adiantaceae was more commonly used.
As represented in North America, Pteridaceae comprise three major evolutionary lines (the adiantoids, the pteroids, and the cheilanthoids). Characteristics holding the family together include abaxial (usually submarginal ) sori that lack indusia or are protected by a reflexed or revolute leaf margin , spores that are usually globose-tetrahedral and trilete, and chromosome base numbers of 30 or 29 (rarely 27). The xeric-adapted members of the family (particularly the cheilanthoids) have undergone extensive parallel and convergent evolution, and they have frustrated attempts to produce a natural generic classification based on macromorphologic characteristics alone. Although some workers have aggregated species into a few large genera (e.g. , J. T. Mickel 1979b), most tend to recognize smaller segregate genera based on a combination of morphologic, chromosomal, and biochemical data. The latter approach seems to provide a more useful, evolutionarily informative classification and is the one adopted here. Aspidotis and Notholaena are maintained here as distinct from Cheilanthes, and three recently described genera ( Argyrochosma, Astrolepis, and Pentagramma ) have been incorporated into the treatment. The reasons for these changes in generic circumscription are discussed under the individual genera.
usually on rock. Stems compact
to long-creeping, ascending
to horizontal, usually branched; scales
brown to tan or often bicolored
with dark, central stripe and lighter margins
, linear-subulate to lanceolate (rarely ovate
), margins dentate
, erose, or entire. Leaves monomorphic
to somewhat dimorphic
, clustered to widely scattered
, 2--100 cm. Petiole
brown, black, straw-colored, or gray, rounded
, flattened or with single longitudinal
, usually with a few scales at base
, with single vascular bundle. Blade
to ovate-deltate, 1--4-pinnate proximally, leathery or rarely somewhat herbaceous, abaxially glabrous, pubescent, or with hairlike scales scattered along costae, adaxially usually glabrous, dull
, not striate
; rachis straight or flexuous
segments of blade usually stalked
from costae, elliptic
, lanceolate to linear, usually more than 4 mm wide; base rounded, truncate
, or cordate; stalks
and dark colored
; segment margins reflexed
to form confluent
, poorly defined, false indusia extending entire length of segment. Veins of ultimate segments free or rarely anastomosing, usually obscure
, pinnately branched and divergent distally. False indusia greenish to whitish, narrow, clearly marginal
, often concealing the sporangia. Sporangia scattered along veins near segment margins, containing 32 or 64 spores, often intermixed with glands
, farina-producing. Spores brown to tan (rarely yellow), tetrahedral-globose, rugose
, lacking prominent
Species ca. 40 (15 in the flora ) : most in the Western Hemisphere, a small number in Asia, Africa, the Pacific Islands, and Australia.
Pellaea in the broad sense is a diverse , poorly defined assemblage of xeric-adapted ferns (A. R. Smith 1981) . Relationships among the North American, neotropical , and Eastern Hemisphere species are unclear, and it seems likely that the genus, as broadly construed by E. B . Copeland (1947) and R. M. Tryon and A. F. Tryon (1982), is polyphyletic. The species included here in Pellaea belong to a closely knit alliance that is usually recognized as a distinct section (sect. Pellaea ) . Although the inclusion of P . bridgesii in this group has been questioned (A. F. Tryon 1957), W. H. Wagner Jr. et al. (1983) have shown that the aberrant morphology of this species is simply an extreme expression of evolutionary trends commonly encountered in sect. Pellaea .
Among Western Hemisphere cheilanthoid ferns, species of Pellaea show clear morphologic, chromosomal, and biochemical affinities to Argyrochosma and members of the Cheilanthes alabamensis complex . In fact, the glabrous species of Argyrochosma ( A . jonesii and A . microphylla ) are commonly misidentified as Pellaea . These species are easily recognizable, however, because they have a combination of concolored stem scales and small ultimate segments (less than 4 mm wide) .
Species Pellaea lyngholmii
, stout, 5--10 mm diam.; scales
brown or tan, linear-subulate, 0.1--0.3 mm wide, thin, margins
. Leaves somewhat dimorphic
and less divided
leaves, clustered on stem, 10--30 cm;
dark brown to reddish purple, lustrous
adaxially, without prominent
, 2-pinnate proximally, 5--15 cm wide; rachis brown or reddish
purple throughout, straight, often slightly flattened adaxially,
sparsely villous with long, divergent hairs
. Pinnae perpendicular
to rachis or slightly ascending, not decurrent on rachis, usually
with 7--15 ultimate
segments; costae straight, 25--80 mm, usually
than ultimate segments. Ultimate segments oblong-lanceolate,
7--25 mm, leathery, sparsely villous abaxially near midrib
usually recurved on fertile segments, covering less than 1/2 abaxial
; apex slightly mucronate
of ultimate segments obscure
. Sporangia long-stalked, containing
32 spores, not intermixed with farina-producing glands
Pellaea lyngholmii is an apogamous tetraploid that arose through hybridization between P. atropurpurea and P. truncata (M. D. Windham 1993). It is most often confused with P. atropurpurea, from which P. lyngholmii differs in having sparsely villous rachises, smaller and more numerous ultimate segments, and spores usually more than 62 µm in diameter. [source]
Rocky slopes and ledges, usually on sandstone; 1200--1800 m (Ref. 102561).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Family: Pteridaceae () - Kirchn. - Maidenhair Fern Family Plants perennial [annual],
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Pellaea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 30 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. andromedifolia (Coffee Cliffbrake) · P. atropurpurea (Purple Cliffbrake) · P. brachyptera (Sierra Cliff-Brake) · P. breweri (Brewer's Cliff-Brake) · P. bridgesii (Bridges' Cliff-Brake) · P. cordifolia (Heartleaf Cliffbrake) · P. falcata (Australian Cliff Brake) · P. gastonyi (Gastony's Cliffbrake) · P. glabella (Dwarf Cliffbrake) · P. glabella occidentalis (Dwarf Cliffbrake) · P. glabella var. simplex (Dwarf Cliffbrake) · P. glabella subsp. missouriensis (Missouri Cliffbrake) · P. glabella subsp. occidentalis (Western Dwarf Cliffbrake) · P. glabella subsp. simplex (Smooth Cliffbrake) · P. glaciogena (Cliffbrake) · P. intermedia (Intermediate Cliffbrake) · P. lyngholmii (Lyngholm's Cliffbrake) · P. mucronata (Birdfoot Cliffbrake) · P. mucronata subsp. californica (California Cliffbrake) · P. ovata (Cliff Brake Fern) · P. rotundifolia (Button Fern) · P. ternifolia (Cliffbrake) · P. ternifolia subsp. arizonica (Arizonia Cliffbrake) · P. ternifolia subsp. villosa (Transpecos Cliffbrake) · P. truncata (Spiny Cliff-Brake) · P. villosa (Transpecos Cliffbrake) · P. viridis (Green Cliffbrake) · P. viridis var. macrophylla (Green Cliff Brake) · P. wrightiana (Wright Cliff-Brake) · P. x glaciogena (Cliffbrake)
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 3.
- Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns & Fern-allies of the United States & Canada. Washington.
- Mickel, J. T. 1979b. The fern genus Cheilanthes in the continental United States. Phytologia 41: 431--437.
- Pichi-Sermolli, R. E. G. 1977. Tentamen pteridophytorum genera in taxonomicum ordinem redigendi. Webbia 31: 313--512.
- Tryon, R. M. and A. F. Tryon. 1982. Ferns and Allied Plants, with Special Reference to Tropical America. New York, Heidelberg, and Berlin.
- Gastony, G. J. 1988. The Pellaea glabella complex: Electrophoretic evidence for the derivations of the agamosporous taxa and a revised taxonomy. Amer. Fern J. 78: 44--67.
- Tryon, A. F. 1957. A revision of the fern genus Pellaea section Pellaea. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 44: 125--193.
- Tryon, A. F. 1968. Comparisons of sexual and apogamous races in the fern genus Pellaea. Rhodora 70: 1--24.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 13, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed December 28, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 2 providers.
- "Pellaea lyngholmii". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Jan 19, 2007.
- USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 30, 2007:
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2668478
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-504191
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13760673
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:17560760-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 504191
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17560760
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPADI0H0H0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PELY3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 54089