Common Names in English:
, biennial, or perennial
parasites, without chlorophyll. Stems unbranched or sometimes branched. Leaves scalelike, spirally or subimbricately arranged. Inflorescences racemose, spicate
, or subcapitate
, rarely 1-flowered; bract 1, usually similar to leaves; bractlets
of calyx or pedicel. Flowers bisexual
or pedicelled. Calyx tubular, cupular, or campanulate
, (3 or) 4-6-lobed, 2-6-parted, 6-toothed, or spathelike, sometimes absent or of 3 free
sepals. Corolla bilabiate, usually curved
, sometimes tubular-campanulate or funnelform
with 5 subequal
; upper lip entire, emarginate
, or 2-lobed; lower lip 3-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous
at base of corolla tube
2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally, sometimes 1 cell
and another sterile
or reduced to spur. Pistil 2- or 3-carpellate; ovary superior; placentas 2-4 or 6(-10), parietal
or sometimes axile
at ovary base; ovules 2-4 or numerous
. Style long; stigma inflated
, peltate, or 2-4-lobed. Capsule usually dehiscing loculicidally by 2 or 3(or 4) valves
. Seeds minute, testa pitted
About 15 genera and 150 species: North Temperate regions , less represented in Africa, America, Asia, and Australia; nine genera and 42 species (nine endemic) in China.
, rarely biennial, hemiparasitic. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
, usually pinnatifid
to 1- or 2-pinnatisect, rarely entire or dentate
. Lower leaves usually long petiolate
; upper leaves often ± sessile. Inflorescences terminal
or flowers axillary
; bracts usually leaflike. Calyx tubular
, often ± bilabiate, usually deeply cleft
anteriorly, (2--) 5-lobed. Corolla purple, red, yellow, or white, strongly bilabiate; upper lip (galea) hooded
, enclosing anthers
, laterally compressed
, or terminating in teeth or in a beak
; lower lip 3-lobed, usually spreading
, external to upper lip in bud. Stamens 4, didynamous
; anthers mucronate
or not. Stigma capitate. Capsule moderately compressed
or not, loculicidal. Seeds numerous
About 600 species: best represented in the mountains of SW China and widespread in the frigid and alpine zones of the northern hemisphere; 352 species (271 endemic) occur in China.
From the limited available data, the species of Pedicularis in China are pollinated by bumblebees gathering nectar and/or pollen on nectariferous non-beaked species, and pollen only, by scraping or vibrating,on beaked species including those with long corolla tubes (Macior, L. W. 1988. Plant Species Biol. 3: 61--66.; Macior, L. W. & S. K . Sood. 1991. Plant Species Biol. 6: 75--81.; Macior, L. W., pers. comm. ).
The rank of series has been traditionally used in Pedicularis since the time of Prain's work (Ann. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 3: 1--196. 1890). Sections (and subgenera ) have also been used (e.g. , by Bunge in Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 409--433. 1844; Li, H. L. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 101: 1--214. 1949; Yamazaki, T. 1988. A revision of the genus Pedicularis in Nepal. in: Ohba, H. & Malla, S.B. (eds.), The Himalayan Plants 1: 91--161, and others). 
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: magenta, mauve , rose
Size: under 6" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,701 meters (0 to 15,423 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 17-Oct-2001
Members of the genus Pedicularis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 80 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. alopecuroides (Canadian Lousewort) · P. angustifolia (Mogollon Mountain Lousewort) · P. attollens (Attol Lousewort) · P. attollens subsp. protogyna (Little Elephantshead) · P. aurantiaca (Indian Warrior) · P. bracteosa (Bracted Lousewort) · P. bracteosa paysoniana (Payson's Lousewort) · P. bracteosa var. atrosanguinea (Bracted Lousewort) · P. bracteosa var. bracteosa (Bracted Lousewort) · P. bracteosa var. canbyi (Canby Lousewort) · P. bracteosa var. flavida (Towering Lousewort) · P. bracteosa var. latifolia (Widepetal Lousewort) · P. bracteosa var. pachyrhiza (Towering Lousewort) · P. bracteosa var. paysoniana (Payson Lousewort) · P. canadensis (Canadian Lousewort) · P. canadensis canadensis (Smoothflower Lousewort) · P. canadensis fluviatilis (Canadian Lousewort) · P. canadensis subsp. fluviatilis (Canadian Lousewort) · P. capitata (Capitate Lousewort) · P. centranthera (Dwarf Lousewort) · P. chamissonis (Chamisso Lousewort) · P. contorta (Coiled Lousewort) · P. contorta var. contorta (Coiled Lousewort) · P. contorta var. ctenophora (Coil-Beaked Lousewort) · P. contorta var. rubicunda (Coil-Beaked Lousewort) · P. corydaloides (Canadian Lousewort) · P. crenulata (Meadow Lousewort) · P. cyathophylloides (Canadian Lousewort) · P. cystopteridifolia (Fern-Leaved Lousewort) · P. densiflora (Indian Warrior) · P. densiflora aurantiaca (Indian Warrior) · P. densiflora subsp. aurantiaca (Indian Warrior) · P. dudleyi (Dudley's Lousewort) · P. flammea (Red-Tip Lousewort) · P. flammea (Scarletfruit Passionflower) · P. furbishiae (Furbish Lousewort) · P. groenlandica (Bull Elephant's-Head) · P. hirsuta (Hairy Lousewort) · P. howellii (Howell Lousewort) · P. kanei (Woolly Lousewort) · P. labradorica (Labrador Lousewort) · P. labradorica var. labradorica (Labrador Lousewort) · P. labradorica var. sulphurea (Labrador Lousewort) · P. lanceolata (Lousewort) · P. langsdorfii (Langsdorf's Lousewort) · P. langsdorfii arctica (Langsdorf's Lousewort) · P. lapponica (Lapland Lousewort) · P. macrodonta (Muskeg Lousewort) · P. oederi (Oeder's Lousewort) · P. ornithorhyncha (Bird's-Beak Lousewort) · P. palustris (European Purple Lousewort) · P. palustris palustris (European Purple Lousewort) · P. parryi (Parry Cinchweed) · P. parryi subsp. mogollonica (Mogollon Lousewort) · P. parryi subsp. purpurea (Rocky Mountain Lousewort) · P. parviflora (Small-Flower Lousewort) · P. parviflora pennellii (Smallflower Lousewort) · P. parviflora subsp. pennellii (Pennell's Lousewort) · P. pennellii pennellii (Pennell's Lousewort) · P. procera (Giant Lousewort) · P. pulchella (Mountain Lousewort) · P. racemosa alba (Leafy Lousewort) · P. racemosa alba var. alba (Sickletop Betony) · P. racemosa subsp. alba (Sickletop Lousewort) · P. rainierensis (Mount Rainier Lousewort) · P. semibarbata (Bearded Lousewort) · P. semibarbata var. charlestonensis (Charleston Lousewort) · P. semibarbata var. semibarbata (Pinewoods Lousewort) · P. sudetica (Sudetan Lousewort) · P. sudetica albolabiata (Sudetic Lousewort) · P. sudetica interioides (Sudetic Lousewort) · P. sudetica interior (Sudetic Lousewort) · P. sudetica scopulorum (Sudetic Lousewort) · P. sudetica subsp. albolabiata (Sudetic Lousewort) · P. sudetica subsp. interior (Sudetic Lousewort) · P. sudetica subsp. pacifica (Pacific Lousewort) · P. sudetica subsp. scopulorum (Sudetic Lousewort) · P. surrecta (Greenland Lousewort) · P. sylvatica (Small Lousewort) · P. verticillata (Whorled Lousewort)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 17, 2007:
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
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- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
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- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
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- UK National Biodiversity Network, Dorset Environmental Records Centre - Bryophyte Survey of the Poole Basin Mires - NBN South West Pilot Project Case Studies
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Joint Nature Conservation Committee - Vegetation surveys of coastal shingle in Great Britain
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2668459
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-504168
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4286327
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:807692-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 504168
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDSCR1K120
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: PESY
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 54015
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- Mean = 234.570 meters (769.587 feet), Standard Deviation = 413.200 based on 93,843 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]