herbs, or tall woody bamboos
. Flowering stems (culms
, internodes hollow or solid; branches arising singly from nodes and subtended by a leaf sheath
and 2-keeled prophyll, often fascicled in bamboos. Leaves arranged alternately in 2 ranks
, differentiated into sheath, blade
, and an adaxial
at sheath/blade junction (ligule) ; leaf sheath surrounding and supporting culm-internode, split to base
or infrequently tubular
with partially or completely fused margins
, modified with reduced blade in bamboos (culm sheaths) ; leaf blades divergent, usually long, narrow and flat, but varying from inrolled
, veins parallel, sometimes with cross-connecting veinlets
(especially in bamboos) ; ligule membranous or a line
. Inflorescence terminal
, an open, contracted
, or spikelike panicle, or composed of lax
to spikelike racemes
arranged along an elongate
central axis, or digitate, paired
, or occasionally solitary; axillary inflorescences often many, subtended by spatheoles
(specialized bladeless leaf sheaths) and gathered into a leafy compound
often aggregated into complex
in bamboos. Spikelets composed of distichous bracts arranged along a slender axis (rachilla) ; typically 2 lowest bracts (glumes
) empty, subtending
1 to many florets
; glumes often poorly differentiated from accompanying bracts in bamboos. Florets composed of 2 opposing bracts enclosing a single small flower, outer bract (lemma) clasping
the more delicate, usually 2-keeled inner bract (palea) ; base of floret often with thickened prolongation articulated with rachilla (callus) ; lemma often with apical or dorsal bristle
), glumes also sometimes awned
. Flowers bisexual
; lodicules (small scales
representing perianth) 2, rarely 3 or absent, 3 to many in bamboos, hyaline
; stamens 3 rarely 1, 2, 6, or more in some bamboos, hypogynous, filaments
versatile; ovary 1-celled, styles (1 or) 2(rarely 3), free
at base, topped by feathery stigmas, exserted from sides or apex of floret. Fruit normally a dry indehiscent caryopsis with thin pericarp firmly adherent
to seed, pericarp rarely free, fleshy in some bamboos; embryo small or large; hilum
About 700 genera and 11,000 species: widely distributed in all regions of the world.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 Ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Flowering Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Scopoli, 1760
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Liliopsida () - Scopoli, 1760
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Magnoliophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 Ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Flowering Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Panicularia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 263.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 116.
- Annual report / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, c1904-1920. url p. 64.
- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 240, p. 241, p. 49.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 1 - 10 1908 - 19 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 43.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 7 1906 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 6, p. 79.
- Bulletin - New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Education Dept. url p. 64, p. 935, p. 946.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 51 1924 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 182, p. 37.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 48 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 372, p. 379, p. 474, p. 88.
- Flora of Mount Desert Island, Maine: a preliminary catalogue of the plants growing on Mount Desert and the adjacent islands / by Edward L. Rand and John H. Redfield; with a geological introduction by William Morris Davis, and a new map of Mount Desert Island. Cambridge, Mass.: J. Wilson, 1894. url p. 180.
- Flora of Pennsylvania. Edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small. Boston, Ginn & Co., 1903. url p. 37.
- Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. By A.S. Hitchcock and Paul C. Standley, with the assistance of the botanists of Washington. WashingtonGovt. print. off.1919 url p. 88.
- Flora of the vicinity of New York; a contribution to plant geography. [New York]1915 url p. 18.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 54.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 143.
- Manual of the grasses of the United States / by A.S. Hitchcock. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 1935. url p. 864, p. 89.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 54.
- New York State Museum bulletin. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1916-1944. url p. 79.
- Report of the State Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1898-1925. url , p. 64, p. 935, p. 946, p. 984.
- Technical publication / New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Syracuse, N.Y.: The College, 1914- url p. 35.
- The flora of the upper Susquehanna and its tributaries. [Willard Nelson Clute]. Binghamton, N.Y.: W.N. Clute, 1901. url p. 7.
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url , , .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 240.
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 240.
- Chen Shouliang, Jin Yuexing, Zhuang Tide, Fang Wenzhe, Sheng Guoying, Liu Liang, Wu Zhenlan, Lu Shenglian, Sun Bisin, Hu Zhihao, Wang Song, Sun Xiangzhong, Wang Huiqin, Yang Xilin, Wang Chaopin, Li Binggui & Wen Shaobin. 1990. Gramineae (Poaceae) (4). In: Chen Shouliang, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 10(1):1401
- Chen Shouliang, Zhuang Tide, Fang Wenzhe, Sheng Guoying, Jin Yuexing, Liu Liang, Sun Bisin, Hu Zhihao & Wang Song. 1997. Gramineae (Poaceae) (5). In: Chen Shouliang, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 10(2): 1301
- Liu Liang, Zhu Taiping, Chen Wenli, Wu Zhenlan & Lu Shenglian. Gramineae (Poaceae) (2). In: Liu Liang, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 9(2): 1405
- Lu Sheng-lian, Sun Yong-hua, Liu Shang-wu, Yang Yong-chang, Wu Zhen-lan, Kuo Pen-chao, Yang Hsi-ling, Wang Chao-pin & Tsui Nai-ran. 1987. Gramineae (3). In: Kuo Pen-chao, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 9(3): 1329
- Wang Zhengping, Ye Guanghan, Yang Yaling, Yu Zehua, Hu Chenhua, Geng Bojie, Feng Xuelin, Jia Liangzhi, Xia Nianhe, Li Dezhu, Zhang Weiping, Xue Jiru, Zhu Zhengde, Zhao Qiseng, Chen Shouliang, Sheng Guoying, Chen Shaoyun, Yao Changyu, Lu Jionglin, Sun Jiliang, Lin Wantao, Yi Tongpei, Zhao Huiru, Wen Taihui & Dai Qihui. 1996. Gramineae (Poaceae) (1).
- Shou-liang Chen, De-Zhu Li, Guanghua Zhu, Zhenlan Wu, Sheng-lian Lu, Liang Liu, Zheng-ping Wang, Bi-xing Sun, Zheng-de Zhu, Nianhe Xia, Liang-zhi Jia, Zhenhua Guo, Wenli Chen, Xiang Chen, Yang Guangyao, Sylvia M. Phillips, Chris Stapleton, Robert J. Soreng, Susan G. Aiken, Nikolai N. Tzvelev, Paul M. Peterson, Stephen A. Renvoize, Marina V. Olonova & Klaus Ammann "Poaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 22. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]