, or less often trees
; indumentum usually with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate, stipulate
; leaf blade
usually palmately veined, entire or various lobed
. Flowers solitary, less often in small cymes or clusters
, often aggregated into terminal
or panicles, usually conspicuous
, usually bisexual
in Kydia) . Epicalyx
often present, forming an involucre around calyx, 3- to many lobed. Sepals 5, valvate
. Petals 5, free, contorted, or imbricate, basally adnate
. Stamens usually very many, filaments connate into tube; anthers
1-celled. Pollen spiny
. Ovary superior, with 2-25 carpels, often separating from one another and from axis; ovules 1 to many per locule; style as many or 2 Ã— as many as pistils, apex branched or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp, separating into individual mericarps, rarely berrylike when mature
(Malvaviscus) ; carpels sometimes with an endoglossum (a crosswise projection from back wall of carpel to make it almost completely septate
. Seeds often reniform
, sometimes conspicuously so.
About 100 genera and ca. 1000 species: tropical and temperate regions of N and S Hemisphere; 19 genera (four introduced ) and 81 species (24 endemic, 16 introduced) in China.
Molecular studies have shown that the members of the Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae form a very well-defined monophyletic group that is divided into ten also rather well-defined clades, only two of which correspond to the traditional families Bombacaceae and Malvaceae. Some of the remaining groups are included entirely within either of the remaining families but others cut across the traditional divide between the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. A majority of authors , most notably Bayer and Kubitzki (Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 225-311. 2003), has favored including everything within a greatly enlarged Malvaceae, and treating the individual clades as subfamilies. The alternative view is that the individual clades should be treated as a series of ten families: Bombacaceae (Bombacoideae), Brownlowiaceae (Brownlowioideae), Byttneriaceae (Byttnerioideae), Durionaceae (Durionoideae), Helicteraceae (Helicteroideae), Malvaceae (Malvoideae), Pentapetaceae (Dombeyoideae), Sparrmanniaceae (Grewioideae), Sterculiaceae (Sterculioideae), and Tiliaceae (Tilioideae) (Cheek in Heywood et al. , Fl. Pl. Fam. World. 201-202. 2007) . For the present treatment, we prefer to retain the familiar, traditional four families, so as to maintain continuity with the treatments in FRPS, and to await a consensus on the two alternative strategies for dealing with the very widely accepted clades.
The traditional Malvaceae coincides exactly with one of the major clades. The only possible problem is the relationship with the Bombacaceae, which also has primarily 1-loculed anthers, and some authorities have suggested that the Bombacaceae should be included within the Malvaceae.
Members of the Malvaceae are important as fiber crops (particularly cotton, Gossypium) . Young leaves of many species can be used as vegetables, and species of Abelmoschus and Hibiscus are grown as minor food crops. Many species have attractive flowers and an ever-increasing selection is grown as ornamentals . Several have been cultivated for a very long time, particularly species of Hibiscus, and some of these are not known in the wild.
herbs, undershrubs or shrubs
. Leaves petiolate
, with or without lobes
. Flowers usually axillary
, solitary, or in fascicles or occasionally in racemes
or panicles by the reduction of leaves, pedicellate
segments 5-16, free
or fused. Calyx 5-lobed or toothed
. Corolla of various colour
, commonly red, pink or yellow, rarely white or purple. Staminal
column with many filaments
. Carpels 5; styles 10; stigmas capitate. Fruit discoid
, schizocarp; mericarps 5, indehiscent, glabrous
or pubescent, with or without wings
, reticulately veined, echinate
. Seed 1 in each mericarps, glabrous or hairy
A genus with c. 200 species distributed in the warm regions of both the hemispheres.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Malvanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Pavonia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
P. braziliensis (Brazilian Rock Rose) · P. dasypetala (Pavonia) · P. fruticosa (Anamu) · P. hastata (Pale Pavonia) · P. lasiopetala (Rock Rose) · P. multiflora (Brazilian Candles) · P. paludicola (Swampbush) · P. paniculata (Cadillo Anaranjado) · P. praemorsa (Yellow Mallow) · P. spinifex (Barb-Fruit Mallow) · P. x gledhillii (Brazilian Candles)
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- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url p. 138.
- Contributions to our knowledge of the plankton of the Faeroe Channel. [London]1896-1903. url p. 811.
- Coral and atolls: a history and description of the Keeling-Cocos Islands, with an account of their fauna and flora, and a discussion of the method of development and transformation of coral structures By F. Wood-Jones... London, Lovell Reeve & Co., Ltd., 1912. url p. 250.
- Memoirs: Australian Museum. Sydney: The Museum, 1851- url p. 354, p. 534.
- Papers from the Tortugas Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1908-42. url p. 138.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. ser. 5, 11 1883 London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 259.
- The fauna and geography of the Maldive and Laccadive archipelagoes: being the account of the work carried on and of the collections made by an expedition during the years 1899 and 1900 / Ed. by J. Stanley Gardiner. Cambridge: University Press, 1903-06. url p. 40, p. 46.
- Feng Kuo-mei. 1984. Malvaceae. In: Feng Kuo-mei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(2): 1-102.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 12, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 18, 2008:
- National Chemical Laboratory: IndOBIS, Indian Ocean Node of OBIS
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3465583
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 17507906
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:563050-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1082814
- Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert & Laurence J. Dorr "Malvaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 240, 264,299, 302. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Pavonia". in Flora of Pakistan Page 93. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]